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Massive MU-MIMO Downlink TDD Systems with Linear Precodingand Downlink Pilots
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7599-4367
Bell Laboratories, Alcatel-Lucent, Murray Hill, NJ 07974, USA.
2013 (English)In: 51st Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing (Allerton), 2013, IEEE , 2013, 293-298 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We consider a massive MU-MIMO downlink time-division duplex system where a base station (BS) equipped with many antennas serves several single-antenna users in the same time-frequency resource. We assume that the BS uses linear precoding for the transmission. To reliably decode the signals transmitted from the BS, each user should have an estimate of its channel. In this work, we consider an efficient channel estimation scheme to acquire CSI at each user, called beamforming training scheme. With the beamforming training scheme, the BS precodes the pilot sequences and forwards to all users. Then, based on the received pilots, each user uses minimum mean-square error channel estimation to estimate the effective channel gains. The channel estimation overhead of this scheme does not depend on the number of BS antennas, and is only proportional to the number of users. We then derive a lower bound on the capacity for maximum-ratio transmission and zero-forcing precoding techniques which enables us to evaluate the spectral efficiency taking into account the spectral eciency loss associated with the transmission of the downlink pilots. Comparing with previous work where each user uses only the statistical channel properties to decode the transmitted signals, we see that the proposed beamforming training scheme is preferable for moderate and low-mobility environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE , 2013. 293-298 p.
National Category
Communication Systems Signal Processing
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112758DOI: 10.1109/Allerton.2013.6736537ISBN: 978-1-4799-3409-6 (print)OAI: diva2:771578
51st Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing (Allerton), October 2-4, Monticello, Illinois, USA
Available from: 2014-12-15 Created: 2014-12-15 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Massive MIMO: Fundamentals and System Designs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Massive MIMO: Fundamentals and System Designs
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The last ten years have seen a massive growth in the number of connected wireless devices. Billions of devices are connected and managed by wireless networks. At the same time, each device needs a high throughput to support applications such as voice, real-time video, movies, and games. Demands for wireless throughput and the number of wireless devices will always increase. In addition, there is a growing concern about energy consumption of wireless communication systems. Thus, future wireless systems have to satisfy three main requirements: i) having a high throughput; ii) simultaneously serving many users; and iii) having less energy consumption. Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology, where a base station (BS) equipped with very large number of antennas (collocated or distributed) serves many users in the same time-frequency resource,  can meet the above requirements, and hence, it is a promising candidate technology for next generations of wireless systems. With massive antenna arrays at the BS, for most propagation environments, the channels become favorable, i.e., the channel vectors between the users and the BS are (nearly) pairwisely orthogonal, and hence, linear processing is nearly optimal. A huge throughput and energy efficiency can be achieved due to the multiplexing gain and the array gain. In particular, with a simple power control scheme, Massive MIMO can offer uniformly good service for all users. In this dissertation, we focus on the performance of Massive MIMO. The dissertation consists of two main parts: fundamentals and system designs of Massive MIMO.

In the first part, we focus on fundamental limits of the system performance under practical constraints such as low complexity processing, limited length of each coherence interval, intercell interference, and finite-dimensional channels. We first study the potential for power savings of the Massive MIMO uplink with maximum-ratio combining (MRC), zero-forcing, and minimum mean-square error receivers, under perfect and imperfect channels. The energy and spectral efficiency tradeoff is investigated. Secondly, we consider a physical channel model where the angular domain is divided into a finite number of distinct directions. A lower bound on the capacity is derived, and the effect of pilot contamination in this finite-dimensional channel model is analyzed. Finally, some aspects of favorable propagation in Massive MIMO under Rayleigh fading and line-of-sight (LoS) channels are investigated. We show that both Rayleigh fading and LoS environments offer favorable propagation.

In the second part, based on the fundamental analysis in the first part, we propose some system designs for Massive MIMO. The acquisition of channel state information (CSI) is very importantin Massive MIMO. Typically, the channels are estimated at the BS through uplink training. Owing to the limited length of the coherence interval, the system performance is limited by pilot contamination. To reduce the pilot contamination effect, we propose an eigenvalue-decomposition-based scheme to estimate the channel directly from the received data. The proposed scheme results in better performance compared with the conventional training schemes due to the reduced pilot contamination. Another important issue of CSI acquisition in Massive MIMO is how to acquire CSI at the users. To address this issue, we propose two channel estimation schemes at the users: i) a downlink "beamforming training" scheme, and ii) a method for blind estimation of the effective downlink channel gains. In both schemes, the channel estimation overhead is independent of the number of BS antennas. We also derive the optimal pilot and data powers as well as the training duration allocation to maximize the sum spectral efficiency of the Massive MIMO uplink with MRC receivers, for a given total energy budget spent in a coherence interval. Finally, applications of Massive MIMO in relay channels are proposed and analyzed. Specifically, we consider multipair relaying systems where many sources simultaneously communicate with many destinations in the same time-frequency resource with the help of a massive MIMO relay. A massive MIMO relay is equipped with many collocated or distributed antennas. We consider different duplexing modes (full-duplex and half-duplex) and different relaying protocols (amplify-and-forward, decode-and-forward, two-way relaying, and one-way relaying) at the relay. The potential benefits of massive MIMO technology in these relaying systems are explored in terms of spectral efficiency and power efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. 45 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1642
National Category
Communication Systems
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112780 (URN)10.3384/lic.diva-112780 (DOI)978-91-7519-147-8 (print) (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-03-06, Signalen, Hus B, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Available from: 2015-01-16 Created: 2014-12-15 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved

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