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Handwriting enabled harvested piezoelectric power using ZnO nanowires/polymer composite on paper substrate
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6235-7038
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2014 (English)In: NANO ENERGY, ISSN 2211-2855, Vol. 9, 221-228 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We here, present a flexible handwriting driven nanogenerator (NG) based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs)/polymer composite grown/deposited on paper substrate. The targeted configuration is composed of ZnO NWs/PVDF polymer ink pasted and sandwiched between two pieces of paper with ZnO NWs grown chemically on one side of each piece of paper. Other configurations utilizing a ZnO/PVDF ink with different ZnO morphologies on paper platform and others on plastic platform were fabricated for comparison. The mechanical pressure exerted on the paper platform while handwriting is then harvested by the ZnO NWs/polymer based NG to deliver electrical energy. Two handwriting modes were tested; these were slow (low pressure) and fast (high pressure) handwriting. The maximum achieved harvested open circuit voltage was 4.8 V. While an out power density as high as 1.3 mW/mm(2) was estimated when connecting the NG to a 100 Omega load resistor. The observed results were stable and reproducible. The present NG provides a low cost and scalable approach with many potential applications, like e.g. programmable paper for signature verification.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier , 2014. Vol. 9, 221-228 p.
Keyword [en]
Zinc oxide nanowires; Polymers; Paper substrate; Piezoelectricity; Energy harvesting; Nanogenerators
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112837DOI: 10.1016/j.nanoen.2014.07.014ISI: 000344632800025OAI: diva2:776780
Available from: 2015-01-08 Created: 2014-12-17 Last updated: 2016-10-11
In thesis
1. Development of Zinc Oxide Piezoelectric Nanogenerators for Low Frequency Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of Zinc Oxide Piezoelectric Nanogenerators for Low Frequency Applications
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy harvesting using piezoelectric nanomaterials provides an opportunity for advancement towards self-powered systems. Self-powered systems are a new emerging technology, which allows the use of a system or a device that perform a function without the need for external power source like for example, a battery or any other type of source. This technology can for example use harvested energy from sources around us such as ambient mechanical vibrations, noise, and human movement, etc. and convert it to electric energy using the piezoelectric effect. For nanoscale devices, the size of traditional batteries is not suitable and will lead to loss of the concept of “nano”. This is due to the large size and the relatively large magnitude of the delivered power from traditional sources. The development of a nanogenerator (NG) to convert energy from the environment into electric energy would facilitate the development of some self-powered systems relying on nano- devices.

The main objective of this thesis is to fabricate a piezoelectric Zinc Oxide (ZnO) NGs for low frequency (˂ 100 Hz) energy harvesting applications. For that, different types of NGs based on ZnO nanostructures have been carefully developed, and studied for testing under different kinds of low frequency mechanical deformations. Well aligned ZnO nanowires (NWs) possessing high piezoelectric coefficient were synthesized on flexible substrates using the low temperature hydrothermal route. These ZnO NWs were then used in different configurations to demonstrate different low frequency energy harvesting devices.

Using piezoelectric ZnO NWs, we started with the fabrication of sandwiched NG for hand writing enabled energy harvesting device based on a thin silver layer coated paper substrate. Such device configurations can be used for the development of electronic programmable smart paper. Further, we developed this NG to work as a triggered sensor for wireless system using foot-step pressure. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using ZnO NWs piezoelectric NG as a low-frequency self-powered sensor, with potential applications in wireless sensor networks. After that, we investigated and fabricated a sensor on PEDOT: PSS plastic substrate either by one side growth technique or by using double sided growth. For the first growth technique, the fabricated NG has been used as a sensor for acceleration system; while the fabricated NG by the second technique has worked as anisotropic directional sensor. This fabricated configurations showed stability for sensing and can be used in surveillance, security, and auto-mobil applications. In addition to that, we investigated the fabrication of a sandwiched NG on plastic substrates. Finally, we demonstrated that doping ZnO NWs with extrinsic element (such as Ag) will lead to the reduction of the piezoelectric effect due to the loss of crystal symmetry. A brief summary into future opportunities and challenges are also presented in the last chapter of this thesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. 48 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1787
Zinc oxide (ZnO), hydrothermal growth, piezoelectricity, nanowires (NWs), nanogenerator (NG), energy harvesting, wireless data transmission
National Category
Nano Technology Physical Sciences
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131858 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-131858 (DOI)9789176856932 (Print) (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-11-11, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)
Available from: 2016-10-11 Created: 2016-10-11 Last updated: 2016-10-13Bibliographically approved

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