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Integration of CMOS Chips into LOCs for Cell-Based Sensing
Maryland University, Baltimore, USA. (Laboratory for MicroTechnologies, Department of Mechanical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research)
University of Oulu, Finland. (Microelectronics and Material Physics Laboratories)
University of Oulu, Finland. (Division of Cell Biology, Department of Biochemistry)
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. (Applied Sensor Science)
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2014 (English)In: Proceedings of Biosensors 2014, Australia, 2014Conference paper, Abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Incorporating complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chips that can perform signal processing, control, information readout, and direct sensing into microfluidic systems adds powerful capabilities to lab on a chip (LOC) devices. For example, on-chip sensors allow system miniaturization, amplifiers placed directly under the sensors provide high signal to noise ratios (SNRs), and signal processing circuitry reduces the amount of data that must be communicated off-chip. Packaging such chips to expose the sensors on the surface to a fluid environment while protecting the input/output region at the periphery has been challenging, however. We present a new packaging method based on forming an epoxy handle wafer around the chip, photolithographic patterning of metal and polymer films for interconnection and passivation, and bonding to PDMS microfluidics. Such packaged chips last for months in the incubator and can be sterilized and re-used. We will show two examples of cell-based sensing with these systems using chips produced in a commercially-available CMOS technology: monitoring the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials through capacitance changes and recording action potentials from electrogenic cells. Adherent cells normally spread out on surfaces, while stressed cells contract and apoptosis leads to detachment. A chip was produced consisting of an array of fully differential capacitance sensors and readout circuitry. Cells (kidney, Cercopithecus aethiops) were cultured on the chip surface to confluence and then exposed to cytotoxic TiO2 nanowires. Cell viability was evaluated with both the chip and a commercial cytotoxicity kit. Preliminary results indicate that viability can be monitored by capacitance measurements. In the second example, a cluster of cardiomyocytes was cultured on the surface of a different chip having an array of electrodes connected to on-chip amplifiers. Electrical recordings showed strong action potentials from the cluster, corresponding in time with the beating of the clump. The signal amplitude decreased with distance to the electrodes, as expected

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
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Physical Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113322OAI: diva2:781216
Biosensors 2014, Australia
Available from: 2015-01-15 Created: 2015-01-15 Last updated: 2015-01-22

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