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The Ease of language Understanding model (ELU): Recent advances
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. (Linnaeus Centre HEAD)
2015 (English)Conference paper, Abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Working memory is important for online language processing during conversation. We use it to maintain relevant information, to inhibit or ignore irrelevant information, and to attend to conversation selectively. The Ease of Language Understanding model (ELU, Rönnberg, 2003; Rönnberg et al., 2008; Rönnberg et al., 2013) predicts that speech understanding in adverse, mismatching noise conditions is dependent on explicit processing resources such as working memory capacity (WMC). The mismatch prediction (between input phonology and stored phonological representations in long-term memory) is based on a strong dependency on WMC for successful recognition of speech-in-noise, processed using a signal processing algorithm novel to the listener (Foo et al., 2007). A similar dependency is observed when participants acclimatize to one type of signal processing while being tested with another, “mismatching”, hearing aid setting after the acclimatization period (Rudner et al., 2009).This presentation will focus on some new features and data related to the new ELU model (Rönnberg et al., 2013). The model is now conceptualized as a meaning prediction system that depends on phonological and semantic interactions in rapid implicit and slower explicit processing mechanisms that both depend on WMC, albeit in different ways. Here I focus on findings that address the relationships between WMC and (a) early attention processes in listening to speech, (b) binary masking and its effects on short-term memory, (c) inhibition of speech maskers and its effect on episodic long-term memory, (d) the long-term effects of hearing impairment on episodic and semantic long-term memory.Speech modifications induced by fluctuating noise and their perceptual consequences.Martin CookeIkerbasque (Basque Science Foundation)Language and Speech Lab, University of the Basque Country, Spainm.cooke@ikerbasque.orgIt has long been known that adverse conditions affect talkers as well as listeners (Lombard, 1911; see review in Cooke et al., 2014a). Speech changes include intensity gains, raised fundamental frequency and increases in spectral centre of gravity as well as temporal restructuring of utterances. What is currently unclear is the extent to which speech modifications induced by the acoustic environment are designed to help interlocutors by improving intelligibility, and which changes are simply passive by-products of exposure to noise. Determining how altered speech styles contribute to intelligibility is important both for understanding how listeners process speech in noise and in the design of more robust algorithms for spoken language output.The current talk describes the outcome of a series of studies which have attempted to tease apart the contributions of speech modifications to intelligibility in adverse conditions, with a focus on changes affecting the temporal dimension of speech. A study of the effect of foreground conversation in the presence of a fluctuating background (Aubanel and Cooke, 2013) found that talkers show sensitivity to noise onsets and offsets, retiming their speech to reduce overall overlap with the masker. A second study (Cooke et al., 2014b) demonstrated that spectral rather than durational changes are largely responsible for the greater intelligibility of Lombard speech. However, we haveFriday 9 January, am

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URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115093OAI: diva2:793567
Invited paper given at Experimental Psychology Society, UCL, London, February 9 2015
Available from: 2015-03-08 Created: 2015-03-08 Last updated: 2015-03-08

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Rönnberg, Jerker
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Disability ResearchFaculty of Arts and SciencesThe Swedish Institute for Disability Research
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