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Textile electrodes for ECG measurements in distributed care, performance and applications
Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis work has been to explore textile electrodes for electrocardiographic (ECG) measurements both in terms of their electrode properties and possibility to further improve their robustness to noise with signal processing techniques. Previous research within the field has shown that acquisition of ECG is possible with textile electrodes, but little attention has been focused on how they function and especially if movements are included in the measurement protocol.

In a first study, the electrical properties of conductive textiles were evaluated in the same manner as conventional Ag/AgCl ECG electrodes. Three yarns and textile electrode surfaces were tested. The electrodes made from pure stainless steel (A) and 20% stainless steel/ 80% polyester (B) showed acceptable stability of electrode potentials. The electrode made from silver plated copper (C) was less robust. The best electrode impedance characteristic had Electrode A and hence from an electrical properties point of view we recommend electrodes of type A to be used for ECG measurements.

The second paper contains an application of canonical correlation analysis (CCA) on multi channel ECG signals recorded with textile electrodes. Using CCA to solve the blind source separation (BSS) problem, we intended to separate the ECG signal from the various noise sources. The method (CCABSS) was compared to averaging of the ECG channels and to the independent component analysis method (ICA). Results show a loss of the ECG signal while simulating various noise in 33%, 17% and 7% of the cases for averaging, ICA and CCA, respectively.

A drawback with the CCABSS approach is however that it produces many outputs and that information regarding the wanted feature to detect is not included in the analysis. In the third article, an event detector based on a multichannel input, a model of the event and weighted correlation was used instead. For measurements at rest and upper body rotation, the sensitivity was 100% and 99% respectively. Muscle tension and walking were the hardest to detect with a sensitivity of 88% and 91% respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linköpings universitet , 2010. , 43 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1429
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115838Local ID: LiU-TEK-LIC-2009:37ISBN: 978-91-7393-447-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-115838DiVA: diva2:796786
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-03-20 Created: 2015-03-20 Last updated: 2015-03-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Electrical characteristics of conductive yarns and textile electrodes for medical applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrical characteristics of conductive yarns and textile electrodes for medical applications
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2007 (English)In: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, ISSN 0140-0118, E-ISSN 1741-0444, Vol. 45, no 12, 1251-1257 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Clothing with conductive textiles for health care applications has in the last decade been of an upcoming research interest. An advantage with the technique is its suitability in distributed and home health care. The present study investigates the electrical properties of conductive yarns and textile electrodes in contact with human skin, thus representing a real ECG-registration situation. The yarn measurements showed a pure resistive characteristic proportional to the length. The electrodes made of pure stainless steel (electrode A) and 20% stainless steel/80% polyester (electrode B) showed acceptable stability of electrode potentials, the stability of A was better than that of B. The electrode made of silver plated copper (electrode C) was less stable. The electrode impedance was lower for electrodes A and B than that for electrode C. From an electrical properties point of view we recommend to use electrodes of type A to be used in intelligent textile medical applications. © International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering 2007.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-40953 (URN)10.1007/s11517-007-0266-y (DOI)54747 (Local ID)54747 (Archive number)54747 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13
2. A Canonical correlation approach to heart beat detection in textile ECG measurements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Canonical correlation approach to heart beat detection in textile ECG measurements
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2006 (English)In: IET 3rd International Conference On Advances in Medical, Signal and Information Processing, 2006. MEDSIP 2006, IEEE , 2006, 1-4 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Research in textile sensors has lead to new ways to measure electrocardiograms (ECG). However, additional disturbances from e.g. muscular noise and high skin-electrode impedances often result in poor signal quality. The paper contains a simple application of canonical correlation analysis (CCA) on multi channel ECG signals recorded with textile electrodes. Using CCA to solve the blind source separation (BSS) problem, we intend to separate the ECG signal from the various noise sources. The method (CCABSS) was compared to simple averaging of the ECG channels and to the independent component analysis method (ICA). A heart beat detector was used to evaluate the signal quality. Results show that the signal was completely lost while simulating various noise in 33%, 17% and 7% of the cases for averaging, ICA and CCA, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2006
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-34459 (URN)21497 (Local ID)08-6341-658-6 (e-book) (ISBN)978-08-6341-658-3 (ISBN)21497 (Archive number)21497 (OAI)
Conference
3rd International Conference on Advances in Medical Signal and Information Processing : MEDSIP 2006, July 17-19, 2006, Glasgow, Scotland
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2015-03-20Bibliographically approved
3. Robust Heart Beat Detector Based on Weighted Correlation and Multichannel Input: Implementation on the ECG recorded with textile electrodes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Robust Heart Beat Detector Based on Weighted Correlation and Multichannel Input: Implementation on the ECG recorded with textile electrodes
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2013 (English)In: International Journal of E-Health and Medical Communications, ISSN 1947-315X, Vol. 4, no 1, 61-71 p.Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a robust heartbeat detector for noisy electrocardiograms (ECGs) recorded with textile electrodes. We suggest a method based on weighted correlation in a multi-channel ECG to obtain a heartbeat detector. Signals were acquired during rest and at movements which simulate every day activities. From each recording a segment corresponding to a heartbeat was extracted and correlated with the whole signal. From the correlation data, heartbeat candidates were derived and weighted based on their variance similarity with the heartbeat model and previous heartbeats. Finally, the outputs of each channel were added to create the global output. The output was compared to the Pan Tompkins heartbeat detector. Results are promising for recordings at rest (sensitivity = 0.97, positive predictive value (PPV) = 0.97). For static muscle tension in the torso the results were much higher than the reference method (sensitivity = 0.77, PPV = 0.85). Corresponding values for the reference method were sensitivity = 0.96 and PPV = 0.95 at rest and sensitivity = 0.52 and PPV = 0.75 during muscle tension.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IGI Global, 2013
Keyword
textile electrodes, multichannel ecg, noise suppression, heartbeat detector
National Category
Other Medical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79772 (URN)10.4018/jehmc.2013010106 (DOI)
Conference
8th International Conference on Wearable Micro and Nano Technologies for Personalized Health
Available from: 2012-08-14 Created: 2012-08-14 Last updated: 2015-03-20

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