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Altered ventral neck muscle deformation for individuals with whiplash associated disorder compared to healthy controls: A case-control ultrasound study
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Centre for Clinical Research Sörmland, Uppsala University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2492-0306
Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Div of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden. Dep of Physical Therapy, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
Department of Chemistry, Computational Life Science Cluster, Umeå University, Sweden.
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2015 (English)In: Manual Therapy, ISSN 1356-689X, E-ISSN 1532-2769, Vol. 20, no 2, 319-327 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous studies have shown altered neck muscle function in individuals with chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD). However, we lack real-time investigations with non-invasive methods that can distinguish between the different ventral neck muscle layers. This study investigated deformations and deformation rates in the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), longus capitis (Lcap), and longus colli (Lco) muscles with real-time ultrasonography. Twenty-six individuals with WAD were compared with 26 controls, matched for age and sex. Ultrasound imaging of the SCM, Lcap, and Lco were recorded during 10 repetitive arm elevations. The first and tenth arm elevations were post-process analyzed with speckle tracking. There were few significant differences in the deformations or deformation rates in the SCM, Lcap, and Lco between the WAD and control group. In controls, deformations and deformation rates showed linear positive relationships between SCM/Lcap, SCM/Lco, and Lcap/Lco which increased from the first arm elevation (R(2) = 0.14-0.70); to the tenth arm elevation (R(2) = 0.51-0.71). The WAD group showed similar or weaker linear relationship (R(2) < 0.19) during the tenth compared to the first (R(2) < 0.44) arm elevation except for deformations in Lcap/Lco (R(2) = 0.13-0.57). This result indicated that deformations and deformation rates in one muscle were correlated by similar deformations and deformation rates in other neck muscles in the control group, but this interplay between muscles was not found in the WAD group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 20, no 2, 319-327 p.
National Category
Physiotherapy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115920DOI: 10.1016/j.math.2014.10.006ISI: 000352769200013PubMedID: 25454684OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-115920DiVA: diva2:797472
Available from: 2015-03-24 Created: 2015-03-24 Last updated: 2017-12-04
In thesis
1. Neck muscle function in individuals with persistent pain and disability after whiplash injury
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neck muscle function in individuals with persistent pain and disability after whiplash injury
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Neck pain and disability are common after whiplash injury. One year after the accident up to 50 % still have symptoms called whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Despite decades of research the cause of persistent pain and disability are largely unknown and effective treatment and diagnostic tools are lacking. Altered neck muscle function may cause pain and disability, and real-time non-invasive methods that investigate both superficial and deep neck muscle function need to be evaluated.

Aim: The general aim of the work presented in this thesis was to investigate mechanical neck muscle function and evaluate effects of three different exercise interventions related to neck muscle function in individuals with persistent pain and disability after whiplash injury.

Method: The thesis comprised two studies, reported in four papers. Study A was a prospective randomized controlled trail with 216 participants. The effects of three exercise interventions; neck-specific exercises, neck-specific exercises with behavioral approach and prescription of physical activity were evaluated. Neck muscle endurance, perceived pain following testing, kinesiophobia and satisfaction with treatment were compared between the three groups (paper I). Study B was an experimental case-control study with participants consecutively recruited from the randomized controlled trial. Deformation and deformation rates in the neck muscles were investigated with real-time ultrasound imaging during ten repetitive arm elevations (paper II-IV). To investigate ventral neck muscles, 26 individuals with WAD were compared with 26 healthy controls (paper II). The dorsal neck muscles were investigated in paper III, including 40 individuals with WAD and 40 controls. In total 46 individuals, 23 with WAD and 23 healthy controls were included in paper IV to develop ventral neck muscle interaction models.

Results: Paper I: Participants in the two neck-specific exercise groups (with and without behavioral approach) showed increased dorsal neck muscle endurance (p = 0.003), decreased pain intensity following testing (p = 0.04) and were more satisfied with treatment (p < 0.001) than participants in the prescribed physical activity group. Kinesiophobia did not significantly differ between groups (p > 0.12).

Paper II: Deformation and deformation rate showed linear positive relationship between ventral muscle pairs in healthy controls, especially between superficial and deep neck muscles. This relationship was weaker or absent in the WAD group.

Paper III: The WAD group had higher deformation rates in the deepest dorsal neck muscles during the first and tenth (only women) arm elevations compared to the control group (p < 0.04). Women in the WAD group showed a weaker linear relationship between the two deepest dorsal neck muscles compared to women in the control group.

Paper IV: The results revealed two different ventral neck muscle models in individuals with WAD and healthy controls (R2Y = 0.72, Q2Y = 0.59). The models were capable to detect different neck muscle interplay in people with WAD.

Conclusion: Neck-specific exercise intervention with or without a behavioral approach appears to improve neck muscle endurance in individuals with persistent WAD. Decreased pain after the neck muscle endurance test also suggests improved tolerance of load in these two groups. Altered mechanical neck muscle function was revealed in individuals with WAD indicating decreased muscular support for maintain a stable cervical spine during repetitive arm elevations. The results show great promise for improved diagnosis of neck muscle function in WAD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. 87 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1523
National Category
Physiotherapy Sport and Fitness Sciences Clinical Science Applied Psychology Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132420 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-132420 (DOI)9789176857472 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-11-25, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
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The corrections in the errata list has been carried out in the electronic version.

Available from: 2016-11-10 Created: 2016-11-10 Last updated: 2016-11-10Bibliographically approved

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Peterson, GunnelAndersson, ErikaPeolsson, Anneli

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