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Increased levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with chronic schizophrenia - significance for activation of the kynurenine pathway.
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, ISSN 1180-4882, E-ISSN 1488-2434, Vol. 40, no 2, 126-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates that schizophrenia is associated with brain immune activation. While a number of reports suggest increased cytokine levels in patients with schizophrenia, many of these studies have been limited by their focus on peripheral cytokines or confounded by various antipsychotic treatments. Here, well-characterized patients with schizophrenia, all receiving olanzapine treatment, and healthy volunteers were analyzed with regard to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines. We correlated the CSF cytokine levels to previously analyzed metabolites of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway.

METHODS: We analyzed the CSF from patients and controls using electrochemiluminescence detection with regard to cytokines. Cell culture media from human cortical astrocytes were analyzed for KYN and kynurenic acid (KYNA) using high-pressure liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

RESULTS: We included 23 patients and 37 controls in our study. Patients with schizophrenia had increased CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-6 compared with healthy volunteers. In patients, we also observed a positive correlation between IL-6 and the tryptophan:KYNA ratio, indicating that IL-6 activates the KYN pathway. In line with this, application of IL-6 to cultured human astrocytes increased cell medium concentration of KYNA.

LIMITATIONS: The CSF samples had been frozen and thawed twice before analysis of cytokines. Median age differed between patients and controls. When appropriate, all present analyses were adjusted for age.

CONCLUSION: We have shown that IL-6, KYN and KYNA are elevated in patients with chronic schizophrenia, strengthening the idea of brain immune activation in patients with this disease. Our concurrent cell culture and clinical findings suggest that IL-6 induces the KYN pathway, leading to increased production of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist KYNA in patients with schizophrenia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CMA-CANADIAN MEDICAL ASSOC , 2015. Vol. 40, no 2, 126-13 p.
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URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-116363DOI: 10.1503/jpn.140126ISI: 000351206800008PubMedID: 25455350OAI: diva2:798292
Available from: 2015-03-26 Created: 2015-03-26 Last updated: 2016-03-24Bibliographically approved

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Skogh, ElisabethSamuelsson, Martin
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Division of Neuro and Inflammation ScienceFaculty of Health SciencesDepartment of PsychiatryFaculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
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