The hemispheric proximal isovelocity surface area method for quantification of mitral regurgitant flow (i.e., Qc = 2 pi r2v), where 2 pi r2 is the surface area and v is the velocity at radius r, was investigated as distance from the orifice was increased. Computer simulations and steady flow model experiments were performed for orifices of 4, 6, and 8 mm. Flow rates derived from the centerline velocity and hemispheric assumption were compared with true flow rates. Proximal isovelocity surface area shape varied as distance from each orifice was increased and could only be approximated from the hemispheric equation when a certain distance was exceeded: > 7, > 10, and > 12 mm for the 4, 6, and 8 mm orifices, respectively. Prediction of relative error showed that the best radial zone at which to make measurements was 5 to 9, 6 to 14 and 7 to 17 mm for the 4, 6, and 8 mm orifices, respectively. Although effects of a nonhemispheric shape could be compensated for by use of a correction factor, a radius of 8 to 9 mm can be recommended without the use of a correction factor over all orifices studied if a deviation in calculated as compared with true flow of 15% is considered acceptable. These measurements therefore have implications for the technique in clinical practice.
1993. Vol. 6, no 4, 433-445 p.