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Memory and communication in typically developing infants and children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Behavioral and electrophysiological indices
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how variations in early memory capacity seems, both in children with typical development in children with autism. More specifically, variations in early memory is examined here over time, and its relationship to early (verbal and non-verbal) communication skills. Furthermore, also investigated whether one can say anything about these early variations based on brain responses to associative learning memory. The results show a relationship between memory and associative learning and receptive language. In addition, there was a relation between the children remember when they are 9 months and after 16 months, and even their receptive language (vocabulary), indicating a stability of these variations. There was also a relationship between memory capacity at the age of 9 months and productive language at 16 months of age. Furthermore, when comparing children with autism and typically developing children and children with Down syndrome, it was found that there were no differences in spontaneous imitation but for imitation on call and after a delay, they differ from the other groups. When account is taken of the children with Autism linguistic abilities, it turns out that it is the non-verbal children that differ from control groups, while the verbal children with autism perform at the same level as the comparison groups. For typically developing children there was a relationship between spontaneous imitation and elicited imitation. The results of the studies in this thesis discussed based on developmental theories and their implications for future studies.

Abstract [sv]

Syftet med föreliggande avhandling är att undersöka hur variationer i tidig minnesförmåga ter sig, både hos barn med typisk utveckling och hos barn med autism. Mer specifikt, variationer i tidig minnesförmåga undersöks här över tid, samt dess relation till tidig (verbal och icke-verbal) kommunikativ förmåga. Vidare undersöks även huruvida man kan säga något om dessa tidiga variationer utifrån hjärnans respons till associativt lärande/minne. Resultaten visar på en relation mellan minne och associativ inlärning samt receptivt språk. Resultaten visar även en relation mellan hur barnen minns när de är 9 månader och när de är 16 månader, samt även deras receptiva språk (ordförståelse), vilket indikerar en stabilitet av dessa variationer. Det fanns även en relation mellan minnesförmåga vid 9 månaders ålder och produktivt språk vid 16 månaders ålder. Vidare, vid jämförelse mellan barn med autism och typiskt utvecklade barn samt barn med down syndrom, visade det sig att det inte förelåg några skillnader vad gäller spontan imitation men för imitation på uppmaning samt efter en fördröjning skiljer de sig från de andra grupperna. När hänsyn tas till barnen med autisms språkliga förmågor, visar det sig att det är de icke-verbala barnen som skiljer sig från jämförelsegrupperna medan de verbala barnen med autism presterar på samma nivå som jämförelsegrupperna. För de typiskt utvecklade barnen fanns en relation mellan spontan imitation och imitation på uppmaning. Resultaten från studierna i avhandlingen diskuteras utifrån utvecklingspsykologiska teorier samt deras implikationer på framtida studier.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. , 55 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 643Studies from the Swedish Institute for Disability Research, ISSN 1650-1128 ; 71
Keyword [en]
Memory development, communication, deferred imitation, ERP, autism spectrum disorder
Keyword [sv]
Minne, kommunikation, fördröjd imitation, ERP, autismspektrumstörning
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117041ISBN: 978-91-7519-078-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-117041DiVA: diva2:803175
Public defence
2015-04-24, Key 1, Hus Key, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-04-13 Created: 2015-04-13 Last updated: 2017-11-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Associative learning measured with ERP predicts deferred imitation using a strict observation only design in 14 to 15 month old children
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associative learning measured with ERP predicts deferred imitation using a strict observation only design in 14 to 15 month old children
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2013 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 54, no 1, 33-40 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Deferred imitation is an established procedure for behavioural measurement of early declarative-like memories in infancy and previous work has indicated a link between this type of memory and brain potentials in infants. The present study compared infants’ memory performance in this paradigm with electrophysiological indices of associative learning. Thirty children (mean age: 14.5 months) participated, of which 15 (9 boys) had acceptable ERP recordings that could be included in the final analysis. Deferred imitation was measured with an observation-only procedure using three actions and a 30 min delay. ERP was recorded with a High Density Net (128 electrodes) during associative learning. Change scores based on Nc, a middle latency component associated with attentional processes, predicted deferred imitation performance. Thus, associative learning measured with ERP predicts deferred imitation using a strict observation only design in 14 to15 month old children.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2013
Keyword
Deferred imitation, ERP, infancy, memory
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84325 (URN)10.1111/sjop.12005 (DOI)000313724600007 ()
Projects
Long-term memory processes in infancy: Individual differences and electrophysiological correlats
Funder
FAS, Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, 2006-1040
Available from: 2012-10-04 Created: 2012-10-04 Last updated: 2017-12-07
2. The relationship between deferred imitation, associative memory, and communication in 14-months-old children. Behavioral and electrophysiological indices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relationship between deferred imitation, associative memory, and communication in 14-months-old children. Behavioral and electrophysiological indices
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2015 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, no 260Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study combines behavioral observations of memory (deferred imitation, DI, after a brief delay of 30 min and after a long delay of 2-3 weeks) and electrophysiological (event-related potentials, ERPs) measures of associative memory, as well as parental reports of non-verbal and verbal communication in sixteen 14-months-old children. Results show that for DI, the children remembered the stimulus after the brief but not after the long delay. There was a clear electrophysiological response indicating associative memory. Furthermore, a correlation between DI and ERR suggests that both measures of memory (DI and associative memory) tap into similar mechanisms in 14months-old children. There was also a statistically significant relation between parental report of receptive (verbal) language and the ERP, showing an association between receptive language skills and associative memory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers, 2015
Keyword
deferred imitation; infant; memory; event-related potentials; associative memory; communication
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-116948 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00260 (DOI)000351061500001 ()25852588 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research [2006-1040]; Swedish Research Council [2011-1913]; Linnaeus Centre Thinking in Time: Cognition, Communication, and Learning by the Swedish Research Council [349-2007-8695]

Available from: 2015-04-13 Created: 2015-04-10 Last updated: 2017-12-04
3. Early declarative memory predicts productive language: A longitudinal study of deferred imitation and communication at 9 and 16 months
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early declarative memory predicts productive language: A longitudinal study of deferred imitation and communication at 9 and 16 months
2016 (English)In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 151, 109-119 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Deferred imitation (DI) may be regarded as an early declarative-like memory ability shaping the infant's ability to learn about novelties and regularities of the surrounding world. In the current longitudinal study, infants were assessed at 9 and 16months. DI was assessed using five novel objects. Each infant's communicative development was measured by parental questionnaires. The results indicate stability in DI performance and early communicative development between 9 and 16months. The early achievers at 9months were still advanced at 16months. Results also identified a predictive relationship between the infant's gestural development at 9months and the infant's productive and receptive language at 16months. Moreover, the results show that declarative memory, measured with DI, and gestural communication at 9months independently predict productive language at 16months. These findings suggest a connection between the ability to form non-linguistic and linguistic mental representations. These results indicate that the child's DI ability when predominantly preverbal might be regarded as an early domain-general declarative memory ability underlying early productive language development.

Keyword
Declarative memory; Deferred imitation; Gestural Communication; Infant development; Productive Language; Receptive Language
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126873 (URN)10.1016/j.jecp.2016.01.015 (DOI)000383941600010 ()26925719 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2008-2454, 2011-1913Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2008-0875
Note

The previous status of this article Manuscript and the previous title was The stability of memory development and its predictive value of lexical development from 9 months to 16 months.

Available from: 2016-04-06 Created: 2016-04-06 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
4. Spontaneous, elicited and deferred imitation in children with autism spectrum disorder
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spontaneous, elicited and deferred imitation in children with autism spectrum disorder
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Imitation, a key vehicle for both cognitive and social development, is often regarded as more difficult for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than for children with Down syndrome (DS) or typically developing (TD) children. The current study investigates similarities and differences in observed elicited, spontaneous and deferred imitation using both actions with objects and gestures as imitation tasks in these groups. Imitation among 19 children with autism (M age 67 months) was compared with 20 children with DS (M age = 63 months) and 23 TD children (M age 35 months) matched for mental and language age. Elicited imitation resulted in significantly lower scores for the children with ASD in comparison with the other two groups (DS and TD), an effect mainly carried by low level of imitation of gestures among the ASD children. In comparison, we observed no differences in mean imitation scores between the groups on spontaneous imitation. However, both the children with ASD and DS displayed less deferred imitation than the TD group. Furthermore, the proneness to imitate, especially elicited imitation, differed between groups: Only 10 (53%) of the children with autism responded in the elicited imitation condition compared to all children with DS and almost all TD children (87%). These findings add to our understanding of the kind of imitation difficulties children with ASD might have. They also point to the necessity not to equate various imitation measures since they may capture different processes and also be differently motivating for children with autism.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117040 (URN)
Available from: 2015-04-13 Created: 2015-04-13 Last updated: 2015-04-13Bibliographically approved

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