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No association between surface shifts and time-loss overuse injury risk in male professional football: a prospective cohort study
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
Norwegian School Sport Science, Norway.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 19, no 3, 218-221 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: To investigate frequent surface shifts, match play on an unaccustomed surface, and climate type as potential risk factors for injury in Scandinavian male professional football.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Methods: 32 clubs from two climate zones, warm temperate (n=19) and snow climates (n=13), were followed during seasons 2010 and 2011. The association between number of surface shifts during fivematch sequences and subsequent overuse injury risk was evaluated with generalized estimating equations. Injury rate was expressed as time loss injuries/1000 hours, and compared between groups with a rate ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results: No association was found between the number of surface shifts and subsequent overuse injury risk (risk ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.91-1.12). Grass clubs (grass installed at home venue) had a lower match injury rate when playing away matches on artificial turf vs. away matches on grass (rate ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.40-0.89). Analyses on the total cohort showed no difference in injury rates between clubs in the two climate zones, but sub-analyses revealed that grass clubs from the snow climate zone had lower training and match injury rates than grass clubs from the warm temperate zone (rate ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.87).

Conclusions: No influence on injury risk was seen from frequent surface shifts or from playing matches on an unaccustomed surface. Climate type at club home venue had minimal influence on injury rates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 19, no 3, 218-221 p.
Keyword [en]
Epidemiology, Lower extremity, Soccer, Surface, Surveillance
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117166DOI: 10.1016/j.jsams.2015.06.001ISI: 000371445600006OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-117166DiVA: diva2:806618
Note

Funding agencies:  Union of European Football Associations; Swedish Football Association; Football Association Premier League Limited; Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports; Region Ostergotland; Royal Norwegian Ministry of Culture and Church Affairs; South-Eastern 

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Available from: 2015-04-21 Created: 2015-04-21 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Risk factors for injury in men´s professional football
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk factors for injury in men´s professional football
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis includes four papers based on three different prospective cohort studies on injury characteristics in men’s professional football. The same general methodology was used in all papers. Time-loss injuries and player individual exposure was registered for match and training separately. The general aim was to investigate potential internal and external risk factors for injury, with a focus on age, playing position, time in professional football, playing surface (artificial turf and natural grass), changes between surfaces and climate; and to evaluate the study methodology.

Paper I was based on data collected between 2001 and 2010 from 26 top professional clubs in Europe; the UCL injury study. In total, 6140 injuries and 797 389 hours of exposure were registered. A decreased general injury rate was observed for newcomers compared with established players (hazard ratio (HR), 0.77; 95% CI 0.61-0.99). Using goalkeepers as a reference, all outfield playing positions had significantly higher age-adjusted injury rates. Using players aged ≤ 21 years as a reference, the overall adjusted injury rate increased with age, with a peak injury rate among players aged 29 to 30  years (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.24-1.68).

Paper II and Paper III are based on data collected during two consecutive seasons, 2010 and 2011, in the Swedish and Norwegian male first leagues. In total, 2186 injuries and 367 490 hours of football exposure were recorded. No statistically significant differences were found in acute injury rates on artificial turf (AT) compared with natural grass (NG) during match play (rate ratio, 0.98, 99% CI 0.79-1.22) or training (rate ratio 1.14, 99% CI 0.86-1.50) when analysing at the individual player level. However, when analysing at the club level, clubs with AT installed at their home arena had a significantly higher acute training injury rate (rate ratio 1.31, 99% CI 1.04-1.63) and overuse injury rate (rate ratio 1.38, 99% CI 1.14-1.65) compared to clubs with NG installed at their home venue. No association was found between frequent surface shifts and subsequent overuse injury risk (risk ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.91-1.12). Analyses on the total cohort showed no difference in injury rates between clubs in the two climate zones (total rate ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.92-1.10).

Data included in Paper IV were collected during two consecutive seasons 2008 and 2009. During this period, two Norwegian elite football clubs were concurrently included in two research groups’ surveillance systems. The capture rate for match injuries was similar between the two audits, while the capture rate for training injuries was slightly higher with individual-based exposure recording. The inter-rater agreement in injury variable categorisations was in most aspects very high.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. 94 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1445
Keyword
Age, artificial turf, cohort study, elite, epidemiology, overuse injury, soccer, surface, sporting injuries, playing position
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117170 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-117170 (DOI)978-91-7519-126-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-05-29, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
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Available from: 2015-04-21 Created: 2015-04-21 Last updated: 2015-04-21Bibliographically approved

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Kristenson, KarolinaWaldén, MarkusEkstrand, JanHägglund, Martin

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