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Injuries in male professional football: a prospective comparison between individual and team-based exposure registration
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden.
Department of Sports Medicine, Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Football Research Group, Linköping, Sweden.
Department of Sports Medicine, Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
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2016 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 26, no 10, 1225-1232 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Methodological considerations of football injury epidemiology have only scarcely been described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter-rater agreement in injury capture rate and injury categorisation for data registered in two different prospective injury surveillance audits studying the same two Norwegian male professional football clubs for two consecutive seasons, 2008-2009. One audit used team-based exposure (TBE) recording and the other individual-based exposure (IBE). The number of injuries recorded and corresponding injury rates (injuries/1000 h exposure) were compared between audits. Cohen’s Kappa and Prevalence Adjusted Bias Adjusted Kappa (PABAK) coefficients were calculated for injury variables. Of 323 injuries included, the IBE audit captured 318 (overall capture rate 98.5%, training 98.9%, match 97.8%) and the TBE audit 303 injuries (overall capture rate 93.8%, training 91.4%, match 97.1%). Agreement analysis showed Kappa and PABAK coefficients regarded as almost perfect (> 0.81) for 8 of 9 injury variables, and substantial (ƙ 0.75) for the variable injury severity. In conclusion, the capture rate for training injuries was slightly higher with individual-based exposure recording, and inter-agreement in injury categorisation was very high.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2016. Vol. 26, no 10, 1225-1232 p.
Keyword [en]
Elite, epidemiology, methodology, reliability, soccer, validity
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117169DOI: 10.1111/sms.12551ISI: 000386937200011PubMedID: 26376838OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-117169DiVA: diva2:806622
Note

At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

Funding agencies: Union of European Football Associations; Swedish Football Association; Football Association Premier League Limited; Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports; County Council of Ostergotland; Royal Norwegian Ministry of Culture and Church Affairs; Sou

Available from: 2015-04-21 Created: 2015-04-21 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Risk factors for injury in men´s professional football
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk factors for injury in men´s professional football
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis includes four papers based on three different prospective cohort studies on injury characteristics in men’s professional football. The same general methodology was used in all papers. Time-loss injuries and player individual exposure was registered for match and training separately. The general aim was to investigate potential internal and external risk factors for injury, with a focus on age, playing position, time in professional football, playing surface (artificial turf and natural grass), changes between surfaces and climate; and to evaluate the study methodology.

Paper I was based on data collected between 2001 and 2010 from 26 top professional clubs in Europe; the UCL injury study. In total, 6140 injuries and 797 389 hours of exposure were registered. A decreased general injury rate was observed for newcomers compared with established players (hazard ratio (HR), 0.77; 95% CI 0.61-0.99). Using goalkeepers as a reference, all outfield playing positions had significantly higher age-adjusted injury rates. Using players aged ≤ 21 years as a reference, the overall adjusted injury rate increased with age, with a peak injury rate among players aged 29 to 30  years (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.24-1.68).

Paper II and Paper III are based on data collected during two consecutive seasons, 2010 and 2011, in the Swedish and Norwegian male first leagues. In total, 2186 injuries and 367 490 hours of football exposure were recorded. No statistically significant differences were found in acute injury rates on artificial turf (AT) compared with natural grass (NG) during match play (rate ratio, 0.98, 99% CI 0.79-1.22) or training (rate ratio 1.14, 99% CI 0.86-1.50) when analysing at the individual player level. However, when analysing at the club level, clubs with AT installed at their home arena had a significantly higher acute training injury rate (rate ratio 1.31, 99% CI 1.04-1.63) and overuse injury rate (rate ratio 1.38, 99% CI 1.14-1.65) compared to clubs with NG installed at their home venue. No association was found between frequent surface shifts and subsequent overuse injury risk (risk ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.91-1.12). Analyses on the total cohort showed no difference in injury rates between clubs in the two climate zones (total rate ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.92-1.10).

Data included in Paper IV were collected during two consecutive seasons 2008 and 2009. During this period, two Norwegian elite football clubs were concurrently included in two research groups’ surveillance systems. The capture rate for match injuries was similar between the two audits, while the capture rate for training injuries was slightly higher with individual-based exposure recording. The inter-rater agreement in injury variable categorisations was in most aspects very high.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. 94 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1445
Keyword
Age, artificial turf, cohort study, elite, epidemiology, overuse injury, soccer, surface, sporting injuries, playing position
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117170 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-117170 (DOI)978-91-7519-126-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-05-29, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
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Available from: 2015-04-21 Created: 2015-04-21 Last updated: 2015-04-21Bibliographically approved

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Kristenson, KarolinaWaldén, MarkusEkstrand, JanHägglund, Martin

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Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and EpidemiologyHealth Sciences

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