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Turbocharger Dynamics Influence on Optimal Control of Diesel Engine Powered Systems
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2014 (English)In: SAE International Journal of Engines, ISSN 1946-3936, Vol. 7, no 1, 6-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The importance of including turbocharger dynamics in diesel engine models are studied, especially when optimization techniques are to be used to derive the optimal controls. This is done for two applications of diesel engines where in the first application, a diesel engine in wheel loader powertrain interacts with other subsystems to perform a loading operation and engine speed is dictated by the wheel speed, while in the second application, the engine operates in a diesel-electric powertrain as a separate system and the engine speed remains a free variable. In both applications, mean value engine models of different complexities are used while the rest of system components are modeled with the aim of control study. Optimal control problems are formulated, solved, and results are analyzed for various engine loading scenarios in the two applications with and without turbocharger dynamics. It is shown that depending on the engine loading transients, fuel consumption and operation time can widely vary when the turbocharger dynamics are considered in the diesel engine model. Including these, have minor effects on fuel consumption and operation time at minimum fuel operations of the first application (~0.1 %) while the changes are considerable in the second application (up to 60%). In case of minimum time operations however, fuel consumption and operation time are highly affected in both applications implying that not considering turbocharger dynamics in the diesel engine models may lead to overestimation of the engine performance especially when the results are going to be used for control purposes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAE International , 2014. Vol. 7, no 1, 6-13 p.
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117316DOI: 10.4271/2014-01-0290OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-117316DiVA: diva2:807310
Available from: 2015-04-23 Created: 2015-04-23 Last updated: 2016-05-30
In thesis
1. Optimal Control of Electrified Powertrains
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal Control of Electrified Powertrains
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Vehicle powertrain electrification, i.e. combining the internal combustion engine (ICE) with an electric motor (EM), is a potential way of meeting the increased demands for efficient and low emission transportation, at a price of increased powertrain complexity since more degrees of freedom (DoF) have been introduced. Optimal control is used in a series of studies of how to best exploit the additional DoFs.

In a diesel-electric powertrain the absence of a secondary energy storage and mechanical connection between the ICE and the wheels means that all electricity used by the EMs needs to be produced simultaneously by the ICE, whose rotational speed is a DoF. This in combination with the relatively slow dynamics of the turbocharger in the ICE puts high requirements on good transient control. In optimal control studies, accurate models with good extrapolation properties are needed. For this aim two nonlinear physics based models are developed and made available that fulfill these requirements, these are also smooth in the region of interest, to enable gradient based optimization techniques. Using optimal control and one of the developed models, the turbocharger dynamics are shown to have a strong impact on how to control the powertrain and neglecting these can lead to erroneous estimates both in the response of the powertrain as well as how the powertrain should be controlled. Also the objective, whether time or fuel is to be minimized, influences the engine speed-torque path to be used, even though it is shown that the time optimal solution is almost fuel optimal. To increase the freedom of the powertrain control, a small energy storage can be added to assist in the transients. This is shown to be especially useful to decrease the response time of the powertrain, but the manner it is used, depends on the time horizon of the optimal control problem.

The resulting optimal control solutions are for certain cases oscillatory when stationary controls would have been expected. This is shown to be neither an artifact of the discretization used nor a result of the modeling assumptions used. Instead it is for the formulated problems actually optimal to use periodic control in certain stationary operating points. Measurements show that the pumping torque is different depending on whether the controls are periodic or constant despite the same average value. Whether this is beneficial or not depends on the operating point and control frequency, but can be predicted using optimal periodic control theory.

In hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) the size of the energy storage reduces the impact of poor transient control, since the battery can compensate for the slower dynamics of the ICE. For HEVs the problem instead is how and when to use the battery to ensure good fuel economy. An adaptive map-based equivalent consumption minimization strategy controller using battery state of charge for feedback control is designed and tested in a real vehicle with good results, even when the controller is started with poor initial values. In a plug-in HEV (PHEV) the battery is even larger, enabling all-electric drive, making it it desirable to use the energy in the battery during the driving mission. A controller is designed and implemented for a PHEV Benchmark and is shown to perform well even for unknown driving cycles, requiring a minimum of future knowledge.

Abstract [sv]

Elektrifiering av drivlinan i fordon är ett sätt att möta kraven på transporter med hög effektivitet och låga utsläpp. Att byta ut förbränningsmotorn mot en elmotor kan ge vinningar avseende effektivitet, prestanda och utsläpp, men till en kostnad av lägre mobilitet på grund av eletriska energilagers relativt låga energitäthet i jämförelse med fossila bränslen. Att istället komplettera förbränningsmotorn med en elmotor erbjuder möjligheten att kombinera de två systemens fördelar och samtidigt undvika nackdelarna.

Att använda mer än en motor i drivlinan ökar komplexiteten eftersom fler frihetsgrader har introducerats. Detta ställer ökade krav på utformningen av reglersystemet för att få ut det mesta av potentialen i drivlinan. I optimal styrning använder man matematiska modeller och optimeringsalgoritmer för att beräkna hur man bäst styr det modellerade systemet. Storleken på det elektriska energilagret påverkar dock valet av optimal styrnings-metod samt vilken detaljnivå på modellerna som behövs. I avhandlingen används optimal styrning i en serie studier av hur man bäst utnyttjar de extra frihetsgraderna som elektrifieringen har introducerat.

I en diesel-elektrisk drivlina finns det ingen mekanisk koppling mellan motorn och hjulen, likt en växellåda i ett vanligt fordon, vilket gör att dieselmotorns varvtal är en frihetsgrad som måste styras. Avsaknaden av elektriskt energilager leder också till att all elektrisk energi till elmotorn måste produceras av förbränningsmotorn exakt då den behövs. Dessa två egenskaper, i kombination med den långsamma dynamiken hos turboaggregatet, ställer detta höga krav på god transientreglering. För att studera optimal styrning krävs bra modeller med goda extrapoleringsegenskaper. Med avseende på detta utvecklas två fysik-baserade modeller som uppfyller dessa krav och dessutom är tillräckligt glatta i det relevanta arbetsområdet för att möjliggöra gradient-baserade optimeringstekniker. Med optimal styrning och en av de utvecklade modellerna visas turbons dynamik ha stor påverkan på hur drivlinan bör styras. Att försumma turbodynamiken kan leda till felaktiga uppskattningar, både av drivlinans responstid, men även hur den bör styras. Kriteriet, det vill säga om bränsle eller tidsåtgången minimeras, påverkar också vilken motorvarvtal-motormoment-väg som är optimal, även om det visas att den tidsoptimala lösningen är nästan bränsleoptimal. För att ytterligare öka frihetsgraden i drivlinan kan ett elektriskt energilager användas för att assistera i transienterna. Detta visar sig vara särskilt användbart för att minska responstiden hos drivlinan, men hur det ska använda beror på tidshorisonten på optimeringsproblemet

De resulterande optimala styrsignalerna är i vissa fall oscillerande där konstanta styrsignaler förväntas. Detta visas vara vare sig en effekt av den använda diskretiseringen eller modelleringsvalen som är gjorda. Istället är det för de lösta problemen faktiskt optimalt att använda periodiska styrsignaler för vissa stationära arbetspunkter. I experiment visas att pumparbetet skiljer sig beroende på om periodiska eller konstanta styrsignaler används, även om medelvärdet är detsamma. Huruvida detta ökar effektiviteten eller inte beror på arbetspunkt och periodtid.

För hybridelektriska fordon (HEV) så minskar batteriets storlek effekten av dålig transientreglering då batteriet kan användas för att kompensera för den långsamma förbränningsmotordynamiken. Istället blir problemet i huvudsak hur mycket och när batteriet ska användas för att få god bränsleekonomi. En adaptiv mapp-baserad ekvivalentförbruknings-minimerande styrlag (ECMS) med återkopplad reglering baserad på batteriets laddningsnivå, utvecklas och testas i riktigt fordon med gott resultat, även vid dålig initialisering av regulatorn.

För plug-in hybrider (PHEV) är batteriet större och kan dessutom laddas från elnätet, vilket medför möjlighet till rent elektrisk drift och att det är önskvärt att använda energin i batteriet under köruppdraget. För att minska energiåtgången är det däremot ofta lönsamt att blanda energin från bränsle och batteriet kontinuerligt under köruppdraget och se till att batteriet töms lagom till slutet av köruppdraget. För att åstadkomma detta måste då även urladdningstakten bestämmas. En regulator utvecklas för att minimera energiåtgången för en PHEV, det vill säga som försöker använda lagom av batteriet så det ska räcka hela vägen, men inte längre. Denna regulator implementeras för ett referensproblem, med gott resultat även för okända körcykler, trots ett minimum av framtidskunskap.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. 284 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1661
Keyword
Optimal Control, Diesel-Electric, Hybrid Electric Vehicles
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117290 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-117290 (DOI)978-91-7519-092-1 (print) (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-06-05, Visionen, Hus B, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-05-20 Created: 2015-04-22 Last updated: 2015-05-20Bibliographically approved
2. Modeling and Optimal Control of Heavy-Duty Powertrains
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and Optimal Control of Heavy-Duty Powertrains
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Heavy duty powertrains are complex systems with components from various domains, different response times during transient operations and different efficient operating ranges. To ensure efficient transient operation of a powertrain, e.g. with low fuel consumption or short transient duration, it is important to come up with proper control strategies. In this dissertation, optimal control theory is used to calculate and analyze efficient heavy duty powertrain controls during transient operations in different applications. This is enabled by first developing control ready models, usable for multi-phase optimal control problem formulations, and then using numerical optimal control methods to calculate the optimal transients.

Optimal control analysis of a wheel loader operating in a repetitive loading cycle is the first studied application. Increasing fuel efficiency or reducing the operation time in such repetitive loading cycles sums up to large savings over longer periods of time. Load lifting and vehicle traction consume almost all of the power produced by a diesel engine during wheel loader operation. Physical models are developed for these subsystems where the dynamics are described by differential equations. The model parameters are tuned and fuel consumption estimation is validated against measured values from real wheel loader operation. The sensitivity of wheel loader trajectory with respect to constrains such as the angle at which the wheel loader reaches the unloading position is also analyzed. A time and fuel optimal trajectory map is calculated for various unloading positions. Moreover, the importance of simultaneous optimization of wheel loader trajectory and the component transients is shown via a side to side comparison between measured fuel consumption and trajectories versus optimal control results.

In another application, optimal control is used to calculate efficient gear shift controls for a heavy duty Automatic Transmission system. A modeling and optimal control framework is developed for a nine speed automatic transmission. Solving optimal control problems using the developed model, time and jerk efficient transient for simultaneous disengagement of off-going and engagement of in-coming shift actuators are obtained and the results are analyzed.

Optimal controls of a diesel-electric powertrain during a gear shift in an Automated Manual Transmission system are calculated and analyzed in another application of optimal control. The powertrain model is extended by including driveline backlash angle as an extra state in the system. This is enabled by implementation of smoothing techniques in order to describe backlash dynamics as a single continuous function during all gear shift phases.

Optimal controls are also calculated for a diesel-electric powertrain corresponding to a hybrid bus during a tip-in maneuver. It is shown that for optimal control analysis of complex powertrain systems, minimizing only one property such as time pushes the system transients into extreme operating conditions far from what is achievable in real applications. Multi-objective optimal control problem formulations are suggested in order to obtain a compromise between various objectives when analyzing such complex powertrain systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. 27 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1771
Keyword
Powertrain, transmission system, optimal control, modeling for control
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128002 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-128002 (DOI)978-91-7685-748-9 (Print) (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-06-17, Visionen, Ingång 27, B huset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-05-30 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2016-05-31Bibliographically approved

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Nezhadali, VaheedSivertsson, MartinEriksson, Lars
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