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Development of body composition and its relationship with physical activity in healthy Swedish children: A longitudinal study until 4.5 years of age including evaluation of methods to assess physical activity and energy intake
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Childhood obesity according to the World Health Organization is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The proportion of childhood obesity is high both globally and in Sweden. This is of great concern since obese children tend to stay obese in adulthood. In order to develop strategies to prevent early childhood obesity more knowledge is needed regarding factors explaining why children become overweight and obese. Preventive strategies require accurate and easy-to-use methods to assess physical activity in response to energy expenditure as well as energy intake in young children, but such methods are largely lacking or have shown limited accuracy. The aims of this thesis were: 1) to describe the longitudinal development of body composition from 1 week to 4.5 years of age; 2) to study relationships between measures of body composition and the physical activity level (PAL) at 1.5 and 3 years of age; 3) to evaluate if heart rate recording and movement registration using Actiheart can capture variations in total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) at 1.5 and 3 years; 4) to evaluate the potential of a 7-day activity diary to assess PAL at 1.5 and 3 years of age; 5) to evaluate a new tool (TECH) using mobile phones for assessing energy intake at 3 years of age.

Healthy children were investigated at 1 and 12 weeks (n=44), at 1.5 (n=44), 3 (n=33) and 4.5 (n=26) years of age. Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography at 1 and 12 weeks and at 4.5 years of age. At 1.5 and 3 years, body composition, TEE, PAL and AEE were assessed using the doubly labelled water method and indirect calorimetry. Heart rate and movements were recorded using Actiheart (four days) and physical activities were registered using the 7-day diary. Energy intake was assessed using TECH during one complete 24-hour period.

Average percentage of total body fat (TBF) and average fat mass index (FMI) were higher (+3 to +81 %), while fat-free mass index (FFMI) was slightly lower (-2 to -9 %), in children in the study from 12 weeks until 4.5 years of age when compared to corresponding reference values. A relationship between TBF% and PAL was found both at 1.5 and 3 years of age. At 3 years, but not at 1.5 years, this could be explained by a relationship between PAL and FFMI. Actiheart recordings explained a significant but small fraction (8%) of the variation in free-living TEE at 1.5 and 3 years, and in AEE (6 %) at 3 years, above that explained by body composition variables. At 1.5 and 3 years of age, PAL estimated by means of the activity diary using metabolic equivalent (MET) values by Ainsworth et al. was not significantly different from reference PAL, but the accuracy for individuals was low. Average energy intake assessed by TECH was not significantly different from TEE. However, the accuracy for individuals was poor.

The results of this thesis suggest that 1) The higher body fatness of the children in the study compared to the corresponding reference values may indicate the presence of a secular trend in body composition development characterized by a high body fatness. 2) Body fatness might counteract physical activity at 1.5 years of age when the capacity to perform physical activity is limited, but not at 3 years of age when such a capacity has been developed. 3) Actiheart recordings explained a significant but small fraction of the variation in TEE at 1.5 and 3 years, and in AEE at 3 years of age, above that explained by body composition variables. 4) The activity diary and TECH produced mean values in agreement with reference PAL and TEE, respectively, but the accuracy for individual children was low.

In conclusion, the results of this thesis suggest the presence of a secular trend in body composition development in healthy Swedish children, from infancy up to 4.5 years of age, which is characterized by a high body fatness. Methods to assess physical activity and energy intake at 1.5 and 3 years of age provided some promising results on a group level, although further research is needed to increase the accuracy of these methods in individual children.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. , 68 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1457
National Category
Clinical Science Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117420DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-117420ISBN: 978-91-7519-093-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-117420DiVA: diva2:808001
Public defence
2015-06-01, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköping, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2015-04-27Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Body-composition development during early childhood and energy expenditure in response to physical activity in 1.5-y-old children
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body-composition development during early childhood and energy expenditure in response to physical activity in 1.5-y-old children
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2012 (English)In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 96, no 3, 567-573 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased recently, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely known. Previous research has shown a correlation between the percentage of total body fat (TBF) and physical activity level (PAL). However, the PAL values used may involve a risk of spurious correlations because they are often based on predicted rather than measured estimates of resting energy metabolism. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanObjectives: We studied the development of body composition during early childhood and the relation between the percentage of TBF and PAL on the basis of the measured resting energy metabolism. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanDesign: Body composition was previously measured in 108 children when they were 1 and 12 wk old. When 44 of these children (21 girls and 23 boys) were 1.5 y old, their total energy expenditure and TBF were assessed by using the doubly labeled water method. Resting energy metabolism, which was assessed by using indirect calorimetry, was used to calculate PAL. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Significant correlations were shown for TBF (r = 0.32, P = 0.035) and fat-free mass (r = 0.34, P = 0.025) between values (kg) assessed at 12 wk and 1.5 y of age. For TBF (kg) a significant interaction (P = 0.035) indicated a possible sex difference. PAL at 1.5 y was negatively correlated with the percentage of TBF (r = -0.40, P = 0.0076) and the increase in the percentage of TBF between 12 wk and 1.5 y (r = 0.38, P = 0.0105). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: The results indicate that body fatness and physical activity interact during early childhood and thereby influence obesity risk. Our results are based on a small sample, but nevertheless, they motivate additional studies in boys compared with girls regarding the development of body composition during early life.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society for Nutrition, 2012
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84341 (URN)10.3945/ajcn.111.022020 (DOI)000307863800016 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council|15402|AFA Insurance||Medical Faculty, Linkoping University||County Council of Ostergotland||Crown Princess Lovisa Foundation||

Available from: 2012-10-05 Created: 2012-10-05 Last updated: 2017-12-07
2. Development of body composition and its relationship with physical activity: A longitudinal study of Swedish children until 4·5 years of age
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of body composition and its relationship with physical activity: A longitudinal study of Swedish children until 4·5 years of age
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2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In order to develop strategies to prevent early childhood obesity more knowledge about longitudinal body composition development is needed. Previous studies have shown that there is a negative relationship between the physical activity level (PAL) and total body fat (TBF) in children. The aims of this study were: 1) To describe the longitudinal development of body composition from 1 week to 4·5 years of age. 2) To study the relationships between measures of body composition and PAL at 3 years of age. 3) To compare the relationships between body composition measures and PAL at 3 years of age to the corresponding relationships at 1·5 years of age. Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography at 1 week, 12 weeks and at 4·5 years of age. At 1·5 and 3 years body composition and PAL were assessed using the doubly labelled water method and indirect calorimetry. The results showed that TBF% and fat mass index (FMI) were higher than corresponding reference values, during infancy and childhood. We found a relationship between TBF% and PAL at 3 years of age but this was explained by a relationship between PAL and fat-free mass index (FFMI). The corresponding relationship at 1·5 years of age could not be explained by a relationship between PAL and FFMI. In conclusion, the children in this study had higher body fatness compared to the corresponding reference values. This may indicate an identification of a secular trend in body composition development which is characterized by a high body fatness. Our findings also suggest that body fatness might counteract physical activity at 1·5 years of age when the capacity to perform physical activity is limited, however this result was not observed at 3 years of age when such a capacity has been developed.

Keyword
Body composition, energy expenditure, physical activity, children, doubly labelled water
National Category
Clinical Science Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117418 (URN)
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2015-04-27Bibliographically approved
3. Evaluation of Actiheart and a 7d activity diary for estimating free-living total and activity energy expenditure using criterion methods in 1 center dot 5- and 3-year-old children
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Actiheart and a 7d activity diary for estimating free-living total and activity energy expenditure using criterion methods in 1 center dot 5- and 3-year-old children
2014 (English)In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 111, no 10, 1830-1840 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accurate and easy-to-use methods to assess free-living energy expenditure in response to physical activity in young children are scarce. In the present study, we evaluated the capacity of (1) 4d recordings obtained using the Actiheart (mean heart rate (mHR) and mean activity counts (mAC)) to provide assessments of total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) and (2) a 7d activity diary to provide assessments of physical activity levels (PAL) using three sets of metabolic equivalent (MET) values (PAL(Torun), PAL(Adolph) and PAL(Ainsworth)) in forty-four and thirty-one healthy Swedish children aged 1 center dot 5 and 3 years, respectively. Reference TEE, PAL(ref) and AEE were measured using criterion methods, i.e. the doubly labelled water method and indirect calorimetry. At 1 center dot 5 years of age, mHR explained 8% (P=0 center dot 006) of the variation in TEE above that explained by fat mass and fat-free mass. At 3 years of age, mHR and mAC explained 8 (P=0 center dot 004) and 6 (P=0 center dot 03)% of the variation in TEE and AEE, respectively, above that explained by fat mass and fat-free mass. At 1 center dot 5 and 3 years of age, average PAL(Ainsworth) values were 1 center dot 44 and 1 center dot 59, respectively, and not significantly different from PAL(ref) values (1 center dot 39 and 1 center dot 61, respectively). By contrast, average PAL(Torun) (1 center dot 5 and 3 years) and PAL(Adolph) (3 years) values were lower (Pless than0 center dot 05) than the corresponding PAL(ref) values. In conclusion, at both ages, Actiheart recordings explained a small but significant fraction of free-living energy expenditure above that explained by body composition variables, and our activity diary produced mean PAL values in agreement with reference values when using MET values published by Ainsworth.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2014
Keyword
Heart rate recording; Activity diary; Doubly labelled water; Accelerometer
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106669 (URN)10.1017/S0007114513004406 (DOI)000334172400012 ()
Available from: 2014-05-21 Created: 2014-05-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05
4. A New Mobile Phone-Based Tool for Assessing Energy and Certain Food Intakes in Young Children: A Validation Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A New Mobile Phone-Based Tool for Assessing Energy and Certain Food Intakes in Young Children: A Validation Study
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2015 (English)In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 3, no 2, e38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Childhood obesity is an increasing health problem globally. Obesity may be established already at pre-school age. Further research in this area requires accurate and easy-to-use methods for assessing the intake of energy and foods. Traditional methods have limited accuracy, and place large demands on the study participants and researchers. Mobile phones offer possibilities for methodological advancements in this area since they are readily available, enable instant digitalization of collected data, and also contain a camera to photograph pre- and post-meal food items. We have recently developed a new tool for assessing energy and food intake in children using mobile phones called the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH). Objective: The main aims of our study are to (1) compare energy intake by means of TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using a criterion method, the doubly labeled water (DLW) method, and (2) to compare intakes of fruits and berries, vegetables, juice, and sweetened beverages assessed by means of TECH with intakes obtained using a Web-based food frequency questionnaire (KidMeal-Q) in 3 year olds. Methods: In this study, 30 Swedish 3 year olds were included. Energy intake using TECH was compared to TEE measured using the DLW method. Intakes of vegetables, fruits and berries, juice, as well as sweetened beverages were assessed using TECH and compared to the corresponding intakes assessed using KidMeal-Q. Wilcoxon matched pairs test, Spearman rank order correlations, and the Bland-Altman procedure were applied. Results: The mean energy intake, assessed by TECH, was 5400 kJ/24h (SD 1500). This value was not significantly different (P=.23) from TEE (5070 kJ/24h, SD 600). However, the limits of agreement (2 standard deviations) in the Bland-Altman plot for energy intake estimated using TECH compared to TEE were wide (2990 kJ/24h), and TECH overestimated high and underestimated low energy intakes. The Bland-Altman plots for foods showed similar patterns. The mean intakes of vegetables, fruits and berries, juice, and sweetened beverages estimated using TECH were not significantly different from the corresponding intakes estimated using KidMeal-Q. Moderate but statistically significant correlations (ρ=.42-.46, P=.01-.02) between TECH and KidMeal-Q were observed for intakes of vegetables, fruits and berries, and juice, but not for sweetened beverages. Conclusion: We found that one day of recordings using TECH was not able to accurately estimate intakes of energy or certain foods in 3 year old children.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
JMIR publications, 2015
Keyword
Cell phone, digital camera, food intake, energy intake, child, DLW, FFQ
National Category
Clinical Science Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117419 (URN)10.2196/mhealth.3670 (DOI)25910494 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved

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