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Resilient gender order in entrepreneurship: the case of Swedish welfare industries
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2015 (English)In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, Vol. 7, no 1, 2-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to use quantitative empirical data to analyse the degree of resilience, as well as change or reproduction of the gender order, in the era of New Public Management. The propositions are constructed based on liberal- and socialist-feminist perspectives, and discussed in light of the empirical results.

Design/methodology/approach

We report from a longitudinal quantitative study of female-dominated welfare industries. Data, available from Statistics Sweden, include the total population of entrepreneurs available on the individual level. However, the level of analysis that was used in the study was in accordance with the industry level. Data were processed from an aggregated level to the most detailed level of classification.

Findings

The findings reveal resilience in the prevailing gender order. The order is being reproduced in the entrepreneurship context, in most of the industries that were studied.

Practical implications

The results may potentially have profound impact on entrepreneurship policy, equality policy and public sector restructuring.

Originality/value

This quantitative longitudinal study shows a complex pattern on the detailed industry level, which can be understood in terms of male gender labelling of entrepreneurship. The results thus support previous qualitative studies that have observed this phenomenon. Methodologically, this paper contributes to the field by showing that without breaking down the analysis into the different female-dominated industries on a five-digit level, the various results of the public sector reforms and the attendant gendered effects would not have been revealed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 7, no 1, 2-26 p.
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117901DOI: 10.1108/IJGE-09-2013-0057OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-117901DiVA: diva2:811872
Available from: 2015-05-13 Created: 2015-05-13 Last updated: 2015-05-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Vad hände?: Kvinnors företagande och de strukturella villkoren – en studie i spåren av den offentliga sektorns omvandling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vad hände?: Kvinnors företagande och de strukturella villkoren – en studie i spåren av den offentliga sektorns omvandling
2015 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
What happened? : Women’s small-business ownership and the structural conditions – a study in the wake of the Public Sector transformation
Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingen tar sin empiriska utgångspunkt i konkurrensutsättningen av den offentliga sektorns verksamheter. Förväntningarna har varit stora från politiker, tjänstemän och vissa forskare att denna omvandling skulle leda till ökat företagande, framförallt bland kvinnor. Syftet med avhandlingen är att förstå och förklara hur och varför kvinnors företagande förändras i spåren av den offentliga sektorns omvandling – vad begränsar och möjliggör. Avhandlingen innehåller fyra sammanhängande artiklar och en kappa. Studierna genomfördes med kvantitativa longitudinella data över åren 1993–2010.

I artiklarna eftersöks vad som begränsar och möjliggör en förändring av kvinnors företagande. Det sker via studier i näringsgrenar och regioner där kvinnor dominerar småföretagandet som mest. Det visar sig att på aggregerad nivå har kvinnors företagande ökat i antal. En analys på detaljerad näringsgrensnivå synliggör dock att kvinnors andel bland företagarna endast ökat i 6 av 16 näringsgrenar och att kvinnors underrepresentation ökat signifikant i 10. Analysen påvisar kontextens och strukturella villkors betydelse för kvinnors företagande. Småföretagares relativa position förändras gynnsamt där det redan finns små privata företag och på de nya offentliga marknaderna reproduceras en stordriftsnorm. Studien stärker teorin om ett genussystem och synliggör dess inbäddning i företagandet. Det övergripande resultatet är att trots förändrade formella strukturer återskapas kvinnors underrepresentation i företagandet, vilket förstås med utgångspunkt i genusteoretiska resonemang.

Abstract [en]

The dissertation takes its empirical backdrop in the competition of the Public Sector activities. There have been great expectations on the part of politicians and some researchers that this restructuring would enhance small-business ownership, and, specifically, women’s small-business ownership. The aim of the quantitative longitudinal study is to understand and explain how and why women’s smallbusiness ownership has changed in the wake of the Public Sector’s transformation, and what constrains and enables this. The dissertation comprises an introductory summary chapter based on four independent papers.

The articles search for what constrains and enables the change in women’s smallbusiness ownership through studies in industries, regions and where women dominate small-businesses the most. The study shows that the underrepresentation of women as small-business owners has decreased in 10 out of 16 industries. The analysis shows the importance of taking contextual and structural conditions into account when studying women’s small-business ownership. The small-business owners’ relative position changes positively where a private smallbusiness market already exists. The results indicate a norm of scale production in the new Public markets. The studies reinforce the theory that a gender system is reproduced in the small-business context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. 122 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 647
Keyword
Gender theory, small-business ownership, women entrepreneurship, public sector, Sweden, Genusteori, småföretagande, kvinnors företagande, offentlig sektor, Sverige
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117909 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-117909 (DOI)978-91-7519-056-3 (print) (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-05-22, ACAS, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-05-13 Created: 2015-05-13 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved

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