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Childcare entrepreneurship in Women’s ’own rooms’
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this article we analyze how women’s entrepreneurship is affected when a mainly femaledominated industry in the Public Sector is subject to competition. We study the childcare industry in Sweden, where women constitute 90 per cent of the workforce and where a process of competition was initiated in the early 1990s.

From a gender perspective, we investigate whether a male norm of entrepreneurship is also valid within a mainly female-dominated context, or whether the childcare business in Sweden can be conceptualized as “women’s own rooms”, where the preconditions are more promising for women than for men.

Using longitudinal data on all employees and self-employed individuals in the childcare industry in Sweden, we analyze men’s and women’s entrepreneurship in Sweden over the period 1993-2010. Data shows that men run larger and more profitable businesses compared to women, although women business owners have much greater work experience from the industry.

Survival analysis shows that men’s propensity for entry into business ownership in the childcare business is higher than women’s, and that the presence of children in the household increases the propensity for entry of women, but not of men. Regarding exit from business ownership, survival analysis shows that there is no significant difference between men and women, when taking account of firm-specific factors. High exit rates among men are explained by the larger scope of their businesses.

Our conclusion is that a male norm of entrepreneurship features even within the childcare industry. A pattern of “childcare businessmen” on the one hand, and “self-employed childcare worker women” on the other, emerges from our analysis. Hence, the gender system is also reproduced in the context of competition of a mainly female-dominated industry in Sweden.

National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117907OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-117907DiVA: diva2:811877
Available from: 2015-05-13 Created: 2015-05-13 Last updated: 2015-05-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Vad hände?: Kvinnors företagande och de strukturella villkoren – en studie i spåren av den offentliga sektorns omvandling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vad hände?: Kvinnors företagande och de strukturella villkoren – en studie i spåren av den offentliga sektorns omvandling
2015 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
What happened? : Women’s small-business ownership and the structural conditions – a study in the wake of the Public Sector transformation
Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingen tar sin empiriska utgångspunkt i konkurrensutsättningen av den offentliga sektorns verksamheter. Förväntningarna har varit stora från politiker, tjänstemän och vissa forskare att denna omvandling skulle leda till ökat företagande, framförallt bland kvinnor. Syftet med avhandlingen är att förstå och förklara hur och varför kvinnors företagande förändras i spåren av den offentliga sektorns omvandling – vad begränsar och möjliggör. Avhandlingen innehåller fyra sammanhängande artiklar och en kappa. Studierna genomfördes med kvantitativa longitudinella data över åren 1993–2010.

I artiklarna eftersöks vad som begränsar och möjliggör en förändring av kvinnors företagande. Det sker via studier i näringsgrenar och regioner där kvinnor dominerar småföretagandet som mest. Det visar sig att på aggregerad nivå har kvinnors företagande ökat i antal. En analys på detaljerad näringsgrensnivå synliggör dock att kvinnors andel bland företagarna endast ökat i 6 av 16 näringsgrenar och att kvinnors underrepresentation ökat signifikant i 10. Analysen påvisar kontextens och strukturella villkors betydelse för kvinnors företagande. Småföretagares relativa position förändras gynnsamt där det redan finns små privata företag och på de nya offentliga marknaderna reproduceras en stordriftsnorm. Studien stärker teorin om ett genussystem och synliggör dess inbäddning i företagandet. Det övergripande resultatet är att trots förändrade formella strukturer återskapas kvinnors underrepresentation i företagandet, vilket förstås med utgångspunkt i genusteoretiska resonemang.

Abstract [en]

The dissertation takes its empirical backdrop in the competition of the Public Sector activities. There have been great expectations on the part of politicians and some researchers that this restructuring would enhance small-business ownership, and, specifically, women’s small-business ownership. The aim of the quantitative longitudinal study is to understand and explain how and why women’s smallbusiness ownership has changed in the wake of the Public Sector’s transformation, and what constrains and enables this. The dissertation comprises an introductory summary chapter based on four independent papers.

The articles search for what constrains and enables the change in women’s smallbusiness ownership through studies in industries, regions and where women dominate small-businesses the most. The study shows that the underrepresentation of women as small-business owners has decreased in 10 out of 16 industries. The analysis shows the importance of taking contextual and structural conditions into account when studying women’s small-business ownership. The small-business owners’ relative position changes positively where a private smallbusiness market already exists. The results indicate a norm of scale production in the new Public markets. The studies reinforce the theory that a gender system is reproduced in the small-business context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. 122 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 647
Keyword
Gender theory, small-business ownership, women entrepreneurship, public sector, Sweden, Genusteori, småföretagande, kvinnors företagande, offentlig sektor, Sverige
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117909 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-117909 (DOI)978-91-7519-056-3 (print) (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-05-22, ACAS, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-05-13 Created: 2015-05-13 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved

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