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Synthesis and characterization of magnetic (Cr0.5Mn0.5)2GaC thin films
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 50, no 13, 4495-4502 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Growth of (Cr0.5Mn0.5)2GaC thin films from C, Ga, and compound Cr0.5Mn0.5 targets is reported for depositions on MgO (111), 4H-SiC (0001), and Al2O3 (0001) with and without a NbN (111) seed layer. Structural quality is found to be highly dependent on the choice of substrate with MgO (111) giving the best results as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Phase pure, high crystal quality MAX phase thin films are realized, with a Cr:Mn ratio of 1:1. Vibrating sample magnetometry shows a ferromagnetic component from 30 K up to 300 K, with a measured net magnetic moment of 0.67 μB per metal (Cr + Mn) atom at 30 K and 5 T. The temperature dependence of the magnetic response suggests competing magnetic interactions with a resulting non-collinear magnetic ordering.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015. Vol. 50, no 13, 4495-4502 p.
Keyword [en]
magnetism, thin films, magnetron sputtering, MAX phase
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118837DOI: 10.1007/s10853-015-8999-8ISI: 000354093500005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-118837DiVA: diva2:818175
Note

At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

Funding Agencies|European Research Council under the European Community [258509]; Swedish Research Council (VR) [642-2013-8020, 621-2012-4425]; KAW Fellowship program; SSF synergy grant FUNCASE; Icelandic University Research fund

Available from: 2015-06-08 Created: 2015-06-04 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Synthesis and characterization of Ga-containing MAX phase thin films
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis and characterization of Ga-containing MAX phase thin films
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The study of magnetic Mn+1AXn (MAX) phases (n = 1 − 3, M – a transition metal, A – an A group element, X – C or N) is a recently established research area, fuelled by theoretical predictions and first confirmed experimentally through alloying of Mn into the well-known Cr2AlC and Cr2GeC. Theoretical phase stability investigations suggested a new magnetic MAX phase, Mn2GaC, containing Ga which is liquid close to room temperature. Hence, alternative routes for MAX phase synthesis were needed, motivating a further development of magnetron sputtering from liquid targets.

In this thesis, (Cr1-xMnx)2GaC 0 ≤ x ≤ 1  MAX phase thin films have been synthesized from elemental and/or compound targets, using ultra high vacuum magnetron sputtering. Initial thin film synthesis of Cr2GaC was performed using elemental targets, including liquid Ga. Process optimization ensured optimal target size and crucible geometry for containing the Ga. Films were deposited at 650 °C on MgO(111) substrates. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy confirms the growth of epitaxial Cr2GaC MAX phase with minor inclusions of Cr3Ga.

To explore the magnetic characteristics upon Mn alloying, synthesis of (Cr0.5Mn0.5)2GaC thin films was performed from elemental Ga and C and a composite Cr/Mn target of 1:1 composition. Films were deposited on MgO(111), Al2O3(0001) (with or without NbN seed layer), and 4° off-cut 4H-SiC(0001) substrates. The films are smooth and of high structural quality as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The film composition measured by high resolution energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirms a composition corresponding to (Cr0.5Mn0.5)2GaC. The magnetic response, as measured with vibrating sample magnetometry, displays a ferromagnetic component, however, the temperature dependence of the magnetic moments and saturation fields suggests competing magnetic interaction and possible non-collinear magnetic ordering.

Finally, inspired by theoretical predictions, a new member of the MAX phase family, Mn2GaC, was synthesized. This is the first MAX phase containing Mn as a sole M element. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy confirms the characteristic MAX phase structure with a 2:1:1 composition. Theoretical work suggests that the magnetic ground state is almost degenerate between ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic. Vibrating sample magnetometry shows ferromagnetic response with a transition temperature Tc of 230 K. However, also for this phase, complex magnetism is suggested. Altogether, the results indicate a new family of magnetic nanolaminates with a rich variation of magnetic ground states.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014. 29 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1680
National Category
Physical Sciences Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110764 (URN)10.3384/lic.diva-110764 (DOI)978-91-7519-224-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2014-10-23, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
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Available from: 2014-09-22 Created: 2014-09-22 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved

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Petruhins, AndrejsIngason, Arni SigurdurLu, JunRosén, Johanna

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