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Modeling of scatter radiation during interventional X-ray procedures
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
2015 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

During catheterized x-ray interventions the patient and medical staff is exposed to scatter radiation, as a consequence of tissue interactions. Ionizing radiation for medical purpose is potentially dangerous and can cause malignancy, skin damage and more. Studies have suggested an increase in the prevalence of eye lens cataract, thyroid cancer and left sided brain tumors in doctors. Therefore, it is mandatory to reduce the radiation dose in medicine, a principle known as ALARA (as low as Reasonably Achievable). Lead aprons, collars and shieldings are safety precautions to protect the team in the operating room. The x-ray equipment and surgical techniques are constantly evolving and the interventions become more complex which may increase the x-ray dose. Although x-ray imaging is required in interventional procedures endeavors of reducing radiation exposure to staff is of high interest. There is a need to increase the awareness about scatter radiation and radiation protection efforts are gaining momentum. Initiative to train a dose reducing behavior by education and awareness are key documents within the European Union’s guidelines on Radiation protection.

The aims of this thesis were to create a 3D model for representation of real-time exposure and accumulated scatter radiation to staff performing interventional x-ray procedures and identify parameters that affect the scatter radiation.

Extensive measurements were made with real time dosimeters while irradiating an anthropomorphic phantom. For five lateral C-arm projections, 68 - 80 data points each were used to measure scatter dose distribution around the patient. In the typical operator position, the effect of craniocaudal projection angle, patient size, field size, image detector height and pulse rate on scatter radiation dose was also investigated.

It was possible to create a 3D model from interpolated measurement data that can generate dose rate with promising results. Six out of eight modelled doses deviated +/- 26.6 % from the validation cases. A model that delivers relative dose is an intuitive approach in education for interventional x-ray radiation safety. The staff position in relation to the x-ray source and the patient size have a significant correlation to the dose rate. Additional measurements are needed to ensure the reliability of the model. This work completes the effect of scatter radiation distribution around the patient table, which is not yet evaluated as thoroughly by other authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. , 38 p.
Keyword [en]
medical staff, personnel, practitioner, staff exposure, physician, operator, occupational exposure, radiation protection, protection in medical x-ray imaging, x-ray exposure, radiation dose, radiation scatter, fluoroscopy, interventional x-ray procedures, interventional radiology, angiography, fluoroscopically guided procedures, interventional radiology dosimetry, interventional cardiology dosimetry, catheterization interventions
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies Biophysics Other Medical Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119694OAI: diva2:826933
Subject / course
Radiological Sciences
2015-06-15, Läderbaggen,, ingång 34, plan 08, Universitetssjukhuset, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Available from: 2015-06-26 Created: 2015-06-24 Last updated: 2015-06-26Bibliographically approved

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Rehn, Emelie
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