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Relaxation and guided imagery do not reduce stress, pain and unpleasantness for 11-to 12-year-old girls during vaccinations
University of Boras, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
Dalarna University, Sweden.
University of West, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3256-5407
2015 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 104, no 7, 724-729 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AimRelaxation and guided imagery is a distraction technique known to reduce discomfort during paediatric medical procedures. We examined whether its use decreased the stress experienced by 11- to 12-year-old girls receiving the human papilloma virus vaccination, as well as the intensity and unpleasantness of any pain. MethodsA randomised crossover trial was conducted with 37 girls. During the first vaccination, each girl was randomised to receive either relaxation and guided imagery or standard care. They then received the other form of care during the second vaccination. Salivary cortisol was measured before each vaccination, and 30minutes after it was administered. The girls reported pain intensity and pain unpleasantness before and directly after each vaccination and stress after each vaccination. ResultsOn a group level, relaxation and guided imagery did not decrease cortisol levels, self-reported stress, pain intensity and pain unpleasantness. Salivary cortisol levels decreased significantly in both groups during the second vaccination. ConclusionRelaxation and guided imagery did not prove beneficial during the vaccination of 11- to 12-year-old girls and is not recommended as a regular nursing intervention. However, further research is needed into effective techniques to help children who experience pain unpleasantness in connection with needle procedures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley , 2015. Vol. 104, no 7, 724-729 p.
Keyword [en]
Child; Cortisol; Immunisation; Nonpharmacological; Pain
National Category
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120135DOI: 10.1111/apa.13000ISI: 000356456300023PubMedID: 25762426OAI: diva2:841646

Funding Agencies|Ebba Danelius Foundation; Swedish Association of Paediatric Nurses; Gertrud Ostlinder Foundation; Jerring Foundation

Available from: 2015-07-14 Created: 2015-07-13 Last updated: 2016-05-04

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Mörelius, Evalotte
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Division of Health, Activity and CareFaculty of Medicine and Health SciencesDepartment of Paediatrics in Linköping
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