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Slide navigation patterns among pathologists with long experience of digital review
Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). t2i Interaction Laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology.
t2i Interaction Laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology.
Medical Radiation Sciences, University of Sydney.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9368-0177
2015 (English)In: Histopathology, ISSN 0309-0167, E-ISSN 1365-2559, Vol. 67, no 2, 185-192 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]


In order to develop efficient digital pathology workstations, we studied the navigation patterns of pathologists diagnosing whole-slide images. To gain a better understanding of these patterns, we built a conceptual model based on observations. We also determined whether or not new navigation patterns have emerged among pathologists with extensive digital experience.

Methods and results

Five pathologists were asked to diagnose a set of four cases while thinking out loud. The navigation within the digital slides was recorded and divided into re-occurring navigation actions. The pathologists reused the same type of actions, but their occurrence differed. The most common action was a slow panning that followed an edge structure or covered an area systematically, which accounted for 30.2% of all actions and had a median duration of 7.2 s. Of all the actions, 49% were carried out within the navigation overview and 38% of the actions could not have been performed with a conventional microscope.


The new navigation possibilities in the digital workstation were used to a large extent. The division of actions into different concepts can be used to find and prioritize between existing user interface designs as well as to understand the different navigation styles used by different pathologists.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2015. Vol. 67, no 2, 185-192 p.
Keyword [en]
classification of movement;digital pathology;multiscale navigation;useability
National Category
Other Medical Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120485DOI: 10.1111/his.12629ISI: 000358000900005PubMedID: 25487230OAI: diva2:845270
VINNOVA, 2012-01121Swedish Research Council, 2011-4138
Available from: 2015-08-11 Created: 2015-08-11 Last updated: 2016-01-07

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Lundström, Claes
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