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System studies of the use of industrial excess heat
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy, materials, and by-products, can be exchanged between companies, having positive effects in the form of improved resource efficiency, environmental benefits, and economic gains. One such energy stream that can be exchanged is excess heat, that is, heat generated as a by-product during, for example, industrial production. Excess heat will continue to play an important role in efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improve energy efficiency. Using excess heat is therefore currently emphasized in EU policy as a way to reach EU climate targets.

This thesis examines the opportunities of manufacturing industries to use industrial excess heat, and how doing so can positively affect industry, society, and the climate. Since different parts of the energy system are entangled, there is an inherent complexity in studying these systems and introducing excess heat in one part of the energy system may influence other parts of the system. This analysis has accordingly been conducted by combining studies from various perspectives, by applying both quantitative and qualitative methods and covering a broad range of aspects, such as technical possibilities as well as climate, policy, economics, and resource aspects.

The results identify several opportunities and benefits accruing from excess heat use. Although excess heat is currently partly used as a thermal resource in district heating in Sweden, this thesis demonstrates that significant untapped excess heat is still available. The mapping conducted in the appended studies identifies excess heat in different energy carriers, mainly low-temperature water. Analysis of excess heat use in different recovery options demonstrated greater output when using excess heat in district heating than electricity production. Optimizing the trade-offs in excess heat used in a district heating network, heat-driven cooling, and electricity production under different energy market conditions while minimizing the system cost, however, indicated that the attractiveness of excess heat in district heating depends on the type of heat production in the system. Viewing excess heat as a low-cost energy source also makes it economically interesting, and creates opportunities to invest in excess heat-recovery solutions. Excess heat is often viewed as CO2 neutral since unused excess heat may be regarded as wasted energy. The GHG mitigation potential of using excess heat, however, was found to be ambiguous. The appended studies demonstrate that using excess heat for electricity production or for applications that reduce the use of electricity reduces GHG emissions. The effects of using excess heat in district heating, on the other hand, depend on the energy market development, for example, the marginal electricity production and marginal use of biomass, and on the type of district heating system replaced. The interviews performed reveal that energy policy does influence excess heat use, being demonstrated both to promote and discourage excess heat use. Beyond national energy policies, internal goals and core values were identified as important for improved energy efficiency and increased excess heat use.

Abstract [sv]

Energi, material och biprodukter kan utbytas mellan företag och därmed leda till positiva effekter i form av förbättrad resurseffektivitet, miljövinster och ekonomiska vinster. Ett sådant energiflöde som kan nyttjas är överskottsvärme, det vill säga, värme som genereras som en biprodukt vid till exempel industriell produktion. Överskottsvärme kommer att fortsätta att spela en viktig roll i arbetet med att minska utsläppen av växthusgaser och öka energieffektiviteten och lyfts därför fram i EU policy som ett sätt att nå klimatmålen.

Denna avhandling undersöker möjligheterna för den tillverkande industrin att använda industriell överskottsvärme och hur detta kan medföra positiva bidrag till industrin, samhället och klimatet. Eftersom olika delar av energisystemet påverkar varandra så finns en inneboende komplexitet i att studera dessa system. Användningen av överskottsvärme i en del av energisystemet kan alltså påverka andra delar av systemet. Denna analys har därför gjorts genom att kombinera studier från olika perspektiv, genom användning av både kvantitativa och kvalitativa metoder och genom att täcka in ett brett spektrum av aspekter såsom tekniska möjligheter, och klimat-, policy-, ekonomiska- och resursaspekter.

Resultaten visar flera möjligheter med, och fördelar som kommer från, användning av överskottsvärme. Även om överskottsvärme redan idag delvis används som värmekälla i fjärrvärme så visar denna avhandling att tillgången på outnyttjad överskottsvärme fortfarande är betydande. Kartläggningen som genomfördes identifierar överskottsvärme i olika energibärare, i huvudsak i vatten med låg temperatur. Användningen av överskottsvärme analyserades för olika användningsalternativ och visade på en större output vid användning i fjärrvärmesystemet än när den användes för elproduktion. När fördelningen av användning av överskottsvärme mellan utnyttjande i fjärrvärmesystemet, för produktion av kyla eller el optimerades under olika energimarknadsvillkor, med syfte att minimera systemkostnaden, visade det sig dock att effekterna från användning av överskottsvärme i fjärrvärme beror på typen av befintlig värmeproduktion i systemet. Om man ser på överskottsvärme som en billig energikälla skapas en ekonomisk möjlighet att investera i olika lösningar för överskottsvärmeanvändning. Överskottsvärme ses ofta som CO2 neutral eftersom outnyttjad överskottsvärme kan ses som bortkastad energi. Möjligheten för minskning av växthusgaser vid användning av överskottsvärme visade sig dock vara tvetydig. Avhandlingens studier visar att användning av överskottsvärme för elproduktion och för tillämpningar som minskar elanvändningen minskar utsläppen av växthusgaser. Effekterna från överskottsvärme i fjärrvärme beror däremot på energimarknadens utveckling, såsom framtida elproduktion och alternativanvändning av biomassa, och på vilken typ av fjärrvärmeproduktion som ersätts. Intervjuerna som utförts visar att styrmedel påverkar överskottsvärmeanvändningen. Styrmedel visade sig både främja och missgynna användningen av överskottsvärme. Utöver nationella styrmedel så lyftes även interna företagsmål och kärnvärden fram som viktiga för ökad energieffektivitet och ökad användning av överskottsvärme.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings Universitet , 2015. , 93 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1679
Keyword [en]
excess heat, waste heat, surplus heat, energy systems, greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency, energy policy, system studies
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120500DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-120500ISBN: 978-91-7519-042-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-120500DiVA: diva2:845680
Public defence
2015-09-25, ACAS, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2015-09-01 Created: 2015-08-11 Last updated: 2015-09-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction
2014 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 77, 369-379 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, whichwould create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the useof primary energy and to contribute to global CO2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present differentmeasures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the developmentof the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the mostto global CO2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of theexcess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gävleborg County in Sweden.Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system andheat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO2 emissions,six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrialexcess heat in Gävleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recoverymeasures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be suppliedfrom this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO2 emissions in all of the analyzedscenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production frombiomass would result in increased global CO2 emissions when the CO2 emission charge is low.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keyword
Industrial excess heat; Heat recovery; Electricity generation; District heating; CO2 emission; Energy market scenario
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102611 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2013.09.052 (DOI)000330494600041 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2013-12-17 Created: 2013-12-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
2. Industrial excess heat use: Systems analysis and CO2 emissions reduction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial excess heat use: Systems analysis and CO2 emissions reduction
2015 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 152, 189-197 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The adopted energy efficiency directive stresses the use of excess heat as a way to reach the EU target of primary energy use. Use of industrial excess heat may result in decreased energy demand, CO2 emissions reduction, and economic gains. In this study, an energy systems analysis is performed with the aim of investigating how excess heat should be used, and the impact on CO2 emissions. The manner in which the heat is recovered will affect the system. The influence of excess heat recovery and the trade-off between heat recovery for heating or cooling applications and electricity production has been investigated using the energy systems modeling tool reMIND. The model has been optimized by minimizing the system cost. The results show that it is favorable to recover the available excess heat in all the investigated energy market scenarios, and that heat driven electricity production is not a part of the optimal solution. The trade-off between use of recovered excess heat in the heating or cooling system depends on the energy market prices and the type of heat production. The introduction of excess heat reduces the CO2 emissions in the system for all the studied energy market scenarios. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keyword
Excess heat; Waste heat; Energy systems modeling; CO2 emission reduction; Heat recovery
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120206 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.12.023 (DOI)000356745200019 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2015-07-21 Created: 2015-07-20 Last updated: 2017-12-04
3. Biogas production supported by excess heat - A systems analysis within the food industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogas production supported by excess heat - A systems analysis within the food industry
2015 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 91, 249-258 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper was to study the effects on greenhouse gases and economics when a change is made in the use of industrial organic waste from external production and use of biogas (A) to internal production and use (B). The two different system solutions are studied through a systems analysis based on an industrial case. The baseline system (A) and a modified system (B) were compared and analysed. Studies show that industrial processes considered as integrated systems, including the exchange of resources between industries, can result in competitive advantages. This study focuses on the integration of internally produced biogas from food industry waste produced by a food company and the use of excess heat. Two alternative scenarios were studied: (1) the use of available excess heat to heat the biogas digester and (2) the use of a part of the biogas produced to heat the biogas digester. This study showed that the system solution, whereby excess heat rather than biogas is used to heat the biogas digester, was both environmentally and economically advantageous. However, the valuation of biomass affects the magnitude of the emissions reduction. Implementing this synergistic concept will contribute to the reaching of European Union climate targets. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keyword
Systems analysis; Biogas production; Industrial excess heat; Climate impact; Investment opportunity; Synergies
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114983 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2014.12.017 (DOI)000348887000025 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency; Linkoping University

Available from: 2015-03-10 Created: 2015-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-04
4. Algae-based biofuel production as part of an industrial cluster
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Algae-based biofuel production as part of an industrial cluster
Show others...
2014 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 71, 113-124 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a study on the production of biofuels from algae cultivated in municipal wastewater in Gothenburg, Sweden. A possible biorefinery concept is studied based on two cases; Case A) combined biodiesel and biogas production, and Case B) only biogas production. The cases are compared in terms of product outputs and impact on global CO2 emissions mitigation. The area efficiency of the algae-based biofuels is also compared with other biofuel production routes. The study investigates the collaboration between an algae cultivation, biofuel production processes, a wastewater treatment plant and an industrial cluster for the purpose of utilizing material flows and industrial excess heat between the actors. This collaboration provides the opportunity to reduce the CO2 emissions from the process compared to a stand-alone operation. The results show that Case A is advantageous to Case B with respect to all studied factors. It is found that the algae-based biofuel production routes investigated in this study has higher area efficiency than other biofuel production routes. The amount of algae-based biofuel possible to produce corresponds to 31 MWfuel for Case A and 26 MWfuel in Case B.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keyword
Algae; Biofuel; Biogas; Biodiesel; Biorefinery; Industrial excess heat
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113047 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2014.10.019 (DOI)000345349500011 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Energy Systems Programme - Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2015-01-09 Created: 2015-01-08 Last updated: 2017-12-05
5. Industrial excess heat deliveries to Swedish district heating networks: drop it like it's hot
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial excess heat deliveries to Swedish district heating networks: drop it like it's hot
2012 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 51, 332-339 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using industrial excess heat in District Heating (DH) networks reduces the need for primary energy and is considered efficient resource use. The conditions of Swedish DH markets are under political discussion in the Third Party Access (TPA) proposal, which would facilitate the delivery of firms' industrial excess heat to DH networks. This paper estimates and discusses the untapped potential for excess heat deliveries to DH networks and considers whether the realization of this potential would be affected by altered DH market conditions. The results identify untapped potential for industrial excess heat deliveries, and calculations based on estimated investment costs and revenues indicate that realizing the TPA proposal could enable profitable excess heat investments.

Keyword
Excess heat; District heating; Third party access (TPA)
National Category
Chemical Engineering Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86547 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2012.08.031 (DOI)000312620000035 ()
Available from: 2012-12-18 Created: 2012-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06
6. Effect of the use of industrial excess heat in district heating on greenhouse gas emissions: A systems perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of the use of industrial excess heat in district heating on greenhouse gas emissions: A systems perspective
2015 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 100, 81-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

European policy promotes increased use of excess heat as a means to increase the efficiency of resourceuse. By studying possible effects on greenhouse gases, this article aims to analyze and discuss systemaspects of the use of industrial excess heat in district heating. Effects on greenhouse gas emissions arestudied by applying different energy market conditions with different system boundaries in time andspace. First, life cycle assessment is used to assess the introduction of excess heat in district heating in acontemporary system with different geographical system boundaries. Thereafter, future energy marketscenarios for Europe are investigated to explore possible future outcomes. This study concludes that boththe heat production system and the energy market conditions affect the system emission effects of usingexcess heat in district heating. Industrial excess heat in district heating can be beneficial even if it leadsto reduced local electricity production when unused biomass can be used to replace fossil fuels. It isrecommended that a strengthened EU policy should encourage the use of biomass where it has the mostfavorable effects from a systems perspective to ensure emission reductions when industrial excess heatis used in district heating.

Keyword
Industrial excess heat, industrial waste heat, district heating, ENPAC, LCA, emission mitigation
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118080 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.04.010 (DOI)000356750300009 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2015-05-21 Created: 2015-05-21 Last updated: 2017-12-04
7. Energy efficiency through industrial excess heat recovery-policy impacts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy efficiency through industrial excess heat recovery-policy impacts
2015 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 8, no 1, 19-35 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The EU target on energy efficiency implies a 20 % reduction in the use of primary energy by implementation of energy efficiency measures. Not all potential cost-effective measures for improved energy efficiency are implemented. This energy efficiency gap is explained by market barriers. Policy instruments can be used to overcome these barriers. The target could, for example, be obtained through industrial excess heat recovery; but there is a knowledge gap on factors affecting excess heat utilization. In this study, interviews were carried out with energy managers in order to study excess heat utilization from industrys perspective. The study seeks to present how excess heat recovery can be promoted or discouraged through policy instruments, and several factors are raised in the paper. The interviews revealed that excess heat recovery is generally referred to in terms of heat deliveries to the district heating network. One may need to look for innovative recovery solutions, and policies are needed to bring these solutions into action. Due to inefficient conversion for heat-driven electricity generation, a system favoring this implementation could favor an inefficient system. Beyond external instruments, internal goals, visions, and the importance of energy as a priority were shown to be important in the work with improved energy management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag (Germany), 2015
Keyword
Industrial excess heat; Industrial waste heat; Energy efficiency; Energy policy; Heat recovery; Interviews
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114229 (URN)10.1007/s12053-014-9277-3 (DOI)000347554100002 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Energy Systems Programme - Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2015-02-16 Created: 2015-02-16 Last updated: 2017-12-04

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