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Structural Analysis of Micro-channels in Human Temporal Bone
Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark.
Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark / Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Denmark.
Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9091-4724
2015 (English)In: IEEE 12th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI), 2015 IEEE 12th International Symposium on, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, 9-12 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recently, numerous micro-channels have been discovered in the human temporal bone by micro-CT-scanning. Preliminary structure of these channels has suggested they contain a new separate blood supply for the mucosa of the mastoid air cells, which may have important functional implications. This paper proposes a structural analysis of the microchannels to corroborate this role. A local structure tensor is first estimated. The eigenvalues obtained from the estimated local structure tensor were then used to build probability maps representing planar, tubular, and isotropic tensor types. Each tensor type was assigned a respective RGB color and the full structure tensor was rendered along with the original data. Such structural analysis provides new and relevant information about the micro-channels but also their connections to mastoid air cells. Before carrying a future statistical analysis, a more accurate representation of the micro-channels in terms of local structure tensor analysis using adaptive filtering is needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015. 9-12 p.
Series
IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, ISSN 1945-7928
Keyword [en]
Human temporal bone, mastoid, microchannels, quadrature filters, structure tensor, visualization
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122177DOI: 10.1109/ISBI.2015.7163804ISI: 000380546000003ISBN: 978-1-4799-2374-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-122177DiVA: diva2:862694
Conference
IEEE 12th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI), 2015 IEEE 12th International Symposium on, 16-19 April, New York, USA
Available from: 2015-10-23 Created: 2015-10-23 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Image Analysis and Visualization of the Human Mastoid Air Cell System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Image Analysis and Visualization of the Human Mastoid Air Cell System
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

From an engineering background, it is often believed that the human anatomy has already been fully described. Radiology has greatly contributed to understand the inside of the human body without surgical intervention. Despite great advances in clinical CT scanning, image quality is still related to a limited amount X-ray exposure for the patient safety. This limitation prevents fine anatomical structures to be visible and, more importantly, to be detected. Where such modality is of great advantage for screening patients, extracting parameters like surface area and volume implies the bone structure to be large enough in relation to the scan resolution.

The mastoid, located in the temporal bone, houses an air cell system whose cells have a variation in size that can go far below current conventional clinical CT scanner resolution. Therefore, the mastoid air cell system is only partially represented on a CT scan. Any statistical analysis will be biased towards air cells of smaller size. To allow a complete representation of the mastoid air cell system, a micro-CT scanner is more adequate. Micro-CT scanning uses approximately the same amount of X-rays but for a much longer exposure time compared to what is normally allowed for patients. Human temporal bone specimens are therefore necessary when using such scanning method. Where the conventional clinical CT scanner lacks level of minutes details, micro-CT scanning provides an overwhelming amount of fine details.

Prior to any image analysis of medical data, visualization of the data is often needed to learn how to extract the structures of interest for further processing. Visualization of micro-CT scans is of no exception. Due to the high resolution nature of the data, visualization of such data not only requires modern and powerful computers, but also necessitates a tremendous amount of time to adjust the hiding of irrelevant structures, to find the correct orientation, while emphasising the structure of interest. Once the quality of the data has been assessed, and a strategy for the image processing has been decided, the image processing can start, to in turn extract metrics such as the surface area or volume and draw statistics from it. The temporal bone being one of the most complex in the human body, visualization of micro-CT scanning of this bone awakens the curiosity of the experimenter, especially with the correct visualization settings.

This thesis first presents a statistical analysis determining the surface area to volume ratio of the mastoid air cell system of human temporal bone, from micro-CT scanning using methods previously applied for conventional clinical CT scannings. The study compared current resul s with previous studies, with successive downsampling the data down to a resolution found in conventional clinical CT scanning. The results from the statistical analysis showed that all the small mastoid air cells, that cannot be detected in conventional clinical CT scans, do heavily contribute to the estimation of the surface area, and in consequence to the estimation of the surface area to volume ratio by a factor of about 2.6. Such a result further strengthens the idea of the mastoid to play an active role in pressure regulation and gas exchange.

Discovery of micro-channels through specific use of a non-traditional transfer function was then reported, where a qualitative and a quantitative preanalysis was performed are described. To gain more knowledge about these micro-channels, a local structure tensor analysis was applied where structures are described in terms of planar, tubular, or isotropic structures. The results from this structural tensor analysis, also reported in this thesis, suggest these micro-channels to potentially be part of a more complex framework, which hypothetically would provide a separate blood supply for the mucosa lining the mastoid air cell system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. 100 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1730
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122179 (URN)10.3384/lic.diva-122179 (DOI)978-91-7685-941-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2015-10-30, IMT 1, Campus US, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 14:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-10-23 Created: 2015-10-23 Last updated: 2015-10-23Bibliographically approved
2. Structural properties of the mastoid using image analysis and visualization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural properties of the mastoid using image analysis and visualization
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The mastoid, located in the temporal bone, houses an air cell system whose cells have a variation in size that can go far below current conventional clinical CT scanner resolution. Therefore, the mastoid air cell system is only partially represented in a CT scan. Where the conventional clinical CT scanner lacks level of minute details, micro-CT scanning provides an overwhelming amount of ne details. The temporal bone being one of the most complex in the human body, visualization of micro-CT scanning of this boneawakens the curiosity of the experimenter, especially with the correct visualization settings.

This thesis first presents a statistical analysis determining the surface area to volume ratio of the mastoid air cell system of human temporal bone, from micro-CT scanning using methods previously applied for conventional clinical CT scans. The study compared current results with previous studies, with successive downsampling the data down to a resolution found in conventional clinical CT scanning. The results from the statistical analysis showed that all the small mastoid air cells, that cannot be detected in conventional clinical CT scans, do heavily contribute to the estimation of the surface area, and in consequence to the estimation of the surface area to volume ratio by a factor of about 2.6. Such a result further strengthens the idea of the mastoid to play an active role in pressure regulation and gas exchange.

Discovery of micro-channels through specific use of a non-traditional transfer function was then reported, where a qualitative and a quantitative pre-analysis were performed and reported. To gain more knowledge about these micro-channels, a local structure tensor analysis was applied where structures are described in terms of planar, tubular, or isotropic structures. The results from this structural tensor analysis suggest these microchannels to potentially be part of a more complex framework, which hypothetically would provide a separate blood supply for the mucosa lining the mastoid air cell system.

The knowledge gained from analysing the micro-channels as locally providing blood to the mucosa, led to the consideration of how inflammation of the mucosa could impact the pneumatization of the mastoid air cell system. Though very primitive, a 3D shape analysis of the mastoid air cell system was carried out. The mastoid air cell system was first represented in a compact form through a medial axis, from which medial balls could be used. The medial balls, representative of how large the mastoid air cells can be locally, were used in two complementary clustering methods, one based on the size diameter of the medial balls and one based on their location within the mastoid air cell system. From both quantitative and qualitative statistics, it was possible to map the clusters based on pre-defined regions already described in the literature, which opened the door for new hypotheses concerning the effect of mucosal inflammation on the mastoid pneumatization.

Last but not least, discovery of other structures, previously unreported in the literature, were also visually observed and briefly discussed in this thesis. Further analysis of these unknown structures is needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. 163 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1862
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology Immunology in the medical area Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137288 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-137288 (DOI)9789176855058 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-08, Hugo Theorell, Universitetssjukhuset, Llinköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-05-10 Created: 2017-05-10 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved

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