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Cardiac mortality after severe sepsis and septic shock: A nationwide observational cohort study
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Norrköping.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Introduction: Cardiac dysfunction is a well-known complication of sepsis, but its long-term consequences remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiac outcome after sepsis by assessing causes of death in a nationwide register-based cohort.

Methods: A cohort of 9,520 severe sepsis and septic shock intensive care (ICU) patients without preceding severe cardiac failure and discharged alive from the ICU was collected from the Swedish Intensive Care Registry (SIR) from 2008 to 2013, together with a nonseptic control group (n = 4,577). Patients were matched according to age, sex and severity of illness. Information on cause of death after ICU discharge was sought in the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare’s Cause of Death Registry.

Results: After ICU discharge, 3,954 (42%) of severe sepsis or septic shock patients died. In 654 (16%) of these, cardiac failure was registered as the cause of death. The follow-up time was 17,693 person-years (median 583 days/person; maximum 5.7 years) and the median (IQR) time from ICU discharge to cardiac failure-related death 81 (17 - 379) days. With increasing severity of illness (quartiles of SAPS3), the hazard rate for cardiac failure-related death increased (hazard ratio (HR) 1.58 (95% CI 1.19 - 2.09, p <0.001) in the highest quartile compared to the lowest). In a matched comparison between severe sepsis or septic shock patients and controls, survival was similar, and the hazard rate for cardiac failurerelated death did not differ between groups (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.88 – 1.10, p = 0.62).

Conclusions: The risk of death with cardiac failure as the cause of death after severe sepsis or septic shock increases with severity of illness on admission. Patients with severe sepsis or septic shock are not, however, at an increased risk of death with cardiac failure as the cause of death when compared to other ICU patients with similar severity of illness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015.
Keyword [en]
Shock, septic; Heart failure; Intensive care; Outcome
National Category
Nursing Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122757OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-122757DiVA: diva2:872769
Available from: 2015-11-20 Created: 2015-11-20 Last updated: 2015-11-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Cardiac dysfunction in septic shock: Observational studies on characteristics and outcome
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cardiac dysfunction in septic shock: Observational studies on characteristics and outcome
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Cardiac dysfunction is a well-known complication of sepsis, but its characteristics and consequences, especially on a longer term, remain unclear. The aim of this thesis was to study the characteristics and the implications of cardiac dysfunction for outcome in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with septic shock.

Purpose: First, to assess the ability of a cardiac biomarker to predict outcome in ICU patients. Second, to characterise cardiac dysfunction in septic shock using speckle tracking echocardiography. Third, to investigate the reliability of echocardiographic methods used to describe cardiac dysfunction in septic shock. Fourth, to study long-term cardiac outcome in severe sepsis and septic shock patients.

Materials and methods: The cardiac biomarker amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) was collected in 481 patients on ICU admission and its ability to predict death was assessed. In 50 patients with septic shock, echocardiography was performed on ICU admission and was repeated during and after ICU stay. Measurements of cardiac strain using speckle tracking echocardiography were assessed in relation to other echocardiographic function parameters, NT-proBNP and severity of illness scores, and their change over time was analysed. Echocardiograms from patients with septic shock were independently evaluated by two physicians and the results analysed regarding measurement variability. A nationwide-registry-based open cohort of 9,520 severe sepsis and septic shock ICU patients discharged alive from the ICU was analysed together with a non-septic control group matched for age, sex and severity of illness. In patients who died after ICU discharge, information on causes of death was collected.

Results: A discriminatory level of significance of NT-proBNP on ICU admission was identified at ≥1,380 ng/L, above which NT-proBNP was an independent predictor of death. With increasing levels of NT-proBNP, patients were more severely ill, had a longer ICU stay and were more often admitted with septic shock. Cardiac strain was frequently impaired in septic shock patients but was not superior to other echocardiographic measurements in detecting cardiac dysfunction. Cardiac strain correlated with other echocardiographic function parameters and with NT-proBNP, and was the least user-dependent echocardiographic parameter in septic shock patients. Cardiac strain remained unchanged over time, did not differ between survivors and non-survivors and could not predict an increased risk of death. During a follow-up of up to nearly 6 years after ICU discharge, 3,954 (42%) of sepsis patients died, 654 (17%) with cardiac failure as the cause of death. With increasing severity of illness on admission, the risk of death with cardiac failure as the cause of death after ICU discharge increased. In comparison to other ICU patients with similar severity of illness, however, the risk of death due to cardiac was not increased in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock.

Conclusions: Laboratory or echocardiographic signs of cardiac dysfunction are commonly seen in ICU patients in general and in septic shock patients in particular. The assessment of cardiac dysfunction in patients with septic shock is, however, complicated by pre-existing comorbidities, by treatment given in the ICU and by critical illness in itself. Signs of cardiac dysfunction, and the increasing risk of death related to cardiac failure seen after remission of sepsis, may therefore be reflections of critical illness per se, rather than of sepsis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. 50 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1485
National Category
Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122759 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-122759 (DOI)978-91-7685-938-4 (print) (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-01-22, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-11-20 Created: 2015-11-20 Last updated: 2015-12-11Bibliographically approved

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De Geer, LinaOscarsson, AnnaFredrikson, MatsWalther, Sten M.
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Department of Medical and Health SciencesFaculty of Medicine and Health SciencesDepartment of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in LinköpingDepartment of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in NorrköpingDivision of Neuro and Inflammation ScienceDepartment of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery
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