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Complex path impedance estimation and matching requirements for body-coupled communication
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e), Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e), Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2015 (English)In: Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD), 2015 European Conference on, IEEE , 2015, 424-427 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Capacitive body coupled communication (BCC) channel has been modeled as a two-port complex path impedance matrix [Z] which varies as a function of ten different body positions over the frequency range of 1 MHz to 60 MHz. A systematic numerical simulation methodology has been used to estimate [Z] parameters. The estimated complex path impedance [Z] is a symmetric matrix showing BCC channel is a reciprocal network of passive components for given coupler configuration, body positions and frequency range. The estimated complex path impedance has been utilized to determine either input impedance Zin or output impedance Zout to conjugately match to Zs at transmitter or Zl at receiver, respectively for maximum power transfer. It has been found that the resistive matching below 1000 O and inductive matching between 0.5 ï¿œH to 5 ï¿œH on any side of the two ports can meet the conjugate matching requirements for maximum power transfer for the given body positions and frequency range.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE , 2015. 424-427 p.
Series
, Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD), 2015 European Conference on
Keyword [en]
biomedical communication;impedance matching;impedance matrix;numerical analysis;parameter estimation;radio receivers;radio transmitters;capacitive body coupled communication channel;complex path impedance estimation;conjugate matching requirements;coupler configuration;frequency 1 MHz to 60 MHz;inductive matching;parameter estimation;passive components;radio receiver;radio transmitter;reciprocal network;symmetric matrix;systematic numerical simulation;two-port complex path impedance matrix;Adaptation models;Estimation;Frequency estimation;Impedance;Mathematical model;Numerical models;Symmetric matrices
National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122833DOI: 10.1109/ECCTD.2015.7300063ISI: 000380498200045ISBN: 978-1-4799-9877-7OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-122833DiVA: diva2:874193
Conference
European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD, 24-26 August, Trondheim, Norway
Available from: 2015-11-26 Created: 2015-11-26 Last updated: 2016-09-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Variation-Aware System Design Simulation Methodology for Capacitive BCC Transceivers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variation-Aware System Design Simulation Methodology for Capacitive BCC Transceivers
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Capacitive body coupled communication (BCC), frequency range 500 kHz to 15 MHz, is considered an emerging alternate short range wireless technology which can meet the stringent low power consumption (< 1 mW) and low data rate (< 100 kbps) requirements for the next generation of connected devices for applications like internet-of-things (IoT) and wireless sensor network (WSN). But a reliable solution for this mode of communication covering all possible body positions and maximum communication distances around the human body could not be presented so far, despite its inception around 20 years back in 1995. The uncertainties/errors associated with experimental measurement setup create ambiguity about the measured propagation loss or transmission errors. The reason is the usage of either earth grounded lab instruments or the direct coupling of earth ground with transmitter/receiver or the analog front end cut-off frequency limitations in a few MHz region or the balun to provide isolation or the measurements on simplified homogeneous biological phantoms. Another source of ambiguity in the experimental measurements is attributed to the natural variations in human tissue electrophysiological properties from person to person which are also affected by physical factors like age, gender, number of cells at different body locations and humidity. The analytical models presented in the literature are also oversimplified which do not predict the true propagation loss for capacitive BCC channel.

An attempt is being made to understand and demonstrate, qualitatively and quantitatively, the physical phenomenon of signal transmission and propagation characteristics e.g., path loss in complex scenarios for capacitive BCC channel by both the experimental observations/measurements and simulation models in this PhD dissertation. An alternate system design simulation methodology has been proposed which estimates the realistic path loss even for longer communication distances > 50 cm for capacitive BCC channel. The proposed simulation methodology allows to vary human tissue dielectric/thickness properties and easily integrates with the circuit simulators as the output is in the form of S-parameters. The advantage is that the capacitive BCC channel characteristics e.g., signal attenuation as a function of different physical factors could be readily simulated at the circuit level to choose appropriate circuit topology and define suitable system specifications. This simulation methodology is based on full-wave electromagnetic analysis and 3D modeling of human body and environment using their conductivity, permittivity, and tangent loss profile to estimate the realistic propagation loss or path loss due to their combined interaction with the electrode coupler for capacitive BCC channel. This methodology estimates the complex path impedance from transmitter to receiver which is important to determine the matching requirements for maximum power transfer. The simulation methodology also contributes towards better understanding of signal propagation through physical channel under the influence of different electrode coupler configurations. The simulation methodology allows to define error bounds for variations in propagation loss due to both numeric uncertainties (boundary conditions, mesh cells) and human body variation uncertainties (dielectric properties, dielectric thicknesses) for varying communication distances and coupler configuration/sizes.

Besides proposing the simulation methodology, the digital baseband and passband communication architectures using discrete electronics components have been experimentally demonstrated in the context of IoT application through capacitive BCC channel for data rates between 1 kbps to 100 kbps under isolated earth ground conditions. The experimental results/observations are supported by the simulation results for different scenarios of capacitive BCC channel.

The experimental and simulation results help in defining suitable system specifications for monolithic integrated circuit design of analog front end (AFE) blocks for capacitive BCC transmitter/receiver in deep submicron CMOS technologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. 78 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1721
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122840 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-122840 (DOI)978-91-7685-906-3 (print) (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-12-18, Visionen, Hus B, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

The series name Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis in the printed version is incorrect. The correct name is Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations. This is corrected in the electronic version.

In the electronic published version minor errors in the acknowledgements and some typographical mistakes has been corrected.

Available from: 2015-11-26 Created: 2015-11-26 Last updated: 2015-11-26Bibliographically approved

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