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On High-Temperature Behaviours of Heat Resistant Austenitic Alloys
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Advanced heat resistant materials are important to achieve the transition to long term sustainable power generation. The global increase in energy consumption and the global warming from greenhouse gas emissions create the need for more sustainable power generation processes. Biomass-fired power plants with higher efficiency could generate more power but also reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, e.g. CO2. Biomass offers no net contribution of CO2 to the atmosphere. To obtain greater efficiency of power plants, one option is to increase the temperature and the pressure in the boiler section of the power plant. This requires improved material properties, such as higher yield strength, creep strength and high-temperature corrosion resistance, as well as structural integrity and safety.

Today, some austenitic stainless steels are design to withstand temperatures up to 650 °C in tough environments. Nickel-based alloys are designed to withstand even higher temperatures. Austenitic stainless steels are more cost effective than nickel-based alloys due to a lower amount of expensive alloying elements. However, the performance of austenitic stainless steels at the elevated temperatures of future operation conditions in biomass-red power plants is not yet fully understood.

This thesis presents research on the influence of long term high-temperature ageing on mechanical properties, the influence of very slow deformation rates at high-temperature on deformation, damage and fracture, and the influence of high-temperature environment and cyclic operation conditions on the material behaviour. Mechanical and thermal testing have been performed followed by subsequent studies of the microstructure, using scanning electron microscopy, to investigate the material behaviours.

Results shows that long term ageing at high temperatures leads to the precipitation of intermetallic phases. These intermetallic phases are brittle at room temperature and become detrimental for the impact toughness of some of the austenitic stainless steels. During slow strain rate tensile deformation at elevated temperature time dependent deformation and recovery mechanisms are pronounced. The creep-fatigue interaction behaviour of an austenitic stainless steel show that dwell time gives shorter life at a lower strain range, but has none or small effect on the life at a higher strain range.

Finally, this research results in an increased knowledge of the structural, mechanical and chemical behaviour as well as a deeper understanding of the deformation, damage and fracture mechanisms that occur in heat resistant austenitic alloys at high-temperature environments. It is believed that in the long term, this can contribute to material development achieving the transition to more sustainable power generation in biomass-red power plants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. , 56 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1725
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122945DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-122945ISBN: 978-91-7685-896-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-122945DiVA: diva2:875072
Public defence
2015-12-21, ACAS, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-11-30 Created: 2015-11-30 Last updated: 2016-12-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Long Term High-Temperature Environmental Effect on Impact Toughness in Austenitic Alloys
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long Term High-Temperature Environmental Effect on Impact Toughness in Austenitic Alloys
2015 (English)In: / [ed] Key Engineering Materials Vol 627 (2015),pp 205-208., 2015, 205-308 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Series
KEY ENGINEERING MATERIALS, ISSN 1662-9795 ; 627
Keyword
high-temperature environment, precipitation, impact toughness, austenitic stainless steel, nickel-base alloy
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109512 (URN)10/4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.627.205 (DOI)
Conference
13th International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics, Azorerna, 23-25 September 2014
Available from: 2014-08-21 Created: 2014-08-21 Last updated: 2015-11-30
2. Damage and Fracture Behaviours in Aged Austentic Materials During High-Temperature Slow Strain Rate Testing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Damage and Fracture Behaviours in Aged Austentic Materials During High-Temperature Slow Strain Rate Testing
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Biomass power plants with high efficiency are desired as a renewable energy resource. High efficiency can be obtained by increasing temperature and pressure. An upgrade of the material performance to high temperature material is therefore required in order to meet the increased demands due to the higher temperature and the more corrosive environment. In this study, the material’s high-temperature behaviours of AISI 304 and Alloy617 under slow deformation rate are evaluated using high-temperature long-term aged specimens subjected to slow strain rate tensile testing (SSRT) with strain rates down to 10-6/s at 700°C. Both materials show decreasing stress levels and elongation to fracture when tensile deformed using low strain rate and elevated temperature. At high-temperature and low strain rates cracking in grain boundaries due to larger precipitates formed during deformation is the most common fracture mechanism.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2014
Series
Key Engineering Materials, ISSN 1662-9795
Keyword
High-temperature, ageing, slow strain rate, biomass power plant, austenitic stainless steel, nickel base alloy and dynamic strain ageing
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96028 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.592-593.590 (DOI)000336694400133 ()
Conference
MSMF7 Materials Structure & Micromechanics of Fracture , July 13, Brno, Czech Republic
Available from: 2013-08-13 Created: 2013-08-13 Last updated: 2015-11-30Bibliographically approved
3. Advanced Microstructure Studies of an Austenitic Material Using EBSD in Elevated Temperature In-Situ Tensile Testing in SEM
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advanced Microstructure Studies of an Austenitic Material Using EBSD in Elevated Temperature In-Situ Tensile Testing in SEM
Show others...
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this study an advanced method for investigation of the microstructure such as electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) together with in-situ tensile test in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used at room temperature and 300°C. EBSD analyses provide information about crystallographic orientation in the microstructure and dislocation structures caused by deformation. The in-situ tensile tests enabled the same area to be investigated at different strain levels. For the same macroscopic strain values a lower average misorientation in individual grains at elevated temperature indicates that less residual strain at grain level are developed compared to room temperature. For both temperatures, while large scatters in grain average misorientation are observed for grains of similar size, there seems to be a tendency showing that larger grains may accumulate somewhat more strains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2014
Series
Key Engineering Materials, ISSN 1662-9795
Keyword
Austenitic stainless steel, electron backscatter diffraction, in-situ tensile test, Schmid factor, grain wsize and slip system
National Category
Engineering and Technology Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97015 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.592-593.497 (DOI)000336694400111 ()
Conference
MSMF7 Materials Structure & Micromechanics of Fracture, July 1-3, Brno, Czech Republic
Available from: 2013-09-03 Created: 2013-09-03 Last updated: 2015-11-30Bibliographically approved
4. Mechanical Behaviours of Alloy 617 with Varied Strain Rate at High Temperatures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical Behaviours of Alloy 617 with Varied Strain Rate at High Temperatures
2014 (English)In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 783-786, 1182-1187 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nickel-base alloys due to their high performances have been widely used in biomass and coal fired power plants. They can undertake plastic deformation with different strain rates such as those typically seen during creep and fatigue at elevated temperatures. In this study, the mechanical behaviours of Alloy 617 with strain rates from 10-2/s down to 10-6/s at temperatures of 650°C and 700°C have been studied using tensile tests. Furthermore, the microstructures have been investigated using electron backscatter detection and electron channeling contrast imaging. At relatively high strain rate, the alloy shows higher fracture strains at these temperatures. The microstructure investigation shows that it is caused by twinning induced plasticity due to DSA. The fracture strain reaches the highest value at a strain rate of 10-4/s and then it decreases  dramatically. At strain rate of 10-6/s, the fracture strain at high temperature is now smaller than that at room temperature, and the strength also decreases with further decreasing strain rate. Dynamic recrystallization can also be observed usually combined with crack initiation and propagation. This is a new type of observation and the mechanisms involved are discussed.

Keyword
Nickel-base superalloy, twinning, Dynamic strain ageing, elevated temperature
National Category
Engineering and Technology Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-98241 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.783-786.1182 (DOI)
Conference
THERMEC '2013, International Conference on Processing & Manufacturing of Advanced Materials. Processing, Fabrication, Properties, Applications. December 2-6, Las Vegas, USA
Available from: 2013-10-04 Created: 2013-10-04 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
5. Deformation behaviour in advanced heat resistant materials during slow strain rate testing at elevated temperature
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deformation behaviour in advanced heat resistant materials during slow strain rate testing at elevated temperature
2014 (English)In: Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters, ISSN 2095-0349, Vol. 4, no 041004Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, slow strain rate tensile testing at elevated temperature is used to evaluate the influence of temperature and strain rate on deformation behaviour in two different austenitic alloys. One austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316L) and one nickel-base alloy (Alloy 617) have been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy related techniques as electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscattering diffraction have been used to study the damage and fracture micromechanisms. For both alloys the dominante damage micromechanisms are slip bands and planar slip interacting with grain bounderies or precipitates causing strain concentrations. The dominante fracture micromechanism when using a slow strain rate at elevated temperature, is microcracks at grain bounderies due to grain boundery embrittlement caused by precipitates. The decrease in strain rate seems to have a small influence on dynamic strain ageing at 650°C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2014
Keyword
dynamic strain ageing, slow strain rate tensile testing, fracture, damage
National Category
Materials Engineering Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109511 (URN)10.1063/2.1404104 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-08-21 Created: 2014-08-21 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
6. Characterization of austenitic stainless steels deformed at elevated temperature
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of austenitic stainless steels deformed at elevated temperature
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2017 (English)In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 48A, no 10, 4525-4538 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels are promising candidates to replace more expansive nickel-based alloys within the energy-producing industry. The present study investigates the deformation mechanisms by microstructural characterisation, mechanical properties and stress-strain response of three commercial austenitic stainless steels and two commercial nickel-based alloys using uniaxial tensile tests at elevated temperatures from 400 C up to 700 C. The materials showed different influence of temperature on ductility, where the ductility at elevated temperatures increased with increasing nickel and solid solution hardening element content. The investigated materials showed planar dislocation driven deformation at elevated temperature. Scanning electron microscopy showed that deformation twins were an active deformation mechanism in austenitic stainless steels during tensile deformation at elevated temperatures up to 700 C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer-Verlag New York, 2017
Keyword
Austenitic stainless steel, Nickel-based alloy, Microstructural characterization, Deformation twinning, Stress-strain response
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122942 (URN)10.1007/s11661-017-4212-9 (DOI)000408884300012 ()
Note

Previous status of this publication was manuscript

Funding agencies: AB Sandvik Materials Technology in Sweden; Swedish National Energy Administration through the Research Consortium of Materials Technology for Thermal Energy Processes [KME-701]; AFM Strategic Faculty Grant SFO-MAT-LiU at Linkoping University [2009-00971]

Available from: 2015-11-30 Created: 2015-11-30 Last updated: 2017-09-22Bibliographically approved
7. Characterisation of creep deformation during slow strain rate tensile testing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterisation of creep deformation during slow strain rate tensile testing
2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The strain-rate dependent deformation of the superalloy Haynes 282 during slow strain-rate tensile testing (SSRT) at 700 C has been investigated. The stress-strain response is remarkably well described by a simple constitutive model over a wide range of different strain-rates. The microstructure development is characterised and related to the influence of both strainrate dependent and independent deformation. Damage and cracking similar to what has been observed previously during conventional creep testing of Haynes 282 was found and explained. The model and the microstructure investigations show that the deformation and damage mechanisms during SSRT are essentially the same as under creep.

Keyword
Slow strain-rate tensile testing, Creep, Norton equation, Constitutive modelling, Cavity
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122943 (URN)
Available from: 2015-11-30 Created: 2015-11-30 Last updated: 2015-11-30Bibliographically approved
8. Creep and Fatigue Interaction Behavior in Sanicro 25 Heat Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steel
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creep and Fatigue Interaction Behavior in Sanicro 25 Heat Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steel
2016 (English)In: Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, ISSN 0972-2815, E-ISSN 0975-1645, Vol. 69, no 2, 337-342 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sanicro 25 is a newly developed advanced high strength heat resistant austenitic stainless steel. The material shows good resistance to steam oxidation and flue gas corrosion, and has higher creep rupture strength than other austenitic stainless steels available today. It is thus an excellent candidate for superheaters and reheaters for advanced ultra-super critical power plants with efficiency higher than 50 %. This paper provides a study on the creep–fatigue interaction behavior of Sanicro 25 at 700 °C. Two strain ranges, 1 and 2 %, and two dwell times, 10 and 30 min, were used. The influences of dwell time on the cyclic deformation behavior and life has been evaluated. Due to stress relaxation the dwell time causes a larger plastic strain range compared to the tests without dwell time. The results also show that the dwell time leads to a shorter fatigue life for the lower strain range, but has no or small effect on the life for the higher strain range. Fracture investigations show that dwell times result in more intergranular cracking. With the use of the electron channeling contrast imaging technique, the influences of dwell time on the cyclic plastic deformation, precipitation behavior, recovery phenomena and local plasticity exhaustion have also been studied.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Keyword
Sanicro 25, advanced ultra-super critical power plant, creep, low cycle fatigue, cyclic plastic deformation
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123646 (URN)10.1007/s12666-015-0806-3 (DOI)000368032700027 ()
Conference
7th International Conference on Creep, 19-22 January 2016, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, India
Note

At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

Funding agencies: AB Sandvik Materials Technology in Sweden; Swedish National Energy Administration through the Research Consortium of Materials Technology for Thermal Energy Processes [KME-701]; AFM Strategic Faculty Grant SFO-MAT-LiU at Linkoping University [2009-00971]

Available from: 2016-01-04 Created: 2016-01-04 Last updated: 2017-12-01
9. Surface Phase Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steel Induced by Cyclic Oxidation in Humidified Air
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface Phase Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steel Induced by Cyclic Oxidation in Humidified Air
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 100, 524-534 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The formation of α’ martensite at the surface of an AISI 304 stainless steel subjected to cyclic heating in humidified air is reported. The α’ martensite formed during the cooling part of the cyclic tests due to local depletion of Cr and Mn and transformed back to austenite when the temperature again rose to 650 °C. The size of the α’ martensite region increased with increasing number of cycles. Thermodynamical simulations were used as basis for discussing the formation of α’ martensite. The effect of the α’ martensite on corrosion is also discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon Press, 2015
Keyword
Stainless steel, thermal cycling, SEM, oxidation, high temperature corrosion
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122008 (URN)10.1016/j.corsci.2015.08.030 (DOI)000363070100049 ()
Note

Funding agencies: AB Sandvik Materials Technology in Sweden; Swedish National Energy Administration through the Research Consortium of Materials Technology for Thermal Energy Processes [KME-701]; Agora Materiae and AFM Strategic Faculty Grant SFO-MAT-LiU at Linkoping Unive

Available from: 2015-10-15 Created: 2015-10-15 Last updated: 2017-12-01

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