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Shapers, Brokers and Doers: The Dynamic Roles of Non-State Actors in Global Climate Change Governance
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Formare, Mäklare och Görare : Icke-Statliga Aktörers Dynamiska Roller i den Globala Klimatstyrningen (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Non-state actors, such as international environmental organisations, business associations and indigenous peoples organisations, increasingly take on governance functions that can influence the delivery of global public goods. This thesis examines the roles of these actors in the field of global climate change governance. Specifically, the thesis examines why and how non-state actors are involved in global climate change governance, the governance activities that they may perform and are perceived to perform, and their views on climate change solutions. The thesis also discusses the implications of their roles for how authority is shared between states and non-state actors in global climate change governance. The research questions are addressed by triangulating several empirical methods. The results show that the roles of non-state actors are continuously evolving and depend on the changing nature of relations between state and non-state actors as well as efforts by non-state actors to expand their policy space by justifying and seeking recognition for their participation. Moreover, the findings point to the importance of differentiating between groups of non-state actors, as they represent diverse interests and have different comparative advantages across governance activities. Which non-state actors participate and to what extent therefore has implications for the effects of their involvement in global climate change governance. On the basis of a systematic assessment of a set of non-state actors, this thesis concludes that the key role-categories of non-state actors in global climate change governance are broadly: shapers of information and ideas, brokers of knowledge, norms and initiatives, and doers of implementing policies and influencing behaviours. Different non-state actors carry out activities within these role-categories to different extents. In addition to the empirical mapping of the roles of non-state actors in global climate change governance, this thesis contributes to two strands in the literature: one theoretical focusing on the authority and legitimacy of non-state actors in global environmental governance, and the other methodological, offering a toolbox that combines survey data with qualitative methods.

Abstract [sv]

Icke-statliga aktörer, exempelvis internationella miljöorganisationer, näringslivsorganisationer och ursprungsbefolkningsorganisationer, fyller alltmer framträdande funktioner i den globala klimatstyrningen. Dessa organisationer kan därmed påverka utformningen av globala kollektiva nyttigheter. Denna avhandling undersöker dessa aktörers roller inom den globala klimatstyrningen. Avhandlingen utforskar varför och på vilket sätt icke-statliga aktörer deltar i den globala klimatstyrningen, uppfattningar om vilka styraktiviteter de utför, och ifall de bidrar till en mer pluralistisk syn på klimatproblematikens lösningar. I avhandlingen diskuteras vilka konsekvenser de icke-statliga aktörernas roller har för hur auktoritet delas mellan stater och icke-statliga aktörer i den globala klimatpolitiken. Forskningsfrågorna behandlas genom att triangulera flera empiriska metoder. Resultaten från dessa undersökningar visar att de icke-statliga aktörernas roller utvecklas kontinuerligt och att dynamiken dels beror på den skiftande relationen mellan statliga och icke-statliga aktörer, dels på de icke-statliga aktörernas egna ansträngningar att öka sitt politiska handlingsutrymme och få erkännande för sitt deltagande. Dessutom pekar resultaten på vikten av att skilja mellan olika grupper av icke-statliga aktörer, eftersom de representerar skilda intressen och har komparativa fördelar i olika styraktiviteter. En konsekvens av detta är att det spelar roll vilka grupper av icke-statliga aktörer som ges tillträde till den internationella klimatdiplomatin. Baserat på en systematisk  bedömning av vad några av de icke-statliga aktörerna anses göra, dras slutsatsen att de viktigaste rollkategorierna som icke-statliga aktörer har är: formare av information och idéer, mäklare av kunskap, normer och initiativ, och görare genom att bidra till implementering och påverka beteenden, men att olika icke-statliga aktörer utför dessa roller i olika utsträckning. Utöver den empiriska kartläggningen av icke-statliga aktörers roller i den globala klimatstyrningen, bidrar avhandlingen dels till den teoretiska litteraturen kring icke-statliga aktörers auktoritet och legitimitet inom den globala miljöstyrningen, dels metodologiskt genom att utveckla analysverktyg som kombinerar enkätdata med kvalitativa metoder.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. , 61 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 667
Keyword [en]
Non-state actors, global climate change governance, legitimacy, authority, intergovernmental negotiations, UNFCCC
Keyword [sv]
Icke-statliga aktörer, global klimatstyrning, legitimitet, auktoritet, mellanstatliga förhandlingar, UNFCCC
National Category
Climate Research Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123295DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-123295ISBN: 978-91-7685-864-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-123295DiVA: diva2:881212
Public defence
2016-01-22, TEMCAS, Hus T, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2015-12-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Open or closed meetings? Explaining nonstate actor involvement in the international climate change negotiations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Open or closed meetings? Explaining nonstate actor involvement in the international climate change negotiations
2016 (English)In: International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, ISSN 1567-9764, E-ISSN 1573-1553, Vol. 16, no 1, 127-144 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

When do states allow nonstate actors (NSAs) to observe negotiations at intergovernmental meetings? Previous studies have identified the need for states to close negotiations when the issues under discussion are sensitive. This paper argues that sensitivity alone cannot adequately explain the dynamic of closing down negotiations to observers. Questions that have received little attention in the literature include which issues are considered sensitive and how the decision is made to move the negotiations behind closed doors. This paper examines the practices of NSA involvement in climate diplomacy from three analytical perspectives: functional efficiency, political dynamics, and historical institutionalism. Based on interviews and UNFCCC documents, this paper suggests that to understand the issue of openness in negotiations, institutional factors and the politics of NSA involvement need to be better scrutinized. The paper shows that each perspective has particular advantages when analyzing different dimensions of the negotiations, with implications of how we understand the role of NSAs in global environmental governance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108551 (URN)10.1007/s10784-014-9237-6 (DOI)000372248800007 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council [421-2011-1862]; Formas [2011-779]

Available from: 2014-06-30 Created: 2014-06-30 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
2. Normative arguments for non-state actor participation in international policymaking processes: Functionalism, neocorporatism or democratic pluralism?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Normative arguments for non-state actor participation in international policymaking processes: Functionalism, neocorporatism or democratic pluralism?
2016 (English)In: European Journal of International Relations, ISSN 1354-0661, E-ISSN 1460-3713, Vol. 22, no 4, 920-943 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The participation of non-state actors in multilateral institutions is often portrayed as one way of decreasing the perceived legitimacy deficit in global governance. The literature on non-state actors has identified several ways in which these actors can enhance the legitimacy of intergovernmental organisations and global governance arrangements. Three partially competing normative arguments, or rationales, for the inclusion of non-state actors in international policymaking ᅵ functionalism, neocorporatism and democratic pluralism ᅵ have been identified. Whereas functionalism highlights the contribution of non-state actors to output legitimacy in terms of expertise, neocorporatism emphasises the inclusion of affected interests, and democratic pluralism claims that non-state actors increase input legitimacy through procedural values. These three normative arguments thus offer different understandings of the motives for the inclusion and representation of non-state actors in international negotiations and diplomacy. Through a single case study of United Nations climate diplomacy, we analyse the extent to which the three rationales for non-state actor inclusion are found in views held by state and non-state actors participating in the annual United Nations climate change conferences. Our results show that different actor groups place varying degrees of emphasis on the different rationales for non-state actor inclusion, even though the neocorporatist rationale remains most favoured overall. We discuss the implications of our findings for the democratic legitimacy of increasing participation of non-state actors in intergovernmental affairs and recent trends in the participation of non-state actors in the international climate change policymaking process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2016
Keyword
Climate change, global governance, legitimacy, non-state actors
National Category
Globalization Studies Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalization Studies)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123293 (URN)10.1177/1354066115608926 (DOI)000387234600009 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council [421-2011-1862]; Formas [2011-779]

Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
3. The roles of non-state actors in climate change governance: understanding agency through governance profiles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The roles of non-state actors in climate change governance: understanding agency through governance profiles
2016 (English)In: International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, ISSN 1567-9764, E-ISSN 1573-1553, Vol. 16, no 1, 109-126 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Globalization processes have rendered non-state actors an integral part of global governance. The body of literature that has examined non-state actor involvement in global governance has focused mainly on whether and how non-state actors can influence states. Less attention has been paid to the comparative advantages of non-state actors to answer questions about agency across categories of non-state actors, and more precisely what governance activities non-state actors are perceived to fulfil. Using unique survey material from two climate change conferences, we propose that different categories of non-state actors have distinct governance profiles. We further suggest that the different governance profiles are derived from particular power sources and that agency is a function of these profiles. The study thereby contributes to a strand in the literature focusing on the authority of non-state actors in climate governance and broadens the methodological toolkit for studying the “governors” of global governance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2016
Keyword
Non-state actors Agency Climate change Global environmental governance Power sources
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108555 (URN)10.1007/s10784-014-9243-8 (DOI)000372248800006 ()
Note

Funding agencies:  Swedish Research Council [421-2011-1862]; Formas [2011-779]

Available from: 2014-06-30 Created: 2014-06-30 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
4. Fossil fuel emitters and climate change governance: Understanding the roles of large oil and gas companies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fossil fuel emitters and climate change governance: Understanding the roles of large oil and gas companies
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Global climate change governance is under increasing pressure to deliver meaningful climate action. It is now widely agreed that a low-carbon growth path requires major transformations of energy systems. This paper seeks to provide new conceptual and empirical insights into questions about different roles played by major oil and gas companies in climate change governance. Specifically, the paper examines how the ten largest oil and gas companies in the world present their rationales for addressing climate change and their activities related to climate action, including the oil and gas companies’ involvement in international climate diplomacy. The paper thereby contributes to the environmental governance literature by highlighting the North/South dimension and the state/non-state dimension of major oil and gas companies and their activities to address climate change. These issues touch upon central questions in the literature, such as the relations between state and non-state actors and our understanding of the allocation of responsibility in climate change politics. Its novel empirical findings also contribute to new insights into the climate change activities currently underway in the oil and gas sector. The paper thus has important implications both for the theory and practice of climate change governance.

Keyword
Oil and gas companies, climate change governance, private authority, non-state actors
National Category
Climate Research Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123294 (URN)
Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2015-12-10Bibliographically approved
5. Pluralising climate change solutions?: Views held and voiced by participants at the international climate change negotiations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pluralising climate change solutions?: Views held and voiced by participants at the international climate change negotiations
2014 (English)In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, ISSN ISSN 0921-8009, Vol. 105, 177-184 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Intergovernmental organisations have developed into important sites of normative contestation where increasingly non-state actors participate. A common puzzle is however whether engaged non-state actors represent already strong and established interests or if they also bring forth marginalised voices. This concern raises the pertinent question of what views non-state actors actually represent and if this adds to the perspectives voiced by state actors. This paper examines the views held and voiced by state and a range of non-state participants at the United Nation's climate change conferences. Specifically, questions on what types of climate change solutions are favoured and to what extent these solutions are discussed are addressed. Through statistical analyses of questionnaire data and a content analysis of abstracts of side-events to the conferences, we find that while non-state actors help in broadening the discursive space, some perspectives remain marginalised. We conclude that while non-state actors represent a pluralising force, greater non-state actor participation in intergovernmental organisations is on its own unlikely to lead to democratic global governance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keyword
Non-state actors; Climate change; Global Environmental Governance; Deliberative democracy
National Category
Political Science Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108517 (URN)10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.06.002 (DOI)000342272600018 ()
Projects
Non-state actors in the new landscape of international climate cooperation
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Research Council
Available from: 2014-06-29 Created: 2014-06-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05

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Nasiritousi, Naghmeh

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