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The occupational transition process to upper secondary school, further education and/or work for young adults with Asperger’s disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden .
Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)Text
Abstract [en]

The aim of the study was to describe the occupational transition process to upper secondary school, further education and/or work, and to discover what support influences the process from the perspectives of young adults with Asperger’s disorder (AS) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This qualitative study comprised semi-structured interviews with 15 young adults with AS or ADHD, eight men and seven women (aged 20 to 29 years). Most of the participants were attending community-based day centres at local businesses. Analysis identified three different occupational transition pathways following compulsory school. Support influencing the occupational transition process included: occupational transition preparation in compulsory school, practical work experience in a safe environment, and support beyond the workplace. The overall understanding shows that the occupational transition process was a longitudinal one starting as early as in middle school, and continuing until the young adults with AS and ADHD obtained and were able to remain in employment or further education. Support from community-based day centres was described both as an important step towards finding employment in the regular labour market in which participants could develop practical work experience, and as being too far away from the regular labour market.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015.
Keyword [en]
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/attention deficit disorder, autism spectrum disorders, employment, education, qualitative research, services
National Category
Other Health Sciences Neurosciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123872OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-123872DiVA: diva2:893483
Available from: 2016-01-12 Created: 2016-01-12 Last updated: 2016-01-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Support in school and the occupational transition process: Adolescents and young adults with neuropsychiatric disabilities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Support in school and the occupational transition process: Adolescents and young adults with neuropsychiatric disabilities
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The overall aim of this thesis was to describe and explore the experiences of support in school of adolescents and young adults with neuropsychiatric disabilities. Furthermore, the aim was to explore support that influences the occupational transition to upper secondary school, further education and work. The two first studies investigated computer use in educational activities and during leisure activities by adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Study II also aimed to explore how traditional leisure activities and Internet activities interrelate among adolescents with ADHD. In Studies I and II data was collected using a questionnaire focusing on information and communication technology (ICT) use in school and leisure. Adolescents with ADHD (n = 102) aged 12-18 years were compared with adolescents with physical disabilities (Study I) and adolescents from the general population (Studies I and II). In Study III the aim was to describe the experiences of support at school among young adults with AS and ADHD, and to explore what support they, in retrospect, described as influencing learning. Study IV aimed to describe the occupational transition process to upper secondary school, further education and/or work and to explore what support influenced the process from the perspectives of young adults with AS or ADHD. Studies III (n=13) and IV (n=15) used qualitative semi-structured interviews with young adults with AS or ADHD, aged 18-30 years and were analysed using hermeneutics according to Gadamer.

The findings of Study I showed that students with ADHD reported significantly less frequent use of computers for almost all educational activities compared with students with physical disabilities and students from the general population. They reported low satisfaction with computer use in school and a desire to use computers more often and for more activities in school compared with students with physical disabilities. Study II showed that Internet activities among adolescents with ADHD during leisure, tended to focus on online games. Furthermore, analysis demonstrated that Internet activities were broadening leisure activities among adolescents with ADHD, rather than being a substitute for traditional leisure activities. Study III found that young adults with AS or ADHD experienced difficulties at school that included academic, social, and emotional aspects, all of which influenced learning. Support addressing difficulties with academic performance was described as insufficient and only occasionally provided in school. In conclusion, support for learning among students with AS or ADHD needs to combine academic and psychosicial support. The findings of Study IV identified three different pathways following compulsory school. Support influencing the occupational transition process included: occupational transition preparation in compulsory school, practical work experience in a safe environment, and support beyond the workplace. Support from community-based day centres was described both as an important step towards work in the regular labour market, as well as being too far away from the regular labour market.

In conclusion, this thesis revealed that support in school among students with AS or ADHD needs to combine academic and psychosocial support. Despite being regarded as facilitating learning, individuals with ADHD or AS reported limited computer and Internet use in school. Based on the results it is suggested that Internet activities may provide adolescents with neuropsychiatric disabilities with new opportunities for social interaction and educational activities. On the basis of the results it is suggested that the occupational transition process should be viewed as a longitudinal one, starting in compulsory school and continuing on until young adults obtain and are able to remain in work or further education. This thesis revealed that extended transition planning, inter-service collaboration and support from communitybased day centres were aspects of the environment that influenced the occupational transition process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. 83 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1498
Keyword
Information and communication technology, neuropsychiatric disabilities, education, occupational transition, occupational therapy, internet activities
National Category
Neurosciences Other Health Sciences Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Occupational Therapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123873 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-123873 (DOI)978-91-7685-872-1 (print) (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-02-05, K2, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-01-12 Created: 2016-01-12 Last updated: 2016-02-18Bibliographically approved

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