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Aligning Climate Policy with National Interest: Disengagements with Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in South Africa
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9567-9936
2016 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200, Vol. 18, no 4, 463-481 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) were proposed as a policy framework that could provide middle ground for meeting both the development and mitigation objectives in developing countries. While South Africa engaged actively with the NAMA terminology in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations, its engagement at the domestic level has been rather lacklus- tre. This presents an interesting paradox. The paper studies the interplay of international norms embodied in NAMAs with South Africa’s domestic policy process. Disengagement and contestation around NAMAs in South Africa is played out at three stages: decision- making stage where the symptoms surrounding this contestation first emerge; policy for- mulation stage where NAMAs have to not only align with the National Development Plan but also compete with a predilection for domestically familiar terminology of flagships under the national climate policy; and finally the broader agenda-setting stage of policy process, where NAMAs have to prove useful in not only pursuing the developmental state agenda but also in tackling the underlying material factors that represent country’s economic dependency on fossil fuels. NAMAs faced combined resistance from ideas and interests in various degrees at all these stages resulting in their disengagement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2016. Vol. 18, no 4, 463-481 p.
Keyword [en]
Climate Policy, South Africa, Domestic Politics, International Relations, Policy process, NAMA
National Category
Climate Research Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalization Studies)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124580DOI: 10.1080/1523908X.2016.1138402ISI: 000381299800005OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-124580DiVA: diva2:900567
Projects
GoverningNAMAs: Phase 2 -- Enhancing design and support for low-carbon trajectories
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P35462-2
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Energy Agency (Energimyndigheten) [P35462-2]

Available from: 2016-02-04 Created: 2016-02-04 Last updated: 2017-03-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. National Appropriateness of International Climate Policy Frameworks in India, Brazil, and South Africa
Open this publication in new window or tab >>National Appropriateness of International Climate Policy Frameworks in India, Brazil, and South Africa
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

How does the international climate policy frameworks influence the domestic institutional responses to climate mitigation in emerging economies? And how, in turn, do domestic institutions and politics in emerging economies influence the fate of international climate policy frameworks? The thesis provides answers to these questions by studying domestic engagements with Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in three emerging economies – India, Brazil, and South Africa. The thesis specifically studies how these engagements were influenced by the domestic institutional context provided by national climate policy, norms, and institutional capacity in the three countries. Drawing upon the variations in the engagements with nationally appropriate mitigation actions, made visible by use of the policy cycle as a heuristic device, the thesis informs the implementation of another nascent, yet prevalent, international climate policy framework – Nationally Determined Contributions. The thesis identifies how engagements with nationally appropriate mitigation actions varied in India, Brazil, and South Africa in agenda-setting, policy formulation, decision-making, implementation, and evaluation. In cases where international support is considered crucial for taking mitigation actions, external factors such as lack of clarity on definitional aspects and availability of international support can hamper the prospects of such frameworks at the agenda-setting and policy formulation stages. Efforts to engage with these frameworks under this uncertainty are held back by non-decisions, overriding national climate policy, as well as by uneven inter-ministerial coordination. The thesis argues that successful implementation of upcoming Nationally Determined  Contributions will be influenced by a country’s ability to align them with its national climate policy, localization of the transnational norms, and the extent to which efforts to enhance institutional capacity for  coordinating the implementation of national climate policy are made. In sum, the effective implementation of International Climate Policy Frameworks will be dependent on the willingness of the state to  provide oversight and coordination, and clarity on the availability of international support.

Abstract [sv]

Hur influerar ramverken för internationell klimatpolicy nationella institutionella åtgärder för att begränsa utsläpp av växthusgaser i framväxande ekonomier? Och hur påverkar, i sin tur, dessa länders nationella institutioner och politik dessa ramverk för internationell klimatpolicy? Denna avhandling studerar nationella engagemang i Nationellt lämpliga utsläppsminskande åtgärder (s.k. NAMAs) i tre framväxande ekonomier – Indien, Brasilien, och Sydafrika. Avhandlingen studerar i synnerhet hur dessa engagemang har påverkats av de tre ländernas nationella klimatpolicy, normer, och institutionella kapacitet. Genom att använda policycykeln som heuristiskt analysverktyg identifierar avhandlingen variationer i hur länderna utvecklat sitt engagemang i NAMAs. Avhandlingen visar att och hur engagemang med nationellt lämpliga utsläppsminskande åtgärder varierar mellan Indien, Brasilien, och Sydafrika vad det gäller fastställande av dagordning, policyformulering, beslutsfattande, implementering, och policyutvärdering. I de fall internationellt stöd anses vara avgörande för att vidta utsläppsminskande åtgärder kan externa faktorer såsom bristande definition av de internationella policyramverken för åtgärder samt tillgänglighet på internationellt stöd försvåra utsikterna för att internationella ramverk tas upp i de nationella dagordnings- och policyformuleringsstadierna. Arbetet med dessa ramverk försvåras även av icke-beslut och ojämn interministeriell koordinering samt om tvingande nationell klimatpolicy inte ligger i linje med de internationella besluten. Avhandlingens slutsatser har betydelse för implementeringen av ett annat framväxande ramverk för internationell klimatpolicy: Nationellt fastställda bidrag (s.k. NDC:er). En framgångsrik implementering av   NDC:er kommer att influeras av en stats förmåga att anpassa dem till nationell klimatpolicy samt transnationella normer, så att dessa överensstämmer eller jämkas med nationella normer, samt den institutionella kapaciteten för att koordinera implementering av nationell klimatpolicy. En effektiv implementering av ramverk för internationell klimatpolicy kommer, sammanfattningsvis, att vara beroende av staters villighet att tillhandahålla tillsyn och koordinering, samt tydlighet vad gäller tillgänglighet till internationellt stöd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. 117 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 708
Keyword
Policy process, Institutions, Domestic Politics, Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions, National, Climate Policy, India, Brazil, South Africa, Institutional Capacity, Norms, Nationally Determined Contributions, Policyprocess, Institutioner, Nationellt Lämpliga Utsläppsminskande Åtgärder, Nationell, Klimatpolicy, Indien, Brasilien, Sydafrika, Institutionell kapacitet, Nationellt Fastställda Bidrag.
National Category
Climate Research Environmental Sciences Globalization Studies Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalization Studies) Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-135431 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-135431 (DOI)9789176855829 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-04-07, TEMCAS, T building, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-03-14 Created: 2017-03-14 Last updated: 2017-03-17Bibliographically approved

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