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Burden of Hospital Acquired Infections and Antimicrobial Use in Vietnamese Adult Intensive Care Units
Natl Hosp Trop Dis, Intens Care Unit, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Univ Oxford, Clin Res Unit, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme, Hanoi, Vietnam; Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Ctr Trop Med, Oxford OX1 2JD, England.
Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
University of Oxford, England.
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2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 1, e0147544Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
Abstract [en]

Background Vietnam is a lower middle-income country with no national surveillance system for hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). We assessed the prevalence of hospital-acquired infections and antimicrobial use in adult intensive care units (ICUs) across Vietnam. Methods Monthly repeated point prevalence surveys were systematically conducted to assess HAI prevalence and antimicrobial use in 15 adult ICUs across Vietnam. Adults admitted to participating ICUs before 08: 00 a.m. on the survey day were included. Results Among 3287 patients enrolled, the HAI prevalence was 29.5% (965/3266 patients, 21 missing). Pneumonia accounted for 79.4% (804/1012) of HAIs Most HAIs (84.5% [855/1012]) were acquired in the survey hospital with 42.5% (363/855) acquired prior to ICU admission and 57.5% (492/855) developed during ICU admission. In multivariate analysis, the strongest risk factors for HAI acquired in ICU were: intubation (OR 2.76), urinary catheter (OR 2.12), no involvement of a family member in patient care (OR 1.94), and surgery after admission (OR 1.66). 726 bacterial isolates were cultured from 622/1012 HAIs, most frequently Acinetobacter baumannii (177/726 [24.4%]), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (100/726 [13.8%]), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (84/726 [11.6%]), with carbapenem resistance rates of 89.2%, 55.7%, and 14.9% respectively. Antimicrobials were prescribed for 84.8% (2787/ 3287) patients, with 73.7% of patients receiving two or more. The most common antimicrobial groups were third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and carbapenems (20.1%, 19.4%, and 14.1% of total antimicrobials, respectively). Conclusion A high prevalence of HAIs was observed, mainly caused by Gram-negative bacteria with high carbapenem resistance rates. This in combination with a high rate of antimicrobial use illustrates the urgent need to improve rational antimicrobial use and infection control efforts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE , 2016. Vol. 11, no 1, e0147544
National Category
Infectious Medicine
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125684DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147544ISI: 000369528600034PubMedID: 26824228OAI: diva2:908705
Available from: 2016-03-03 Created: 2016-02-29 Last updated: 2016-03-29

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Nilsson, Lennart ERydell, UlfHanberger, Håkan
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Division of Microbiology and Molecular MedicineFaculty of Medicine and Health SciencesFaculty of Health SciencesDepartment of Infectious Diseases
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