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Outsourcing och backsourcing av IT-lösningar: Utveckling och bakomliggande faktorer
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2015 (Swedish)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Outsourcing and backsourcing of IT solutions : Development and underlying factors (English)
Abstract [sv]

Outsourcing, det vill säga då en organisations tjänster eller produkter inom en funktion eller aktivitet läggs ut till en extern aktör, blev alltmer märkbart under 1990-talet. Trenden har vuxit till att utgöra en norm i dagens samhälle och numera outsourcar organisationer allt från förvaltning av informationsteknik (IT) till hela funktioner. Outsourcing av IT anses vara en växande och alltmer global företeelse, däremot kan problem med ett outsourcingavtal eller förändringar av ett företags affärssituation leda till backsourcing, vilket innebär att en organisation väljer att föra tillbaka och åter genomföra aktiviteter inom den egna verksamheten. Beslut kring outsourcing av IT-lösningar har utgjort en central aspekt inom såväl forskning som praktik medan beslut om att byta leverantör eller backsourca har fått relativt lite uppmärksamhet. Däremot utgör drivkrafterna bakom backsourcing ett lika relevant ämne att studera som motiven bakom outsourcing och med grund i detta syftar denna studie till att identifiera vilka motiv som kan ligga till grund för organisationers val att outsourca respektive backsourca IT-relaterade aktiviteter och funktioner samt undersöka hur de förutsättningar som gällde vid beslutet om att outsourca kan förändras under en outsourcingprocess. 

Jag har genomfört en studie av kvalitativ karaktär där en fallstudiedesign tillämpats. Ett antal organisationer som använder sig av IT och IT-lösningar i sitt dagliga arbete har undersökts där organisationerna tidigare har backsourcat, och/eller är i färd med att föra tillbaka, sin IT. Insamling av teori respektive empiri har skett genom en litteraturstudie och genomförandet av semistrukturerade intervjuer. I analysen har sedan det empiriska materialet ställts i relation till den tidigare forskning som finns inom (1) outsourcing och (2) backsourcing.

Studiens resultat visar att anledningar och motiv som kan resultera i ett företags beslut om att outsourca sin IT bland annat är möjligheten att göra kostnadsbesparingar, uppnå en större flexibilitet samt möjligheten att få tillgång till specialistkompetens. Under en outsourcingprocess kan exempelvis en organisations ledning bytas ut, vilket kan medföra nya åsikter och attityder gentemot verksamhetens sourcingstrategi, och IT:s betydelse för verksamheten kan förändras. Vidare har ett antal bakomliggande faktorer som kan spela in vid organisationers beslut om att backsourca sin outsourcade IT kunnat identifieras. Exempel på faktorer är att ingen total kostnadsbesparing görs och att efterlevnaden av kontraktet med leverantören kan vara bristfällig avseende exempelvis tjänstekvalitet.

Abstract [en]

Outsourcing, that is to say when an organization's services or products within a function or an activity are being contracted out to an external vendor, became increasingly noticeable during the 1990s. The trend has grown to represent the norm in today’s society and nowadays organizations outsource operations ranging from the management of information technology (IT) to whole functions. The outsourcing of IT is considered to be a growing and increasingly global phenomenon. However, problems with an outsourcing agreement or changes in a company's business situation can lead to backsourcing, a concept meaning that an organization chooses to bring back and re-implement activities within its own operations. Decisions regarding the outsourcing of IT solutions have been a central aspect in both research and practice while the decision to change supplier or backsource has received relatively little attention. Nevertheless, the drivers of backsourcing constitute an equally relevant topic to study. Hence, the aim of this study is to identify the motives underlying an organization’s decision to outsource, as well as backsource, IT related activities and functions and to examine how the conditions that applied when making the decision to outsource can change during an outsourcing process. 

I have conducted a qualitative study where a case study design has been applied. A number of organizations that use IT and IT solutions in their day-to-day operations have been studied where the organizations previously have backsourced and/or now find themselves in the process of bringing back their IT. A literature review has been conducted and empirical data has been collected through the use of semi-structured interviews. In the analysis, the empirical data has been analyzed in relation to previous research regarding (1) outsourcing and (2) backsourcing. 

The results of this study show that reasons and motives that can result in a firm's decision to outsource its IT include the possibility of achieving cost reductions, a greater flexibility and the possibility of gaining access to expertise. Examples of changes that can occur during an outsourcing process are within the management since the replacement of an organization’s management can bring new opinions and attitudes towards the firm’s sourcing strategy. The importance of IT to the operations can also change during an outsourcing process. Furthermore, a number of underlying factors that may affect an organization’s decision to backsource its IT have been identified. Examples of factors are that the outsourcing has resulted in no overall cost savings and that there’s a lack of compliance with the contract regarding, for example, the quality of the services being delivered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. , 116 p.
Keyword [en]
outsourcing, information technology, backsourcing, underlying factors
Keyword [sv]
outsourcing, informationsteknik, backsourcing, bakomliggande faktorer
National Category
Information Systems Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126111ISRN: LIU-IEI-FIL-A--15/02036--SEOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-126111DiVA: diva2:911869
Subject / course
Informatics/Information systems
Presentation
2015-06-04, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2016-03-15 Created: 2016-03-14 Last updated: 2016-03-15Bibliographically approved

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