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Arsenic Contamination in Soil and Sediment in India: Sources, Effects, and Remediation
Earth and Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India .
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India.
Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India.
Earth and Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India .
2015 (English)In: Current Pollution Reports, ISSN 2198-6592, Vol. 1, no 1, 35-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
Abstract [en]

Arsenic contamination is turning out to be a major problem these days with its area coverage and the number of people affected directly or indirectly. Now, the level of the contaminant has spread over the soil and sediments from groundwater and other natural sources. Arsenic poisoning in groundwater events is familiar to the world, but the consequences of soil contamination are still unrevealed to the community, specially the people of contaminated counties. Arsenic is a serious instantaneous concern for the people and other life forms regarding the poisoning through crops and vegetables. Many remediation technologies that mainly include physical, chemical, and a few biological methods have been evolved with time to check its effects. The physical and chemical methods for this purpose are often inefficient and/or very expensive, mainly limited to application in aqueous systems, and produce toxic sludge, which again becomes a matter of concern. But bioremediation relies on the fact that biological organisms have the ability to degrade, detoxify, and even accumulate harmful chemicals and offers attractive perspectives for biomonitoring (via biosensors), treatment of wastewater, and the recycling of polluted soils.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015. Vol. 1, no 1, 35-46 p.
National Category
Environmental Sciences Soil Science Water Engineering Geochemistry Water Treatment Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126596DOI: 10.1007/s40726-015-0004-2OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-126596DiVA: diva2:915761
Available from: 2016-03-31 Created: 2016-03-31 Last updated: 2016-03-31Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Distribution and Biogeochemical Cycling of Arsenic In Grey and Brown Sand Aquifers in the Bengal Delta Plains (India)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distribution and Biogeochemical Cycling of Arsenic In Grey and Brown Sand Aquifers in the Bengal Delta Plains (India)
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Distribution och biogeokemiska cykler av Arsenik i grått och brunt sand akviferer i Bengal Delta Plains (Indien)
Abstract [en]

An elevated level of Arsenic (As) in aquifers from India and Bangladesh affecting the human health has been widely reported since the late 1980s. The thesis aim is to investigate the present status of As contamination and biogeochemical cycling with direct role of diverse indigenous bacterial communities in As cycling in the Bengal Delta Plain (BDP) aquifers in Nadia district, West Bengal (India). The As(III) oxidizing bacterial communities were predominant in grey sand aquifers (GSA), but were characteristically absent in brown sand aquifers (BSA). Rainwater recharge containing inorganic and organic dissolved compounds played an important role in shaping the different groups of bacterial phenotypes. It included thearsenite-oxidizing bacteria as revealed by the aioA and 16S rRNA phylogeny. These bacterial communities in BDP groundwater were assumed to utilize the dissolved and sedimentary organic carbon (DOC and SOC) as the primary carbon source for respiration, and remobilization/immobilization of As involving reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides. Hence, sediment and groundwater of these aquifer waters were characterized for their different inorganic constituents (metals) and organic compound classes. There were notable differences between the groundwater DOC and SOC pools. The only similarity between these carbon pools is presence of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. The SOC in BSA has good correlation with the clay and silt-rich fraction. Notably, As formed complexes with iron, but not manganese. Biomarker characterization in sediments showed presence of terrigenous inputs along with petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. However, these hydrocarbons were absent in BSA sediments, and so were the arsenite oxidizing bacterial communities. Although DOC in groundwater plays an important role in sustaining the microorganisms, the contrasting character of SOC in BSA and GSA strongly influence the shaping of microbial community structure and biogeochemical cycling of As. This particularly affects the natural ‘safe’ drinking water capacity. Overall, the study gives a new directionfor long-term research on As biogeochemical cycling in the contaminated BDP aquifers.

Abstract [sv]

Sedan 1980-talet har förhöjda nivåer av arsenik (As) uppmätts i akvifärer i Indien och Bangladesh, vilket kan orsaka stora hälsoproblem då arsenik är giftigt för människor. Syftet med denna avhandling är både att undersökaaktuell föroreningsstatus av As i akvifärer i det Bengaliska Deltat (BDP), Nadia distriktet, Västbengalen (Indien) och att undersöka As biogeokemiskaomsättningsamt roll i olika inhemska bakteriella samhällen. Resultaten visar att As (III) oxiderande bakteriesamhällen var dominerande i grå akvifärsand (GSA), men hittades intei brun akvifärsand (BSA). Det visar sig också att tillförsel av regnvatten med oorganiska och organiska lösta föreningar spelar en viktig roll för att skapaolika grupper av bakteriella fenotyperdärarsenitoxiderande bakterier ingick vilket framkommedaioA och 16S rRNA fylogeni. Dessa bakteriesamhällen i BDPs grundvatten utnyttjar troligtvis det upplösta och sedimentära organiska kolet (DOC och SOC) som primär kolkälla för andning, och hjälper till att lösa upp järnhydroxidervid mobilisering av As. Därför kan sediment och grundvatten i dessa grundvattenakvifärer karaktäriseras genomderas olika oorganiska beståndsdelar (metaller) och organiska föreningar. Det fanns ocksåtydliga skillnader mellan DOC och SOC pooler i grundvatten och akvifärmaterial. Den enda likheten mellan dessa kolpooler är förekomst av petroleumbaserade kolväten. SOC i BSA korrelerar med ler- och siltfraktioner. Vidare såbildades As komplex med järn, men inte med mangan. Karakterisering med hjälp av biomarkörer i sediment visade närvaro av terrestra samt och petroleumbaserade kolväten. Dessa kolväten hittades inte i sediment från BSA, och inte heller arsenitoxiderande bakteriesamhällen. Även om DOC i grundvatten spelar en viktig roll förmikroorganismerna, så påverkar olika SOC i BSA och GSA de  mikrobiella samhällsstrukturerna och den biogeokemiska omsättningen av As. Detta påverkarsärskilt den naturligt "säkra" dricksvattenkapaciteten. Sammantaget ger studien en ny riktning för långsiktig forskning om As biogeokemiska cykel i förorenade BDP akvifärer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. 80 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 670
Keyword
Arsenic, aquifer, arsenite oxidation, aioA gene, Bengal delta plains, biogeochemical cycling biomarkers, DOC, SOC, Arsenik, akvifärer, arsenitoxiderande, aioA gene, Bengal delta plains, biogeokemiska omsättning, biomarkörer, DOC, SOC
National Category
Geochemistry Water Treatment Microbiology Geosciences, Multidisciplinary Water Engineering Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126598 (URN)978-91-7685-830-1 (Print) (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-03-22, TEMCAS, T- House, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-03-31 Created: 2016-03-31 Last updated: 2016-06-14Bibliographically approved

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