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Studying distributed cognition of simulation-based team training with DiCoT.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2016 (English)In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 423-434Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Health care organizations employ simulation-based team training (SBTT) to improve skill, communication and coordination in a broad range of critical care contexts. Quantitative approaches, such as team performance measurements, are predominantly used to measure SBTTs effectiveness. However, a practical evaluation method that examines how this approach supports cognition and teamwork is missing. We have applied Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT), a method for analysing cognition and collaboration aspects of work settings, with the purpose of assessing the methodology's usefulness for evaluating SBTTs. In a case study, we observed and analysed four Emergo Train System® simulation exercises where medical professionals trained emergency response routines. The study suggests that DiCoT is an applicable and learnable tool for determining key distributed cognition attributes of SBTTs that are of importance for the simulation validity of training environments. Moreover, we discuss and exemplify how DiCoT supports design of SBTTs with a focus on transfer and validity characteristics. Practitioner Summary: In this study, we have evaluated a method to assess simulation-based team training environments from a cognitive ergonomics perspective. Using a case study, we analysed Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT) by applying it to the Emergo Train System®. We conclude that DiCoT is useful for SBTT evaluation and simulator (re)design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2016. Vol. 59, no 3, p. 423-434
Keyword [en]
Simulation; distributed cognition; prehospital medicine, methodology; team training
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126627DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2015.1074290ISI: 000377692100008PubMedID: 26275026OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-126627DiVA, id: diva2:915948
Note

Funding agencies:  Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency; Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA)

Available from: 2016-03-31 Created: 2016-03-31 Last updated: 2018-03-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Studying Simulations with Distributed Cognition
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studying Simulations with Distributed Cognition
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Simulations are frequently used techniques for training, performance assessment, and prediction of future outcomes. In this thesis, the term “human-centered simulation” is used to refer to any simulation in which humans and human cognition are integral to the simulation’s function and purpose (e.g., simulation-based training). A general problem for human-centered simulations is to capture the cognitive processes and activities of the target situation (i.e., the real world task) and recreate them accurately in the simulation. The prevalent view within the simulation research community is that cognition is internal, decontextualized computational processes of individuals. However, contemporary theories of cognition emphasize the importance of the external environment, use of tools, as well as social and cultural factors in cognitive practice. Consequently, there is a need for research on how such contemporary perspectives can be used to describe human-centered simulations, re-interpret theoretical constructs of such simulations, and direct how simulations should be modeled, designed, and evaluated.

This thesis adopts distributed cognition as a framework for studying human-centered simulations. Training and assessment of emergency medical management in a Swedish context using the Emergo Train System (ETS) simulator was adopted as a case study. ETS simulations were studied and analyzed using the distributed cognition for teamwork (DiCoT) methodology with the goal of understanding, evaluating, and testing the validity of the ETS simulator. Moreover, to explore distributed cognition as a basis for simulator design, a digital re-design of ETS (DIGEMERGO) was developed based on the DiCoT analysis. The aim of the DIGEMERGO system was to retain core distributed cognitive features of ETS, to increase validity, outcome reliability, and to provide a digital platform for emergency medical studies. DIGEMERGO was evaluated in three separate studies; first, a usefulness, usability, and facevalidation study that involved subject-matter-experts; second, a comparative validation study using an expert-novice group comparison; and finally, a transfer of training study based on self-efficacy and management performance. Overall, the results showed that DIGEMERGO was perceived as a useful, immersive, and promising simulator – with mixed evidence for validity – that demonstrated increased general self-efficacy and management performance following simulation exercises.

This thesis demonstrates that distributed cognition, using DiCoT, is a useful framework for understanding, designing and evaluating simulated environments. In addition, the thesis conceptualizes and re-interprets central constructs of human-centered simulation in terms of distributed cognition. In doing so, the thesis shows how distributed cognitive processes relate to validity, fidelity, functionality, and usefulness of human-centered simulations. This thesis thus provides a new understanding of human-centered simulations that is grounded in distributed cognition theory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. p. 94
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1913
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145307 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-145307 (DOI)9789176853481 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-04-19, Ada Lovelace, B-huset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-03-20 Created: 2018-03-20 Last updated: 2018-03-21Bibliographically approved

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Rybing, JonasNilsson, HeléneJonson, Carl-Oscar

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