liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Phase Noise and Wideband Transmission in Massive MIMO
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the last decades the world has experienced a massive growth in the demand for wireless services. The recent popularity of hand-held devices with data exchange capabilities over wireless networks, such as smartphones and tablets, increased the wireless data traffic even further. This trend is not expected to cease in the foreseeable future. In fact, it is expected to accelerate as everyday apparatus unrelated with data communications, such as vehicles or household devices, are foreseen to be equipped with wireless communication capabilities.

Further, the next generation wireless networks should be designed such that they have increased spectral and energy efficiency, provide uniformly good service to all of the accommodated users and handle many more devices simultaneously. Massive multiple-input multiple-output (Massive MIMO) systems, also termed as large-scale MIMO, very large MIMO or full-dimension MIMO, have recently been proposed as a candidate technology for next generation wireless networks. In Massive MIMO, base stations (BSs) with a large number of antenna elements serve simultaneously only a few tens of single antenna, non-cooperative users. As the number of BS antennas grow large, the normalized channel vectors to the users become pairwise asymptotically orthogonal and, therefore, simple linear processing techniques are optimal. This is substantially different from the current design of contemporary cellular systems, where BSs are equipped with a few antennas and the optimal processing is complex. Consequently, the need for redesign of the communication protocols is apparent.

The deployment of Massive MIMO requires the use of many inexpensive and, potentially, off-the-shelf hardware components. Such components are likely to be of low quality and to introduce distortions to the information signal. Hence, Massive MIMO must be robust against the distortions introduced by the hardware impairments. Among the most important hardware impairments is phase noise, which is introduced by local oscillators (LOs) at the BS and the user terminals. Phase noise is a phenomenon of particular importance since it acts multiplicatively on the desired signal and rotates it by some random and unknown argument. Further, the promised gains of Massive MIMO can be reaped by coherent combination of estimated channel impulse responses at the BS antennas. Phase noise degrades the quality of the estimated channel impulse responses and impedes the coherent combination of the received waveforms.

In this dissertation, wideband transmission schemes and the effect of phase noise on Massive MIMO are studied. First, the use of a low-complexity single-carrier precoding scheme for the broadcast channel is investigated when the number of BS antennas is much larger than the number of served users. A rigorous, closed-form lower bound on the achievable sum-rate is derived and a scaling law on the potential radiated energy savings is stated. Further, the performance of the proposed scheme is compared with a sum-capacity upper bound and with a bound on the performance of the contemporary multi-carrier orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission.

Second, the effect of phase noise on the achievable rate performance of a wideband Massive MIMO uplink with time-reversal maximum ratio combining (TRMRC) receive processing is investigated. A rigorous lower bound on the achievable sum-rate is derived and a scaling law on the radiated energy efficiency is established. Two distinct LO configurations at the BS, i.e., the common LO (synchronous) operation and the independent LO (non-synchronous) operation, are analyzed and compared. It is concluded that the non-synchronous operation is preferable due to an averaging of the independent phase noise sources. Further, a progressive degradation of the achievable rate due to phase noise is observed. A similar study is extended to a flat fading uplink with zero-forcing (ZF) receiver at the BS.

The fundamental limits of data detection in a phase-noise-impaired uplink are also studied, when the channel impulse responses are estimated via uplink training. The corresponding maximum likelihood (ML) detector is provided for the synchronous and non-synchronous operations and for a general parameterization of the phase noise statistics. The symbol error rate (SER) performance at the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the detectors is studied. Finally, rigorous lower bounds on the achievable rate of a Massive MIMO-OFDM uplink are derived and scaling laws on the radiated energy efficiency are stated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. , 57 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1756
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127399DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-127399ISBN: 978-91-7685-791-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-127399DiVA: diva2:923462
Public defence
2016-06-02, Visionen, House B, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-04-28 Created: 2016-04-26 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. On the Optimality of Single-Carrier Transmission in Large-Scale Antenna Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Optimality of Single-Carrier Transmission in Large-Scale Antenna Systems
2012 (English)In: IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, ISSN 2162-2337, E-ISSN 2162-2345, Vol. 1, no 4, 276-279 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

A single carrier transmission scheme is presentedfor the frequency selective multi-user (MU) multiple-input singleoutput(MISO) Gaussian Broadcast Channel (GBC) with a basestation (BS) having M antennas and K single antenna users.The proposed transmission scheme has low complexity andfor M ≫ K it is shown to achieve near optimal sum-rateperformance at low transmit power to receiver noise power ratio.Additionally, the proposed transmission scheme results in anequalization-free receiver and does not require any MU resourceallocation and associated control signaling overhead. Also, thesum-rate achieved by the proposed transmission scheme is shownto be independent of the channel power delay profile (PDP). Interms of power efficiency, the proposed transmission scheme alsoexhibits an O(M) array power gain. Simulations are used toconfirm analytical observations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2012
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80173 (URN)10.1109/WCL.2012.041612.120046 (DOI)
Note

© Copyright 2012 IEEE Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other users, including reprinting/ republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted components of this work in other works.

Available from: 2012-08-22 Created: 2012-08-22 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
2. Uplink Performance of Time-Reversal MRC in Massive MIMO Systems subject to Phase Noise
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Uplink Performance of Time-Reversal MRC in Massive MIMO Systems subject to Phase Noise
2015 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 14, 711-723 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) cellular systems with an excess of base station (BS) antennas (Massive MIMO) offer unprecedented multiplexing gains and radiated energy efficiency. Oscillator phase noise is introduced in the transmitter and receiver radio frequency chains and severely degrades the performance of communication systems. We study the effect of oscillator phase noise in frequency-selective Massive MIMO systems with imperfect channel state information (CSI) and M BS antennas. In particular, we consider two distinct operation modes, namely when the phase noise processes at the BS antennas are identical (synchronous operation) and when they are independent (non-synchronous operation). We analyze a linear and low-complexity time-reversal maximum-ratio combining (TR-MRC) reception strategy. For both operation modes we derive a lower bound on the sum-capacity and we compare the performance of the two modes. Based on the derived achievable sum-rate, we show that with the proposed receive processing an O() array gain is achievable. Due to the phase noise drift the estimated effective channel becomes progressively outdated. Therefore, phase noise effectively limits the length of the interval used for data transmission and the number of scheduled users. The derived achievable rates provide insights into the optimum choice of the data interval length and the number of scheduled users.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2015
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97477 (URN)10.1109/TWC.2014.2359018 (DOI)000349674800010 ()
Note

Manuscript received March 5, 2014; revised July 10, 2014; accepted September 6, 2014. Date of publication September 18, 2014; date of current version February 6, 2015. This work was supported in part by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research and in part by ELLIIT. The work of S. K. Mohammed was supported by the Science and Engineering Research Board, Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. This paper was presented in part at the 50th Allerton Conference on Communication, Control and Computing, Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA, October 2012. The associate editor coordinating the review of this paper and approving it for publication was L. Sanguinetti.

Available from: 2013-09-13 Created: 2013-09-13 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Achievable Rates of ZF Receivers in Massive MIMO with Phase Noise Impairments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Achievable Rates of ZF Receivers in Massive MIMO with Phase Noise Impairments
2013 (English)In: 2013 ASILOMAR CONFERENCE ON SIGNALS, SYSTEMS AND COMPUTERS, 2013, 1004-1008 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The effect of oscillator phase noise on the sum-rate performance of large multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) systems, termed as Massive MIMO, is studied. A Rayleigh fading MU-MIMO uplink channel is considered, where channel state information (CSI) is acquired via training. The base station (BS), which is equipped with an excess of antenna elements, M, uses the channel estimate to perform zero-forcing (ZF) detection. A lower bound on the sum-rate performance is derived. It is shown that the proposed receiver structure exhibits an O() array power gain. Additionally, the proposed receiver is compared with earlier studies that employ maximum ratio combining and it is shown that it can provide significant sum-rate performance gains at the medium and high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) regime. Further, the expression of the achievable sum rate provides new insights on the effect of various parameters on the overall system performance.

Series
ASILOMAR CONFERENCE ON SIGNALS, SYSTEMS AND COMPUTERS, ISSN 1058-6393
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97478 (URN)10.1109/ACSSC.2013.6810441 (DOI)000341772900184 ()978-1-4799-2390-8 (ISBN)
Conference
47th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers
Available from: 2013-09-13 Created: 2013-09-13 Last updated: 2016-09-13Bibliographically approved
4. ML Detection in Phase Noise Impaired SIMO Channels with Uplink Training
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ML Detection in Phase Noise Impaired SIMO Channels with Uplink Training
2016 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 64, no 1, 223-235 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The problem of maximum likelihood (ML) detection in training-assisted single-input multiple-output (SIMO) systems with phase noise impairments is studied for two different scenarios, i.e. the case when the channel is deterministic and known (constant channel) and the case when the channel is stochastic and unknown (fading channel). Further, two different operations with respect to the phase noise sources are considered, namely, the case of identical phase noise sources and the case of independent phase noise sources over the antennas. In all scenarios the optimal detector is derived for a very general parameterization of the phase noise distribution. Further, a high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) analysis is performed to show that symbol-error-rate (SER) floors appear in all cases. The SER floor in the case of identical phase noise sources (for both constant and fading channels) is independent of the number of antenna elements. In contrast, the SER floor in the case of independent phase noise sources is reduced when increasing the number of antenna elements (for both constant and fading channels). Finally, the system model is extended to multiple data channel uses and it is shown that the conclusions are valid for these setups, as well.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122617 (URN)10.1109/TCOMM.2015.2498163 (DOI)000368353700021 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF); ELLIIT

Available from: 2015-11-12 Created: 2015-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
5. Performance of the Massive MIMO Uplink with OFDM and Phase Noise
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance of the Massive MIMO Uplink with OFDM and Phase Noise
2016 (English)In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 20, no 8, 1595-1598 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The performance of multi-userMassiveMIMO-OFDMuplink systems in the presence of base station (BS) phase noise impairments is investigated. Closed-form achievable rate expressions are rigorously derived under two different operations, namely the case of a common oscillator (synchronous operation) at the BS and the case of independent oscillators at each BS antenna (non-synchronous operation). It is observed that the non-synchronous operation exhibits superior performance due to the averaging of intercarrier interference. Further, radiated power scaling lawsare derived, which are identical to the phase-noise-free case.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127398 (URN)10.1109/LCOMM.2016.2581169 (DOI)000384642900028 ()
Note

The previous status of this article was Manuscript.

Funding agencies: Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF); ELLIIT

Available from: 2016-04-26 Created: 2016-04-26 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(516 kB)257 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 516 kBChecksum SHA-512
b3e1dd2aad8060204b404678744b2d1af8101a9123641bc5ecb732304eae3bab45bcf0c68109350ec56bb864113e4dbc69d39a3bb3971222ca589cc9cc413275
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
omslag(3240 kB)44 downloads
File information
File name COVER01.pdfFile size 3240 kBChecksum SHA-512
c6e75fd35c52697422c2ccbfda30c6e9ff5ca26c4fca363f103e803b0b4fe09be1ab5dfee4972bfe58b4a7359584c43075d4ad447607f379dad15bcf10f9a4bd
Type coverMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full text

Authority records BETA

Pitarokoilis, Antonios

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Pitarokoilis, Antonios
By organisation
Communication SystemsFaculty of Science & Engineering
Communication Systems

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 257 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 3147 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf