Metabolic profiling of new synthetic cannabinoids AMB and 5F-AMB by human hepatocyte and liver microsome incubations and high-resolution mass spectrometry
2016 (English)In: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 0951-4198, E-ISSN 1097-0231, Vol. 30, no 8, 1067-1078 p.Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
RationaleAMB (methyl (1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carbonyl)-L-valinate)) and its fluoro analog 5F-AMB (methyl (1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carbonyl)-L-valinate) are two new synthetic cannabinoids that are structural analogs of AB-PINACA and 5F-AB-PINACA, respectively. 5F-AMB is scheduled as an illicit drug in China, Germany, Singapore and Japan, and no metabolism data are currently available for either drug. The aim of the present work was to investigate the metabolism of AMB and 5F-AMB and propose appropriate markers to identify their intake in clinical or forensic cases. MethodsAMB and 5F-AMB were incubated in human hepatocytes (10 mol/L) to generate phase I and II metabolites, which were identified with a TripleTOF 5600(+) high-resolution mass spectrometer. AMB and 5F-AMB metabolic stability studies also were performed with human liver microsomes (HLM) to evaluate metabolic clearances, and to adequately design the human hepatocyte experiment. ResultsAMB and 5F-AMB were quickly metabolized in HLM with a 1.1 0.1 and 1.0 +/- 0.2min T-1/2, respectively. The predominant metabolic pathway for AMB and 5F-AMB in hepatocytes was ester hydrolysis, and further oxidation and/or glucuronidation. In total, 19 metabolites were identified for AMB and 17 for 5F-AMB. We describe metabolites to differentiate AMB from 5F-AMB, and metabolites that are common to both analytes due to oxidative defluorination of 5F-AMB. ConclusionsFor the first time, AMB and 5F-AMB metabolism profiles were characterized, providing valuable data for identifying these two novel psychoactive substances. The difficulties of differentiating AMB and 5F-AMB from AB-PINACA/5F-AB-PINACA metabolites also were examined. These data improve the interpretation of urinary markers after AMB and 5F-AMB intake. Published in 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-BLACKWELL , 2016. Vol. 30, no 8, 1067-1078 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127411DOI: 10.1002/rcm.7538ISI: 000373073000007PubMedID: 27003044OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-127411DiVA: diva2:925587
Funding Agencies|Intramural Research Program (IRP) of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health2016-05-022016-04-262016-05-09