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Ionic thermoelectric supercapacitors
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Xiamen University, Peoples R China.
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2016 (English)In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 9, no 4, 1450-1457 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
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Text
Abstract [en]

Temperature gradients are generated by the sun and a vast array of technologies and can induce molecular concentration gradients in solutions via thermodiffusion (Soret effect). For ions, this leads to a thermovoltage that is determined by the thermal gradient Delta T across the electrolyte, together with the ionic Seebeck coefficient alpha(i). So far, redox-free electrolytes have been poorly explored in thermoelectric applications due to a lack of strategies to harvest the energy from the Soret effect. Here, we report the conversion of heat into stored charge via a remarkably strong ionic Soret effect in a polymeric electrolyte (Seebeck coefficients as high as alpha(i) = 10 mV K-1). The ionic thermoelectric supercapacitor (ITESC) is charged under a temperature gradient. After the temperature gradient is removed, the stored electrical energy can be delivered to an external circuit. This new means to harvest energy is particularly suitable for intermittent heat sources like the sun. We show that the stored electrical energy of the ITESC is proportional to (Delta T alpha(i))(2). The resulting ITESC can convert and store several thousand times more energy compared with a traditional thermoelectric generator connected in series with a supercapacitor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY , 2016. Vol. 9, no 4, 1450-1457 p.
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128769DOI: 10.1039/c6ee00121aISI: 000374351200029OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-128769DiVA: diva2:931779
Note

Funding Agencies|European Research Council (ERC) [307596]; Swedish foundation for strategic research (SSF); Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation (KAW); Swedish Energy Agency; Wenner-Gren Foundations; Advanced Functional Materials Centre at Linkoping University.

The previous status of this article was Manuscript.

Available from: 2016-05-30 Created: 2016-05-30 Last updated: 2017-02-03Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Thermoelectric Devices with Electronic and Ionic Conducting Polymers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermoelectric Devices with Electronic and Ionic Conducting Polymers
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The energy consumption in the world is continuously growing and the sources of energy are largely dominated by fossil fuels. However, the resources of oil, gas and coal are diminishing in capacity. Moreover the CO2 emissions arising from their combustion is a great concern because it induces climate changes that threaten our habitat. There is a dire need to look for alternative sources of energies and to minimize losses of energy in our surroundings. Heat engines and turbines typically running with fossil energy have efficiencies of about 35%, i.e. 65% of the energy is lost in the form of heat. Low temperature heat (<200 C) is almost always wasted in power plants, industries, automobiles and household appliances. This is a huge resource that can be directly converted to electricity through the concept of thermoelectricity. Major challenges for heat to electricity conversion include finding the abundant materials with efficient thermoelectric (TE) conversion that can be mass produced at low cost.

This thesis presents an investigation of the TE properties of electronic and ionic conducting polymers, as well as their implementation in thermoelectric devices. This is a journey from thin solid films on a substrate to wet and liquid media and towards bulk structures utilizing the same core concept of thermoelectricity. The TE device concepts introduced here are suitable for various heat sources i.e. continuous, intermittent and instantaneous. The thesis has three major parts as follows:

Conducting polymers (CPs) have been studied mainly as thin films. They have been synthesized in different ways and their properties have been compared to propose the most efficient amongst them for thermoelectricity. Simple methods of exposure to certain gases or liquids have been used to tune their TE properties and demonstrated its applications in thermoelectric generator (TEGs).

Ionic materials have also been studied as potential candidates for thermoelectricity. Polyelectrolytes constitute a special class of electrolytes with dissimilar sizes of ions; a polymeric ion and a small counter ion. The movement of the small sodium (Na+) cation under heat gradient was explored in wet films and in solution. Because the ions could not cross the electrolyte-electrode junction, we propose the idea of ionic thermoelectric supercapacitor (ITESC), suitable for intermittent heat source.

Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) has been used along with conducting polymers to realize the three dimensional conducting bulks as a TEG leg. NFC bulks were coated with conducting polymers as a first approach and later the mixture of (NFC & CP) was freeze-dried. The later approach resulted in mechanically flexible structures that were used as dual sensors for pressure and temperature based on the TE properties of the CP which can be utilized for electronic skin applications.

The thesis shows new ways of utilizing waste heat using polymeric materials and points to a sensory application area, broadening the horizons of thermoelectricity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. 50 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1709
Keyword
Thermoelectricity, conducting polymers, thermoelectric devices
National Category
Physical Sciences Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121982 (URN)978-91-7685-931-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-11-12, Resuren (Pronova), Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 10:00 (English)
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Available from: 2015-10-14 Created: 2015-10-14 Last updated: 2017-02-03Bibliographically approved

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