Prognostisering av försäljningsvolym med hjälp av omvärldsindikatorer
Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Forecasts are used as a basis for decision making and they mainly affect decisions at strategic and tactical levels in a company or organization. There are two different methods to perform forecasts. The first one is a qualitative method where a n expert or group of experts tell about the future. The second one is a quantitative method where forecast are produced by mathematical and statistical models. This study used a quantitative method to build a forecast model and took into account external f actors in forecasting the sales volume of Bosch Rexroth’s hydraulic motors.
There is a very wide range of external factors and only a limited selection had been analyzed in this study. The selection of the variables was based on the markets where Bosch Rexroth products are used, such as mining.
This study aimed to develop five predictive models: one model for the global sales volume, one model each for sales volume in USA and China and one model each for sales volume of CA engine and Viking engine. By identifying external factors that showed significant relationship in various time lags with Bosch Rexroth’s sales volume, the forecasts 2016 and 2017 were produced.
The study used a combination of multiple linear regression and a Box - Jenkins AR MA errors to analyze the association of external factors and to produce forecasts. Externa l factors such as commodity prices, inflation and exchange rates between different currencies were taken into account. By using a cross - correlation function between external factors and the sales volume, significant external factors in different time lags were identified and then put into the model. The forecasting method used is a Causal forecasting model.
The global sales volume of Bosch Rexroth turned out to be affected by the historical price of copper in three different time lags , one, six and seven months . From 2010 to 2015, the copper price have been continuously dropping which explain s the downward trend of the sales volume. The sales volume in The U SA showed a significant association by the price of coal with three and four time lags. This means that the change of coal price takes three and four months before it affects the sales volume in the USA. The market in China showed to be affected by the development of the price of silver. The volume of sales is affected by the price of silver by four and six time lags. CA engine also displayed association with the price of copper at the same time lags as in the global sales volume. On the other hand, Viking engine showed no significant association at all with any of the external factors that were analyzed in this study.
The forecast for global mean sales volume will be between 253 to 309 units a month for May 2016 – December 2017. Mean sales volume in USA projected to be in between 24 to 32 units per month. China's mean sales volume is expected to be in between 42 to 81 units a month. Mean sales volume of CA engine has a forecast of 175 to 212 units a month. While the mean s ales of Viking engine projected to stay in a constant volume of 25 units per month.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , 73 p.
Forecasting, ARIMAX, Dynamic regression, ARMA error
Prognostisering, försäljningsvolym, ARIMAX, Dynamisk regression, ARMA feltermer
Probability Theory and Statistics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129572ISRN: LIU-IDA/STAT-G--16/007--SEOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-129572DiVA: diva2:941059
Subject / course