Ion-Exchange and Cation Solvation Reactions in Ti3C2 MXene
2016 (English)In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 28, no 10, 3507-3514 p.Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
Ti3C2 and other two-dimensional transition metal carbides known as MXenes are currently being explored for many applications involving intercalated ions, from electrochemical energy storage, to contaminant sorption from water, to selected ion sieving. We report here a systematic investigation of ion exchange in Ti3C2 MXene and its hydration/dehydration behavior. We have investigated the effects of the presence of LiCl during the chemical etching of the MAX phase Ti3AlC2 into MXene Ti3C2Tx (T stands for surface termination) and found that the resulting MXene has Li+ cations in the interlayer space. We successfully exchanged the Li+ cations with K+, Na+, Rb+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ (supported by X-ray photoelectron and energy-dispersive spectroscopy) and found that the exchanged material expands on the unit-cell level in response to changes in humidity, with the nature expansion dependent on the intercalated cation, similar to behavior of clay minerals; stepwise expansions of the basal spacing were observed, with changes consistent with the size of the H2O molecule. Thermogravimetric analysis of the dehydration behavior of these materials shows that the amounts of H2O contained at ambient humidity correlates simply with the hydration enthalpy of the intercalated cation, and that the diffusion of the exiting H2O proceeds with kinetics similar to clays. These results have implications for understanding, controlling, and exploiting structural changes and H2O sorption in MXene films and powders utilized in applications involving ions, such as electrochemical capacitors, sensors, reverse osmosis membranes, or contaminant sorbents.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC , 2016. Vol. 28, no 10, 3507-3514 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129673DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b01275ISI: 000376825700034OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-129673DiVA: diva2:942278
Funding Agencies|U.S. National Science Foundation [DMR-1310245]; National Science Foundation [283036-3304]; Swedish Research Council [621-2014-4890]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research through the Synergy Grant FUNCASE Functional Carbides for Advanced Surface Engineering; U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences2016-06-232016-06-232016-07-26