Monitoring of partial and full venous outflow obstruction in a porcine flap model using laser speckle contrast imaging
2016 (English)In: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, ISSN 1748-6815, E-ISSN 1532-1959, Vol. 69, no 7, 936-943 p.Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
Background: In microsurgery, there is a demand for more reliable methods of postoperative monitoring of free flaps, especially with regard to tissue-threatening obstructions of the feeding arteries and draining veins. In this study, we evaluated laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) to assess their possibilities to detect partial and full venous outflow obstruction, as well as full arterial occlusion, in a porcine flap model. Methods: Cranial gluteal artery perforator flaps (CGAPs) were raised, and arterial and venous blood flow to and from the flaps was monitored using ultrasonic flow probes. The venous flow was altered with an inflatable cuff to simulate partial and full (50% and 100%) venous obstruction, and arterial flow was completely obstructed using clamps. The flap microcirculation was monitored using LSCI and LDF. Results: Both LDF and the LSCI detected significant changes in flap perfusion. After partial (50%) venous occlusion, perfusion decreased from baseline, LSCI: 63.5 +/- 12.9 PU (p = 0.01), LDF 31.3 +/- 15.7 (p = 0.64). After 100% venous occlusion, a further decrease in perfusion was observed: LSCI 54.6 +/- 14.2 PU (p amp;lt; 0.001) and LDF 16.7 +/- 12.8 PU (p amp;lt; 0.001). After release of the venous cuff, LSCI detected a return of the perfusion to a level slightly, but not significantly, below the baseline level 70.1 +/- 11.5 PU (p=0.39), while the LDF signal returned to a level not significant from the baseline 36.1 +/- 17.9 PU (p amp;gt; 0.99). Perfusion during 100% arterial occlusion decreased significantly as measured with both methods, LSCI: 48.3 +/- 7.7 (PU, pamp;lt;0.001) and LDF: 8.5 +/- 4.0 PU (pamp;lt;0.001). During 50% and 100% venous occlusion, LSCI showed a 20% and 26% inter-subject variability (CV%), respectively, compared to 50% and 77% for LDF. Conclusions: LSCI offers sensitive and reproducible measurements of flap microcirculation and seems more reliable in detecting decreases in blood perfusion caused by venous obstruction. It also allows for perfusion measurements in a relatively large area of flap tissue. This may be useful in identifying areas of the flap with compromised microcirculation during and after surgery. (C) 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD , 2016. Vol. 69, no 7, 936-943 p.
Free flaps; Venous occlusion; Arterial occlusion; Laser Doppler; Laser speckle contrast imaging
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130059DOI: 10.1016/j.bjps.2016.02.015ISI: 000377698600010PubMedID: 27026039OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-130059DiVA: diva2:947024
Funding Agencies|county of Ostergotland2016-07-062016-07-062016-08-18