A possible link between loading, inflammation and healing: Immune cell populations during tendon healing in the rat
2016 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, no 29824Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
Loading influences tendon healing, and so does inflammation. We hypothesized that the two are connected. 48 rats underwent Achilles tendon transection. Half of the rats received Botox injections into calf muscles to reduce mechanical loading. Cells from the regenerating tissue were analyzed by flow cytometry. In the loaded group, the regenerating tissue contained 83% leukocytes (CD45(+)) day 1, and 23% day 10. The M1/M2 macrophage ratio (CCR7/CD206) peaked at day 3, while T helper (CD3(+)CD4(+)) and T-reg cells (CD25(+) Foxp3(+)) increased over time. With Botox, markers associated with down-regulation of inflammation were more common day 5 (CD163, CD206, CD25, Foxp3), and M1 or M2 macrophages and T-reg cells were virtually absent day 10, while still present with full loading. The primary variable, CCR7/CD206 ratio day 5, was higher with full loading (p = 0.001) and the T-reg cell fraction was lower (p amp;lt; 0.001). Free cage activity loading is known to increase size and strength of the tendon in this model compared to Botox. Loading now appeared to delay the switch to an M2 type of inflammation with more T-reg cells. It seems a prolonged M1 phase due to loading might make the tendon regenerate bigger.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP , 2016. Vol. 6, no 29824
Cell and Molecular Biology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130383DOI: 10.1038/srep29824ISI: 000379584000001PubMedID: 27405922OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-130383DiVA: diva2:952752
Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [K2013-52X-02031-47-5]; Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports; King Gustaf V and Queen Victoria Free Mason Foundation2016-08-152016-08-052016-09-08