Systems-wide Experimental and Modeling Analysis of Insulin Signaling through Forkhead Box Protein O1 (FOXO1) in Human Adipocytes, Normally and in Type 2 Diabetes
2016 (English)In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 291, no 30, 15806-15819 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Insulin resistance is a major aspect of type 2 diabetes (T2D), which results from impaired insulin signaling in target cells. Signaling to regulate forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) may be the most important mechanism for insulin to control transcription. Despite this, little is known about how insulin regulates FOXO1 and how FOXO1 may contribute to insulin resistance in adipocytes, which are the most critical cell type in the development of insulin resistance. We report a detailed mechanistic analysis of insulin control of FOXO1 in human adipocytes obtained from non-diabetic subjects and from patients with T2D. We show that FOXO1 is mainly phosphorylated through mTORC2-mediated phosphorylation of protein kinase B at Ser(473) and that this mechanism is unperturbed in T2D. We also demonstrate a cross-talk from the MAPK branch of insulin signaling to stimulate phosphorylation of FOXO1. The cellular abundance and consequently activity of FOXO1 are halved in T2D. Interestingly, inhibition of mTORC1 with rapamycin reduces the abundance of FOXO1 to the levels in T2D. This suggests that the reduction of the concentration of FOXO1 is a consequence of attenuation of mTORC1, which defines much of the diabetic state in human adipocytes. We integrate insulin control of FOXO1 in a network-wide mathematical model of insulin signaling dynamics based on compatible data from human adipocytes. The diabetic state is network-wide explained by attenuation of an mTORC1-to-insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) feedback and reduced abundances of insulin receptor, GLUT4, AS160, ribosomal protein S6, and FOXO1. The model demonstrates that attenuation of the mTORC1-to-IRS1 feedback is a major mechanism of insulin resistance in the diabetic state.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Rockville, Maryland: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2016. Vol. 291, no 30, 15806-15819 p.
Endocrinology and Diabetes
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130998DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M116.715763ISI: 000380584200033PubMedID: 27226562OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-130998DiVA: diva2:957635
Funding agencies|Swedish Diabetes Fund, University of Linköping; Swedish Research Council; AstraZeneca2016-09-022016-09-022016-09-19Bibliographically approved