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Hur påverkar pullfaktorer fördelningen av asylansökningar inom EU-25?
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
2016 (Swedish)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
The effect off pull factors on asylum application shares in EU-25 (English)
Abstract [sv]

De senaste åren har världen upplevt den största flyktingkrisen sedan andra världskriget. Inom EU har fördelningen av asylansökningar varit ojämnt fördelad mellan medlemsländerna trots gemensamma asylpolicyer. Genom paneldataanalys undersöker vi i denna studie hur ekonomiska, nätverksrelaterade, attitydrelaterade och policyrelaterade pullfaktorer har påverkat det relativa asyltrycket hos medlemsländerna i EU-25 mellan 2005 och 2014. Resultaten visar att länders pullfaktorer har en påverkan på dess relativa asyltryck. Vi finner stöd för vad tidigare studier dokumenterat men även resultat som pekar i andra riktningar. Låg arbetslöshet, hög lön, migrantnätverk, attityder och att vara ett land som ligger längs de vanligaste flyktvägarna in till EU visar ett signifikant positivt samband med relativt asyltryck. I kontrast till tidigare forskning hittas ett signifikant negativt samband mellan beviljningsgrad och relativt asyltryck. Resultatet kan förklaras med att länder antingen reagerar på högt asyltryck genom att minska andelen asylbeviljningar, eller att asylsökande med låg sannolikhet att få beviljad asyl väljer länder med liberalare asylpolicyer. Inget samband hittas mellan ekonomisk jämlikhet och relativt asyltryck. Det ojämna asyltrycket i EU beror till viss del på faktorer som länder själva inte kan påverka och därför kan politiska regeländringar krävas för en jämnare fördelning.

Abstract [en]

During the last years the world has experienced the largest refugee crisis since the Second World War. Within the European Union, the asylum shares have been uneven distributed even though member countries share common asylum policies to a certain degree. Using panel analysis, this study examines how policy related, attitude related, economical, and network related pull factors have affected the asylum shares in the EU-25 countries between 2005 and 2014. The results show that pull factors do have an effect on countries asylum shares. Low unemployment, high salaries, network effects, attitudes and countries bordering the most common smuggle routes into EU have a significant positive relationship with asylum shares. We find a significant negative relationship between recognition rates and asylum shares, which is in contrast to previous research. This result can be explained either by countries reacting to a large number of asylum applications by lowering their recognition rates, or by asylum applicants with a low probability of approval choosing countries with more liberal asylum policies. No relationship was found between economic equality and asylum shares. The uneven distribution of asylum shares depend to a certain degree of factors that countries themselves cannot control for and thereby policies might be required to reach an even distribution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , p. 57
Keywords [en]
Pull factors, asylum, political migration, EU, refugees, asylum policies
Keywords [sv]
Pullfaktorer, Asyl, Politisk Migration, EU, Flyktingar, Asylpolicyer
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131347ISRN: LIU-IEI-FIL-A--16/02363--SEOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-131347DiVA, id: diva2:970729
Subject / course
Master Thesis in Business and Economics Programme (Economics)
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2017-08-30 Created: 2016-09-14 Last updated: 2017-08-30Bibliographically approved

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