liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
I will be at deaths door and realize that Ive wasted maybe half of my life on one body part: the experience of living with body dysmorphic disorder
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
University of Örebro, Sweden.
2016 (English)In: International journal of psychiatry in clinical practice (Print), ISSN 1365-1501, E-ISSN 1471-1788, Vol. 20, no 3, 191-198 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of patients living with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), including their experiences with the health care system. Methods: Fifteen individuals with BDD were interviewed, and interpretive description was used to analyse the interviews. Results: The following six themes were identified: being absorbed in time-consuming procedures, facing tension between ones own ideal and the perceived reality, becoming the disorder, being restricted in life, attempting to reduce ones problems and striving to receive care. The overarching concept derived from the themes was feeling imprisoned - struggling to become free and to no longer feel abnormal. Conclusions: Ideas of imprisonment and abnormality compose the entire experience of living with this disorder. Although the participants suffered greatly from their BDD, these patients encountered difficulties in accessing health care and had disappointing experiences during their encounters with the health care system. Therefore, it is important to increase awareness and knowledge of BDD among health care professionals to ensure that patients with BDD receive the appropriate care.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD , 2016. Vol. 20, no 3, 191-198 p.
Keyword [en]
Body dysmorphic disorder; body image; interview; qualitative research
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131206DOI: 10.1080/13651501.2016.1197273ISI: 000380144000013PubMedID: 27314665OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-131206DiVA: diva2:971516
Available from: 2016-09-16 Created: 2016-09-12 Last updated: 2016-12-22
In thesis
1. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Capturing a prevalent but under-recognized disorder
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Capturing a prevalent but under-recognized disorder
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background

Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are highly distressed due to defects they perceive in their physical appearance that are not noticeable to others. The condition often leads to impaired functioning in relationships, socialization, and intimacy and a decreased ability to function in work, school, or other daily activities. Although BDD seems to be relatively prevalent, it is under-recognized by people in general and by health care professionals. Individuals with BDD are secretive about their symptoms, and they usually do not recognize that they are suffering from a psychiatric disorder. Instead, in an attempt to relieve their symptoms by correcting their perceived defects, they commonly seek dermatological treatment or cosmetic surgery. However, such interventions usually do not result in any decrease in BDD symptom severity, but can rather aggravate the symptoms. Therefore, it is crucial that health care professionals recognize BDD in order to offer adequate care. Prior to the studies conducted for this thesis, there were no known data regarding the prevalence of BDD in Sweden.

Main aims

(i) To translate a screening questionnaire for BDD (the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire, BDDQ) into Swedish and validate the questionnaire in a community sample. (ii) To estimate the prevalence of BDD in the general population of Swedish women and in female dermatology patients. (iii) To explore BDD patients’ experiences of living with the disorder, including their experiences of the health care system.

Methods

The BDDQ was validated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) as the gold standard for diagnosing BDD (Study I). The validated BDDQ was used to estimate the prevalence of BDD in a randomly selected population-based sample of Swedish women (n=2 885) (Study II) and in a consecutive sample of female dermatology patients (n=425) (Study III). In Studies II and III, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess symptoms of depression and anxiety. In Study III, quality of life was evaluated by the Dermatology Life Quality Index. BDD patients’ lived experiences were explored using a qualitative research design (Study IV). Fifteen individuals with BDD were interviewed, and the interviews were analysed using Interpretive Description.

Results

The Swedish translation of the BDDQ displayed a sensitivity of 94%, a specidicity of 90% and a (positive) likelihood ratio of 9.4. The prevalence of women screening positive for BDD was 2.1% (95% CI 1.7–2.7) in the population-based sample of women and 4.9% (95% CI 3.2–7.4) in the dermatology patients’ sample. The positive predictive value of the BDDQ (71%) gave an estimated BDD prevalence of 1.5% (95% CI 1.1–2.0) in the female Swedish population. Women screening positive for BDD had signidicantly more symptoms of anxiety and depression compared to those screening negative for BDD in both samples. In the dermatology patients, quality of life was severely impaired in patients with positive BDD screening. The overarching concept found in Study IV was that patients with BDD felt imprisoned and were struggling to become free and to no longer feel abnormal. The participants had encountered difdiculties in accessing health care and had disappointing experiences of the health care system.

Conclusion

The findings of this thesis indicate that BDD is a relatively common disorder in the Swedish female population, and that it is more prevalent in dermatology patients. BDD patients struggle to be free from a feeling of imprisonment, and in this struggle they encounter difficulties in accessing health care. Therefore, it is important to increase awareness and recognition of BDD among health care professionals to ensure that patients with BDD receive the appropriate care.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. 83 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1557
National Category
Psychiatry Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133368 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-133368 (DOI)9789176856116 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-02-10, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-22 Last updated: 2017-01-18Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(241 kB)16 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 241 kBChecksum SHA-512
7a34ff0e2ba234e8174731127722c8687667ef5e0b8747c5b5a7dc43fc02ee842b981008dbb9454deacb4a74df0eb38115e5cb5e74d438ac09dd38e0172fa491
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Brohede, SabinaWijma, BarbroWijma, Klaas
By organisation
Division of Clinical SciencesFaculty of Medicine and Health SciencesDepartment of Paediatrics in LinköpingDepartment of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping
In the same journal
International journal of psychiatry in clinical practice (Print)
Psychiatry

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 16 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 222 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf