liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Unintentional carbide formation evidenced during high-vacuum magnetron sputtering of transition metal nitride thin films
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4898-5115
Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2837-3656
Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
2016 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 385, 356-359 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbide signatures are ubiquitous in the surface analyses of industrially sputter-deposited transition metal nitride thin films grown with carbon-less source materials in typical high-vacuum systems. We use high-energy-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy to reveal details of carbon temporal chemical state evolution, from carbide formed during film growth to adventitious carbon adsorbed upon contact with air. Using in-situ grown Al capping layers that protect the as-deposited transition metal nitride surfaces from oxidation, it is shown that the carbide forms during film growth rather than as a result of post deposition atmosphere exposure. The XPS signature of carbides is masked by the presence of adventitious carbon contamination, appearing as soon as samples are exposed to atmosphere, and eventually disappears after one week-long storage in lab atmosphere. The concentration of carbon assigned to carbide species varies from 0.28 at% for ZrN sample, to 0.25 and 0.11 at% for TiN and HfN, respectively. These findings are relevant for numerous applications, as unintentionally formed impurity phases may dramatically alter catalytic activity, charge transport and mechanical properties by offsetting the onset of thermally induced phase transitions. Therefore, the chemical state of C impurities in PVD-grown films should be carefully investigated. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016. Vol. 385, 356-359 p.
Keyword [en]
XPS; Surface chemistry; Magnetron sputtering; Carbon; Titanium nitride
National Category
Materials Chemistry
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131492DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.05.129ISI: 000380825900043OAI: diva2:974476

Funding Agencies|German Research Foundation (DFG) [SFB-TR 87]; VINN Excellence Center Functional Nanoscale Materials (FunMat) [2005-02666]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant) [SFO-Mat-LiU 2009-00971]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation [2011.0143]

Available from: 2016-09-26 Created: 2016-09-23 Last updated: 2016-10-19

Open Access in DiVA

The full text will be freely available from 2018-05-26 13:36
Available from 2018-05-26 13:36

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Greczynski, GrzegorzHultman, Lars
By organisation
Thin Film PhysicsFaculty of Science & Engineering
In the same journal
Applied Surface Science
Materials Chemistry

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 11 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link