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Effects of Visual Latency on Vehicle Driving Behavior
Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Körsimulering och visualisering, SIM.
Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Drift och underhåll, DOU.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5306-2753
2016 (English)In: ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, ISSN 1544-3558, E-ISSN 1544-3965, Vol. 14, no 1, 5:1-5:12 p., 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using mixed reality in vehicles provides a potential alternative to using driving simulators when studying driver-vehicle inter- action. However, virtual reality systems introduce latency in the visual system that may alter driving behavior, which, in turn, results in questionable validity. Previous studies have mainly focused on visual latency as a separate phenomenon. In this work, latency is studied from a task-dependent viewpoint to investigate how participants’ driving behavior changed with increased latency. In this study, the investigation was performed through experiments in which regular drivers were subjected to different levels of visual latency while performing a simple slalom driving task. The drivers’ performances were recorded and evaluated in both lateral and longitudinal directions along with self-assessment questionnaires regarding task performance and difficulty. All participants managed to complete the driving tasks successfully, even under high latency conditions, but were clearly affected by the increased visual latency. The results suggest that drivers compensate for longer latencies by steering more and increasing the safety margins but without reducing their speed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016. Vol. 14, no 1, 5:1-5:12 p., 5
Keyword [en]
Driving, Vision, Delay, Variability, Simulator (driving), Performance (road user)
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131621DOI: 10.1145/2971320OAI: diva2:974934
Next Generation Test Methods for Active Safety Functions
VINNOVA, 2011-01819]
Available from: 2016-08-26 Created: 2016-09-28 Last updated: 2016-09-28Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Driving in Virtual Reality: Investigations in Effects of Latency and Level of Virtuality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driving in Virtual Reality: Investigations in Effects of Latency and Level of Virtuality
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

When developing new active safety systems or improving existing systems, conducting performance evaluations is necessary. By performing these evaluations during early development stages, potential problems can be identified and mitigated before the system moves into the production phase.

Testing active safety systems can be difficult since the characteristic scenarios may have complex interactions. Using real vehicles for performing these types of scenarios is difficult, expensive, and potentially dangerous. Alternative methods, such as using inflatable targets, scale models, computer simulations or driving simulators, also suffer from drawbacks. Consequently, using virtual reality as an alternative to the traditional methods has been proposed. In this case, a real vehicle is driven while wearing a head-mounted display that presents the scenario to the driver.

This research aims to investigate the potential of such technology. Specifically, this work investigates how the chosen technology affects the driver. This investigation has been conducted through a literature review. A test platform was constructed, and two user studies using normal drivers were performed. The first study focused on the effects of visual time delays on driver behavior. This study revealed that lateral behavior changes with added time delays, whereas longitudinal behavior appears unaffected. The second study investigated how driver behavior is affected by different modes of virtuality. This study demonstrated that drivers perceived mixed reality as more difficult than virtual reality.

The main contribution of this work is the detailed understanding of how time delays and different modes of virtuality affect drivers. This is important knowledge for selecting which scenarios are suitable for evaluation using virtual reality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. 47 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1759
Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Mixed Reality, Latency, Driver Behavior, Active Safety Testing
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Economics and Business Computer and Information Science
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131623 (URN)10.3384/lic.diva-131623 (DOI)9789176856734 (Print) (ISBN)
2016-10-12, Designrummet, A-huset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)

The series name Linköping Studies in Science and Technology Licentiate Thesis is incorrect. The correct series name is Linköping Studies in Science and Technology Thesis.

Available from: 2016-09-28 Created: 2016-09-28 Last updated: 2016-10-03Bibliographically approved

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Blissing, BjörnEriksson, Olle
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