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Driving in Virtual Reality: Investigations in Effects of Latency and Level of Virtuality
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Körsimulering och visualisering (SIM).
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

When developing new active safety systems or improving existing systems, conducting performance evaluations is necessary. By performing these evaluations during early development stages, potential problems can be identified and mitigated before the system moves into the production phase.

Testing active safety systems can be difficult since the characteristic scenarios may have complex interactions. Using real vehicles for performing these types of scenarios is difficult, expensive, and potentially dangerous. Alternative methods, such as using inflatable targets, scale models, computer simulations or driving simulators, also suffer from drawbacks. Consequently, using virtual reality as an alternative to the traditional methods has been proposed. In this case, a real vehicle is driven while wearing a head-mounted display that presents the scenario to the driver.

This research aims to investigate the potential of such technology. Specifically, this work investigates how the chosen technology affects the driver. This investigation has been conducted through a literature review. A test platform was constructed, and two user studies using normal drivers were performed. The first study focused on the effects of visual time delays on driver behavior. This study revealed that lateral behavior changes with added time delays, whereas longitudinal behavior appears unaffected. The second study investigated how driver behavior is affected by different modes of virtuality. This study demonstrated that drivers perceived mixed reality as more difficult than virtual reality.

The main contribution of this work is the detailed understanding of how time delays and different modes of virtuality affect drivers. This is important knowledge for selecting which scenarios are suitable for evaluation using virtual reality.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. , 47 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1759
Keyword [en]
Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Mixed Reality, Latency, Driver Behavior, Active Safety Testing
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Economics and Business Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131623DOI: 10.3384/lic.diva-131623ISBN: 9789176856734 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-131623DiVA: diva2:974947
Presentation
2016-10-12, Designrummet, A-huset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

The series name Linköping Studies in Science and Technology Licentiate Thesis is incorrect. The correct series name is Linköping Studies in Science and Technology Thesis.

Available from: 2016-09-28 Created: 2016-09-28 Last updated: 2016-10-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Augmented and Mixed Reality as a tool for evaluation of Vehicle Active Safety Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Augmented and Mixed Reality as a tool for evaluation of Vehicle Active Safety Systems
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Road Safety and Simulation, Rome, Italy, 23-25 October, 2013, Aracne editrice, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Even though the realism of driving simulators increases constantly, there is a potential issue with how representative the test is compared to a real life scenario. An alternative to simulators is to present a mixture of real and simulated environment to the driver and perform the scenario at a test track when driving a real vehicle. This enables an efficient way of testing that inherits many of the advantages of driving simulators as well as some of the advantages of physical testing in prototype vehicles. The present paper is a compilation of previous research in augmented reality in vehicle driving situations, focusing on technical limitations of Head-Mounted-Displays.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aracne editrice, 2013
Keyword
Simulation, Driving (veh), Visual display, Test method
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 91 Road: Vehicle design and construction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131619 (URN)978-8854864153 (ISBN)
Conference
RSS2013 Road Safety and Simulation - International Conference. October 23-25, 2013. Rome, Italy
Available from: 2016-09-28 Created: 2016-09-28 Last updated: 2016-09-28Bibliographically approved
2. A Technical Platform using Augmented Reality for Active Safety Testing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Technical Platform using Augmented Reality for Active Safety Testing
2015 (English)In: 2015 Road Safety & Simulation International Conference Proceedings / [ed] Dr. Essam Radwan, Dr. Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Orlando, USA: University of Central Florida , 2015, 793-803 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes the design of a video see-through augmented reality system for active safety testing. The development is explained in detail, with focus on the design considerations for the different subsystems. It is shown that it is possible to build a system using available commercial off-the-shelf components, while still maintaining the performance needed for the intended application. Accuracy and resolution requirements of the tracking systems are discussed along with measurement methods. We also examine how to use the hardware efficiently to minimize latency and a device to measure and quantify end-to-end latency has been developed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Orlando, USA: University of Central Florida, 2015
Keyword
Active safety system, Test, Simulation, Design (overall design), Characteristics
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131620 (URN)9781495174452 (ISBN)
Conference
2015 Road Safety & Simulation International Conference
Funder
VINNOVA, 2011-01819]
Available from: 2016-09-28 Created: 2016-09-28 Last updated: 2016-09-28Bibliographically approved
3. Effects of Visual Latency on Vehicle Driving Behavior
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Visual Latency on Vehicle Driving Behavior
2016 (English)In: ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, ISSN 1544-3558, E-ISSN 1544-3965, Vol. 14, no 1, 5:1-5:12 p., 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using mixed reality in vehicles provides a potential alternative to using driving simulators when studying driver-vehicle inter- action. However, virtual reality systems introduce latency in the visual system that may alter driving behavior, which, in turn, results in questionable validity. Previous studies have mainly focused on visual latency as a separate phenomenon. In this work, latency is studied from a task-dependent viewpoint to investigate how participants’ driving behavior changed with increased latency. In this study, the investigation was performed through experiments in which regular drivers were subjected to different levels of visual latency while performing a simple slalom driving task. The drivers’ performances were recorded and evaluated in both lateral and longitudinal directions along with self-assessment questionnaires regarding task performance and difficulty. All participants managed to complete the driving tasks successfully, even under high latency conditions, but were clearly affected by the increased visual latency. The results suggest that drivers compensate for longer latencies by steering more and increasing the safety margins but without reducing their speed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016
Keyword
Driving, Vision, Delay, Variability, Simulator (driving), Performance (road user)
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Research subject
80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131621 (URN)10.1145/2971320 (DOI)
Projects
Next Generation Test Methods for Active Safety Functions
Funder
VINNOVA, 2011-01819]
Available from: 2016-08-26 Created: 2016-09-28 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
4. Driver behavior in mixed and virtual reality: a comparative study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driver behavior in mixed and virtual reality: a comparative study
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the DSC 2016 Europe / [ed] Andras Kemeny, Frédéric Mérienne, Florent Columbet, Stéphane Espié, Paris, France: Driving Simulation Association , 2016, 179-186 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a comparative study of driving behavior when using different virtual reality modes. Test subjects were exposed to mixed, virtual, and real reality using a head mounted display capable of video see-through, while performing a simple driving task. The driving behavior was quantified in steering and acceleration/deceleration activities, divided into local and global components. There was a distinct effect of wearing a head mounted display, which affected all measured variables. Results show that average speed was the most significant difference between mixed and virtual reality, while the steering behavior was consistent between modes. All subjects but one were able to successfully complete the driving task, suggesting that virtual driving could be a potential complement to driving simulators.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Paris, France: Driving Simulation Association, 2016
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131622 (URN)
Conference
Driving Simulator Conference, 7-9 sept, 2016. Paris, France
Projects
Next Generation Test Methods for Active Safety Functions
Funder
VINNOVA, 2011-01819]TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Available from: 2016-09-19 Created: 2016-09-28 Last updated: 2016-09-28Bibliographically approved

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