The linear-drift memristor model, suggested by HP Labs a few years ago, is used in this work together with two window functions. From the equations describing the memristor model, the transfer characteristics of a memristor is formulated and analyzed. A first-order estimation of the cut-off frequency is shown, that illustrates the bandwidth limitation of the memristor and how it varies with some of its physical parameters. The design space is elaborated upon and it is shown that the state speed, the variation of the doped and undoped regions of the memristor, is inversely proportional to the physical length, and depth of the device. The transfer characteristics is simulated for Joglekar-Wolf, and Biolek window functions and the results are analyzed. The Joglekar-Wolf window function causes a distinct behavior in the tranfer characteristics at cut-off frequency. The Biolek window function on the other hand gives a smooth state transfer function, at the cost of loosing the one-to-one mapping between charge and state. We also elaborate on the design constraints derived from the transfer characteristics.
Human activity and other events can cause environmental changes to the habitat of organisms. The environmental changes effect the vital rates for a population. In order to predict the impact of these environmental changes on populations, we use two different models for population dynamics. One simpler linear model that ignores environmental competition between individuals and another model that does not. Our population models take into consideration the age distribution of the population and thus takes into consideration the impact of demographics. This thesis generalize two theorems, one for each model, developed by Sonja Radosavljevic regarding long term upper and lower bounds of a population with periodic birth rate ; see [6] and [5]. The generalisation consist in including the case where the periodic part of the birth rate can be expressed with a finite Fourier series and also infinite Fourier series under some constraints. The old theorems only considers the case when the periodic part of the birth rate can be expressed with one cosine term. From the theorems we discover a connection between the frequency of oscillation and the effect on population growth. From this derived connection we conclude that periodical changing environments can have both positive and negative effects on the population.
This paper introduces a new method for the determination of near-optimal audit strategies with the Erard & Feinstein model. It is demonstrated that the solution method presented by Erard & Feinstein does not lead to optimal audit strategies. The new method simulates taxpayer behaviour for a class of audit functions among which the best function is selected. Using a simple class of functions, the resulting strategies are superior to those obtained with the Erard & Feinstein method.
The simulation method can easily handle variations of the model, for instance with involuntary taxpayer errors as well as with partially discrete true income distributions.
The aim of this project is to study the possibility to apply audit strategies developed for taxation on fraud and involuntary errors in the social benefit sector. The efficiency of different audit strategies is compared using a computer-based optimization algorithm.
Two types of audit strategies are used in this study. One is to adapt the audit intensity to the propensity for errors and fraud in different segments of the group studied. The other type of audit strategy is based on adaptation of behaviour through information concerning the audit intensity. A model for determination of optimal tax audit strategies of the latter type was developed by Erard & Feinstein in 1994.
This study is based on data from a large study of temporary parental benefit performed by the Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (Institutet för arbetsmarknadspolitisk utvärdering, IFAU) in 2006.
The study has shown that it is possible to apply the Erard & Feinstein model on benefit fraud. However, the solution method developed by Erard & Feinstein has proven to be non-optimal. A new solution method based on simulation has been developed and used in the study.
We answer the question initially posed by Arik Tamir at the Fourth NYU Computational Geometry Day (March, 1987): “Given a collection of compact sets, can one decide in polynomial time whether there exists a convex body whose boundary intersects every set in the collection?”
We prove that when the sets are segments in the plane, deciding existence of the convex stabber is NP-hard. The problem remains NP-hard if the sets are regular polygons. We also show that in 3D the stabbing problem is hard when the sets are balls. On the positive side, we give a polynomial-time algorithm to find a convex transversal of a maximum number of pairwise-disjoint segments in 2D if the vertices of the transversal are restricted to a given set of points. Our algorithm also finds a convex stabber of the maximum number of a set of convex pseudodisks in the plane.
The stabbing problem is related to “convexity” of point sets measured as the minimum distance by which the points must be shifted in order to arrive in convex position; we give a PTAS to find the minimum shift in 2D, and a 2-approximation in any dimension. We also consider stabbing with vertices of a regular polygon – a problem closely related to approximate symmetry detection.
We consider discrete minimal surface algebras (DMSA) as generalized noncommutative analogues of minimal surfaces in higher dimensional spheres. These algebras appear naturally in membrane theory, where sequences of their representations are used as a regularization. After showing that the defining relations of the algebra are consistent, and that one can compute a basis of the enveloping algebra, we give several explicit examples of DMSAs in terms of subsets of sl_{n} (any semi-simple Lie algebra providing a trivial example by itself). A special class of DMSAs are Yang-Mills algebras. The representation graph is introduced to study representations of DMSAs of dimension d ≤ 4, and properties of representations are related to properties of graphs. The representation graph of a tensor product is (generically) the Cartesian product of the corresponding graphs. We provide explicit examples of irreducible representations and, for coinciding eigenvalues, classify all the unitary representations of the corresponding algebras.
As n-ary operations, generalizing Lie and Poisson algebras, arise in many different physical contexts, it is interesting to study general ways of constructing explicit realizations of such multilinear structures. Generically, they describe the dynamics of a physical system, and there is a need of understanding their quantization. Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras provide a framework that might be an appropriate setting in which n-Lie algebras (n-ary Nambu-Lie algebras) can be deformed, and their quantization studied. We present a procedure to construct (n + 1)-ary Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras from n-ary Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras equipped with a generalized trace function. It turns out that the implications of the compatibility conditions, that are necessary for this construction, can be understood in terms of the kernel of the trace function and the range of the twisting maps. Furthermore, we investigate the possibility of defining (n + k)-Lie algebras from n-Lie algebras and a k-form satisfying certain conditions.
We prove a general interpolation theorem for linear operators acting simultaneously in several approximation spaces which are defined by multiparametric approximation families. As a consequence, we obtain interpolation results for finite families of Besov spaces of various types including those determined by a given set of mixed differences.
For p is an element of [1, infinity], we establish criteria for the one-sided invertibility of binomial discrete difference operators A = aI - bV on the space l(p) = l(p)(Z), where a, b is an element of l(infinity), I is the identity operator and the isometric shift operator V is given on functions f. lp by (Vf)(n) = f (n+ 1) for all n is an element of Z. Applying these criteria, we obtain criteria for the one-sided invertibility of binomial functional operators A = aI - bU(alpha) on the Lebesgue space L-p(R+) for every p is an element of [1, infinity], where a, b is an element of L-infinity (R+), a is an orientation-preserving bi-Lipschitz homeomorphism of [0, +infinity] onto itself with only two fixed points 0 and infinity, and U-alpha is the isometric weighted shift operator on L-p(R+) given by U(alpha)f = (alpha)(1/p)(f circle alpha). Applications of binomial discrete operators to interpolation theory are given.
It is shown that the formula
where and is correct under the restrictions and It is also true if we suppose that and the spaces are functional Banach or quasi-Banach lattices on the same measure space
Let Ω be a rectangle in R^{2}. A new algorithm for the construction of a near-minimizer for the couple (L^{2}(Ω), BV(Ω)) is presented. The algorithm is based on the Besicovitch covering theorem and analysis of local approximations of the given function f ∈ L^{2}(Ω).
There are given necessary and sufficient conditions on a measure dμ(x)=w(x)dx under which the key estimates for the distribution and rearrangement of the maximal function due to Riesz, Wiener, Herz and Stein are valid. As a consequence, we obtain the equivalence of the Riesz and Wiener inequalities which seems to be new even for the Lebesgue measure. Our main tools are estimates of the distribution of the averaging function f** and a modified version of the Calderón-Zygmund decomposition. Analogous methods allow us to obtain K-functional formulas in terms of the maximal function for couples of weighted $L_p$-spaces.
A complete description of the real interpolation space L=(Lp0(ω0),…,Lpn(ωn))θ⃗ ,q is given. An interesting feature of the result is that the whole measure space (Ω,μ) can be divided into disjoint pieces Ωi (i∈I) such that L is an lq sum of the restrictions of L to Ωi, and L on each Ωi is a result of interpolation of just two weighted Lp spaces. The proof is based on a generalization of some recent results of the first two authors concerning real interpolation of vector-valued spaces.
We present, discuss and apply two reiteration theorems for triples of quasi-Banach function lattices. Some interpolation results for block-Lorentz spaces and triples of weighted Lp-spaces are proved. By using these results and a wavelet theory approach we calculate (θ,q)-spaces for triples of smooth function spaces (such as Besov spaces, Sobolev spaces, etc.). In contrast to the case of couples, for which even the scale of Besov spaces is not stable under interpolation, for triples we obtain stability in the frame of Besov spaces based on Lorentz spaces. Moreover, by using the results and ideas of this paper, we can extend the Stein–Weiss interpolation theorem known for Lp(μ)-spaces with change of measures to Lorentz spaces with change of measures. In particular, the results obtained show that for some problems in analysis the three-space real interpolation approach is really more useful than the usual real interpolation between couples.
We continue the development, by reduction to a first-order system for the conormal gradient, of L2a priori estimates and solvability for boundary value problems of Dirichlet, regularity, Neumann type for divergence-form second-order complex elliptic systems. We work here on the unit ball and more generally its bi-Lipschitz images, assuming a Carleson condition as introduced by Dahlberg which measures the discrepancy of the coefficients to their boundary trace near the boundary. We sharpen our estimates by proving a general result concerning a priori almost everywhere nontangential convergence at the boundary. Also, compactness of the boundary yields more solvability results using Fredholm theory. Comparison between classes of solutions and uniqueness issues are discussed. As a consequence, we are able to solve a long standing regularity problem for real equations, which may not be true on the upper half-space, justifying a posteriori a separate work on bounded domains.
In this work we introduce a novel operator $$\displaystyle \varDelta _(p,q)$$ as an extended family of operators that generalize the p-Laplace operator. The operator is derived with an emphasis on image processing applications, and particularly, with a focus on image denoising applications. We propose a non-linear transition function, coupling p and q, which yields a non-linear filtering scheme analogous to adaptive spatially dependent total variation and linear filtering. Well-posedness of the final parabolic PDE is established via pertubation theory and connection to classical results in functional analysis. Numerical results demonstrates the applicability of the novel operator $$\displaystyle \varDelta _(p,q)$$ .
In this study, we investigate the backward p(x)-parabolic equation as a new methodology to enhance images. We propose a novel iterative regularization procedure for the backward p(x)-parabolic equation based on the nonlinear Landweber method for inverse problems. The proposed scheme can also be extended to the family of iterative regularization methods involving the nonlinear Landweber method. We also investigate the connection between the variable exponent p(x) in the proposed energy functional and the diffusivity function in the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equation. It is well known that the forward problems converges to a constant solution destroying the image. The purpose of the approach of the backward problems is twofold. First, solving the backward problem by a sequence of forward problems we obtain a smooth image which is denoised. Second, by choosing the initial data properly we try to reduce the blurriness of the image. The numerical results for denoising appear to give improvement over standard methods as shown by preliminary results.
The existence of solutions to a class of quasilinear elliptic problems on noncompact Riemannian manifolds, with finite volume, is investigated. Boundary value problems, with homogeneous Neumann conditions, in possibly irregular Euclidean domains are included as a special instance. A nontrivial solution is shown to exist under an unconventional growth condition on the right-hand side, which depends on the geometry of the underlying manifold. The identification of the critical growth is a crucial step in our analysis, and entails the use of the isocapacitary function of the manifold. A condition involving its isoperimetric function is also provided. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We show that a stochastic (Markov) operator S acting on a Schatten class C-1 satisfies the Noether condition (i.e. S' (A) = A and S' (A(2)) = A(2), where A is an element of C-infinity is a Hermitian and bounded operator on a fixed separable and complex Hilbert space (H, <.,.>)), if and only if S(E-A(G)XEA(G)) = E-A (G)S(X)E-A (G) for any state X is an element of C-1 and all Borel sets G subset of R, where E-A (G) denotes the orthogonal projection coming from the spectral resolution A = integral(sigma(A)) zE(A)(dz). Similar results are obtained for stochastic one-parameter continuous semigroups.
Quadratic stochastic operators can exhibit a wide variety of asymptotic behaviours andthese have been introduced and studied recently in the l1 space. It turns out that inprinciple most of the results can be carried over to the L1 space. However, due to topologicalproperties of this space one has to restrict in some situations to kernel quadratic stochasticoperators. In this article we study the uniform and strong asymptotic stability of quadratic stochastic operators acting on the L1 space in terms of convergence of the associated (linear)nonhomogeneous Markov chains.
The problem of linearization for third order evolution equations is considered. Criteria for testing equations for linearity are presented. A class of linearizable equations depending on arbitrary functions is obtained by requiring presence of an infinite-dimensional symmetry group. Linearizing transformations for this class are found using symmetry structure and local conservation laws. A number of special cases as examples are discussed. Their transformation to equations within the same class by differential substitutions and connection with KdV and mKdV equations is also reviewed in this framework. Published by AIP Publishing.
When moving into a more connected world together with machines, a mutual understanding will be very important. With the increased availability in wear- able sensors, a better understanding of human needs is suggested. The Dart- mouth Research study at the Psychiatric Research Center has examined the viability of detecting and further on predicting human behaviour and complex tasks. The field of smoking detection was challenged by using the Q-sensor by Affectiva as a prototype. Further more, this study implemented a framework for future research on the basis for developing a low cost, connected, device with Thayer Engineering School at Dartmouth College. With 3 days of data from 10 subjects smoking sessions was detected with just under 90% accuracy using the Conditional Random Field algorithm. However, predicting smoking with Electrodermal Momentary Assessment (EMA) remains an unanswered ques- tion. Hopefully a tool has been provided as a platform for better understanding of habits and behaviour.
The eigenvalue problem for linear differential operators is important since eigenvalues correspond to the possible energy levels of a physical system. It is also important to have good estimates of the error in the computed eigenvalues. In this work, we use spline interpolation to construct approximate eigenfunctions of a linear operator using the corresponding eigenvectors of a discretized approximation of the operator. We show that an error estimate for the approximate eigenvalues can be obtained by evaluating the residual for an approximate eigenpair. The interpolation scheme is selected in such a way that the residual can be evaluated analytically. To demonstrate that the method gives useful error bounds, we apply it to a problem originating from the study of graphene quantum dots where the goal was to investigate the change in the spectrum from incorporating electronâelectron interactions in the potential.
In this paper, we study cluster sets and essential cluster sets for Sobolev functions and quasiharmonic functions (i.e., continuous quasiminimizers). We develop their basic theory with a particular emphasis on when they coincide and when they are connected. As a main result, we obtain that if a Sobolev function u on an open set has boundary values f in Sobolev sense and f |∂is continuous at x0 ∈ ∂, then the essential cluster set C(u, x0, Ω) is connected. We characterize precisely in which metric spaces this result holds. Further, we provide some new boundary regularity results for quasiharmonic functions. Most of the results are new also in the Euclidean case.
The p-Laplace equation is the main prototype for nonlinear elliptic problems and forms a basis for various applications, such as injection moulding of plastics, nonlinear elasticity theory and image processing. Its solutions, called p-harmonic functions, have been studied in various contexts since the 1960s, first on Euclidean spaces and later on Riemannian manifolds, graphs and Heisenberg groups. Nonlinear potential theory of p-harmonic functions on metric spaces has been developing since the 1990s and generalizes and unites these earlier theories.
This monograph gives a unified treatment of the subject and covers most of the available results in the field, so far scattered over a large number of research papers. The aim is to serve both as an introduction to the area for an interested reader and as a reference text for an active researcher. The presentation is rather self-contained, but the reader is assumed to know measure theory and functional analysis.
The first half of the book deals with Sobolev type spaces, so-called Newtonian spaces, based on upper gradients on general metric spaces. In the second half, these spaces are used to study p-harmonic functions on metric spaces and a nonlinear potential theory is developed under some additional, but natural, assumptions on the underlying metric space.
Each chapter contains historical notes with relevant references and an extensive index is provided at the end of the book.
In this paper we obtain sharp Petrovskii criteria for the p-parabolic equation, both in the degenerate case p amp;gt; 2 and the singular case 1 amp;lt; p amp;lt; 2 We also give an example of an irregular boundary point at which there is a barrier, thus showing that regularity cannot be characterized by the existence of just one barrier.
dUsing uniformization, Cantor type sets can be regarded as boundaries of rooted trees. In this setting, we show that the trace of a first-order Sobolev space on the boundary of a regular rooted tree is exactly a Besov space with an explicit smoothness exponent. Further, we study quasisymmetries between the boundaries of two trees, and show that they have rough quasiisometric extensions to the trees. Conversely, we show that every rough quasiisometry between two trees extends as a quasisymmetry between their boundaries. In both directions we give sharp estimates for the involved constants. We use this to obtain quasisymmetric invariance of certain Besov spaces of functions on Cantor type sets.
We show that, unlike minima of superharmonic functions which are again superharmonic, the same property fails for Q-quasisuperminimizers. More precisely, if u(i) is a Q(i)-quasisuperminimizer, i = 1,2, where 1 amp;lt; Q(1) amp;lt; Q(2), then u = min{u(1), u(2)} is a Q-quasisuperminimizer, but there is an increase in the optimal quasisuperminimizing constant Q. We provide the first examples of this phenomenon, i.e. that Q amp;gt; Q(2). In addition to lower bounds for the optimal quasisuperminimizing constant of u we also improve upon the earlier upper bounds due to Kinnunen and Martio. Moreover, our lower and upper bounds turn out to be quite close. We also study a similar phenomenon in pasting lemmas for quasisuperminimizers, where Q = Q(1)Q(2) turns out to be optimal, and provide results on exact quasiminimizing constants of piecewise linear functions on the real line, which can serve as approximations of more general quasiminimizers. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
We study different definitions of Sobolev spaces on quasiopen sets in a complete metric space X equipped with a doubling measure supporting a p-Poincare inequality with 1 amp;lt; p amp;lt; infinity, and connect them to the Sobolev theory in R-n. In particular, we show that for quasiopen subsets of R-n the Newtonian functions, which are naturally defined in any metric space, coincide with the quasicontinuous representatives of the Sobolev functions studied by Kilpelainen and Maly in 1992.
We prove the Cartan and Choquet properties for the fine topology on a complete metric space equipped with a doubling measure supporting a p-Poincar, inequality, 1 amp;lt; p amp;lt; a. We apply these key tools to establish a fine version of the Kellogg property, characterize finely continuous functions by means of quasicontinuous functions, and show that capacitary measures associated with Cheeger supersolutions are supported by the fine boundary of the set.
We study the p-fine topology on complete metric spaces equipped with a doubling measure supporting a p-Poincare inequality, 1 less than p less than infinity. We establish a weak Cartan property, which yields characterizations of the p-thinness and the p-fine continuity, and allows us to show that the p-fine topology is the coarsest topology making all p-superharmonic functions continuous. Our p-harmonic and superharmonic functions are defined by means of scalar-valued upper gradients, and do not rely on a vector-valued differentiable structure.
We obtain estimates for the nonlinear variational capacity of annuli in weighted R-n and in metric spaces. We introduce four different (pointwise) exponent sets, show that they all play fundamental roles for capacity estimates, and also demonstrate that whether an end point of an exponent set is attained or not is important. As a consequence of our estimates we obtain, for instance, criteria for points to have zero (resp. positive) capacity. Our discussion holds in rather general metric spaces, including Carnot groups and many manifolds, but it is just as relevant on weighted R-n. Indeed, to illustrate the sharpness of our estimates, we give several examples of radially weighted R-n, which are based on quasiconformality of radial stretchings in R-n.
We obtain upper and lower bounds for the nonlinear variational capacity of thin annuli in weighted and in metric spaces, primarily under the assumptions of an annular decay property and a Poincar, inequality. In particular, if the measure has the 1-annular decay property at and the metric space supports a pointwise 1-Poincar, inequality at , then the upper and lower bounds are comparable and we get a two-sided estimate for thin annuli centred at . This generalizes the known estimate for the usual variational capacity in unweighted . We also characterize the 1-annular decay property and provide examples which illustrate the sharpness of our results.
In this paper we give various characterizations of quasiopen sets and quasicontinuous functions on metric spaces. For complete metric spaces equipped with a doubling measure supporting a p-Poincar, inequality we show that quasiopen and p-path open sets coincide. Under the same assumptions we show that all Newton-Sobolev functions on quasiopen sets are quasicontinuous.
We study local connectedness, local accessibility and finite connectedness at the boundary, in relation to the compactness of the Mazurkiewicz completion of a bounded domain in a metric space. For countably connected planar domains we obtain a complete characterization. It is also shown exactly which parts of this characterization fail in higher dimensions and in metric spaces.
One of the main break-throughs in the 20th century mathematics was De Giorgi's proof of Hölder continuity for solutions of elliptic PDEs. His method has since then been used to prove interior regularity in various contexts.It is maybe less known, though not entirely surprising that De Giorgi's method also yields sufficient conditions for boundary regularity. In the talk, I will discuss a recent variation of De Giorgi's method which goes in the opposite direction, leading to a necessary condition for boundary regularity of PDEs and variational integrals.
We obtain a sufficient condition for boundary regularity of quasiminimirers of the p-energy integral in terms of a Wiener type sum. The exponent in the sum is independent of the dimension and is explicitly expressed in terms of p and the quasiminimizing constant. We also show by an example that the exponent is sharp in a certain sense. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Perron{Wiener{Brelot method is a powerful way of solving the Dirichlet problem in general domains. For every boundary data it provides an upper and a lower solution. In the case of the Laplace equation it is well known when these two solutions coincide and resolutive boundary data are characterized by means of the harmonic measure. For the nonlinear p-Laplace equation, the class of resolutive boundary data is not known, but there are some partial results, e.g. that continuous boundary data are resolutive. The invariance under perturbations on sets of capacity zero is also not fully understood in the nonlinear case. In the talk we shall see how some of these questions can be attacked by changing the metric in the domain and by considering new capacities.