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  • 1.
    Abdullah Jan, Mirza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Ahsan, Mahmododfateh
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Multi-View Video Transmission over the Internet2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    3D television using multiple views rendering is receiving increasing interest. In this technology a number of video sequences are transmitted simultaneously and provides a larger view of the scene or stereoscopic viewing experience. With two views stereoscopic rendition is possible. Nowadays 3D displays are available that are capable of displaying several views simultaneously and the user is able to see different views by moving his head.

    The thesis work aims at implementing a demonstration system with a number of simultaneous views. The system will include two cameras, computers at both the transmitting and receiving end and a multi-view display. Besides setting up the hardware, the main task is to implement software so that the transmission can be done over an IP-network.

    This thesis report includes an overview and experiences of similar published systems, the implementation of real time video, its compression, encoding, and transmission over the internet with the help of socket programming and finally the multi-view display in 3D format.  This report also describes the design considerations more precisely regarding the video coding and network protocols.

  • 2.
    Ahlström, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Skoglund, Karl-Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Encryption in Delocalized Access Systems2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The recent increase in performance of embedded processors has enabled the use of computationally heavy asymmetric cryptography in small and power efficient embedded systems. The goal of this thesis is to analyze whether it is possible to use this type of cryptography to enhance the security in access systems.

    This report contains a literature study of the complications related to access systems and their functionality. Also a basic introduction to cryptography is included.

    Several cryptographic algorithms were implemented using the public library LibTomCrypt and benchmarked on an ARM7-processor platform. The asymmetric coding schemes were ECC and RSA. The tested symmetric algorithms included AES, 3DES and Twofish among others. The benchmark considered both codesize and speed of the algorithms.

    The two asymmetric algorithms, ECC and RSA, are possible to be used in an ARM7 based access system. Although, both technologies can be configured to finish the calculations within a reasonable time-frame of 10 Sec, ECC archives a higher security level for the same execution time. Therefore, an implementation of ECC would be preferable since it is faster and requires less resources. Some further suggestions of improvements to the implementation is discussed in the final chapters.

  • 3.
    Airaksinen, Tom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Byström, Erik E.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    User and Business Value: A Dual-Stakeholder Perspective on IT Systems2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When discussing the value of an information technology (IT) system, the most common approach is to take on the perspective of either the organization introducing the IT system or the end users. The purpose of this thesis has been to study the values of both stakeholder groups in order to define what system characteristics are the most desirable from a dual-stakeholder point of view.

    Through a series of contextual inquiries, interviews and questionnaires, the value perceptions of end users and IT managers at a large European rail operator were investigated. The results of the study point to a high degree of similarity in the value perceptions of end users and IT managers, although the former were generally focused on short-term value while the latter also were concerned about long-term, sustaining value.

    The findings are applicable to practitioners wishing to take a dual perspective on IT value as well as academics looking to find touch points between usability and business strategy. In the context of end users and IT managers, the most important system characteristics that maximize value for both stakeholder groups were found to be Availability, Recoverability, Efficiency, Reliability and Future Proofness.

  • 4.
    Ajma, Muhammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Furdek, Marija
    School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden / Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Dept. of Telecommunications, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Monti, Paolo
    School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wosinska, Lena
    School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dynamic provisioning utilizing redundant modules in elastic optical networks based on architecture on demand nodes2014In: European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2014, IEEE , 2014, p. 1-3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Survivable synthetic ROADMs are equipped with redundant switching modules to support failure recovery. The paper proposes a dynamic connection provisioning strategy which exploits these idle redundant modules to provision regular traffic resulting in a substantial improvement in the blocking performance.

  • 5.
    Ajmal, Muhammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Furdek, Marija
    Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden / Dept. of Telecommunications, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Monti, Paolo
    Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wosinska, Lena
    Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Optimization Model for Dynamic Bulk Provisioning in Elastic Optical Networks2014In: Asia Communications and Photonics Conference 2014, Optics Info Base, Optical Society of America, 2014, p. AF3E.6-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate benefits of setup-delay tolerance in elastic optical networks and propose an optimization model for dynamic and concurrent connection provisioning. Simulation shows that the proposed strategy offers significant improvement of the network blocking performance.

  • 6.
    Ajmal, Muhammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zervas, Georgios
    High-Performance Networks Group, University of Bristol, UK.
    Saridis, George
    High-Performance Networks Group, University of Bristol, UK.
    Salas, Emilio H.
    High-Performance Networks Group, University of Bristol, UK.
    Simeonidou, Dimitra
    High-Performance Networks Group, University of Bristol, UK.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Flexible and Synthetic SDM Networks with Multi-core-Fibers Implemented by Programmable ROADMs2014In: Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication ECOC2014, Cannes, France, September 21-25 September 2014, IEEE , 2014, p. 1-3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study looks into network planning issues for synthetic MCF-based SDM networks implemented through programmable ROADMs. The results show that significant savings in switching modules and energy can be attained by exploiting the flexibility inherent in programmable ROADM through a proper network design.

  • 7.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Envisioning a Future Decision Support System for Requirements Engineering: A Holistic and Human-centred Perspective2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex decision-making is a prominent aspect of requirements engineering (RE) and the need for improved decision support for RE decision-makers has been identified by a number of authors in the research literature. The fundamental viewpoint that permeates this thesis is that RE decision-making can be substantially improved by RE decision support systems (REDSS) based on the actual needs of RE decision-makers as well as the actual generic human decision-making activities that take place in the RE decision processes. Thus, a first step toward better decision support in requirements engineering is to understand complex decision situations of decision-makers. In order to gain a holistic view of the decision situation from a decision-maker’s perspective, a decision situation framework has been created. The framework evolved through an analysis of decision support systems literature and decision-making theories. The decision situation of RE decision-makers has been studied at a systems engineering company and is depicted in this thesis. These situations are described in terms of, for example, RE decision matters, RE decision-making activities, and RE decision processes. Factors that affect RE decision-makers are also identified. Each factor consists of problems and difficulties. Based on the empirical findings, a number of desirable characteristics of a visionary REDSS are suggested. Examples of characteristics are to reduce the cognitive load, to support creativity and idea generation, and to support decision communication. One or more guiding principles are proposed for each characteristic and available techniques are described. The purpose of the principles and techniques is to direct further efforts concerning how to find a solution that can fulfil the characteristic. Our contributions are intended to serve as a road map that can direct the efforts of researchers addressing RE decision-making and RE decision support problems. Our intention is to widen the scope and provide new lines of thought about how decision-making in RE can be supported and improved.

  • 8.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saab Aeronaut, S-58247 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Adaptive Interaction Criteria for Future Remotely Piloted Aircraft2017In: ADVANCES IN HUMAN FACTORS IN ROBOTS AND UNMANNED SYSTEMS, SPRINGER INT PUBLISHING AG , 2017, Vol. 499, p. 281-289Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are technical trends and operational needs within the aviation domain towards adaptive behavior. This study focus on adaptive interaction criteria for future remotely piloted aircraft. Criteria that could be used to guide and evaluate design as well as to create a model for adaptive interaction used by autonomous functions and decision support. A scenario and guidelines from the literature, used as example criteria, was presented in a questionnaire to participants from academia/researchers, end users, and aircraft development engineers. Several guidelines had a wide acceptance among the participants, but there was also aspects missing for the application of supporting adaptive interaction for remotely piloted aircraft. The various groups of participants contributed by different aspects supports the idea of having various stakeholders contributing with complementary views. Aspects that the participants found missing includes, predictability, aviation domain specifics, risk analysis, complexity and how people perceive autonomy and attribute intentions.

  • 9.
    Alvestig, Carl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Jägerud, Filip
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems.
    Man måste brinna för att bli utbränd: En kvalitativ studie om orsaker till stress samt dess påverkan på IT-projektledare och IT-projekt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is a growing problem in today's society. Employees suffer from fatigue syndrome andare forced to suffer sick leave for longer periods, which entails costs for both the society andthe employer. Some occupational groups are more vulnerable to stress than others. In the ITindustry, development is very fast, which means that employees must constantly keep up withthe new developments in order to stay in the loop. A project manager has a big responsibilityon his shoulders to lead projects, in our case containing 50 project members, this may be evenmore in larger organizations. Projects of this type may also include large budgets and whensuch a project fails, it has major consequences. Where these two areas overlap, stressfulsituations will undeniably occur.In this paper we have investigated which specific situations are stressing project managers inIT projects, how they are affected by this stress and what what the impact is on the projectsthat they operate. The purpose of this is to prevent stress in the future as well as to show thatthis could be a widespread problem in this industry. This could help project managers to seekhelp if they know that they are not alone in having this problem.To investigate this we have conducted five interviews at two different organizations. Onepublic and one private, however, we will not make a deeper comparison regarding thisparticular aspect since our selection area is too small for that. The interviews weresemi-structured to allow follow-up questions and were conducted in accordance with thedramaturgical model. All respondents have extensive experience in project management inthe IT industry, and the majority currently work as project managers. The empirical data isthen analyzed in conjunction with previous research within stress as well as the project area.Our results show that all the project managers in our interviews feel stress and that the stressis periodical. There are periods, for example, if an unforeseen problem arises where stresslevels can be problematic. A respondent tells of a project leader colleague who was burnedout and where our respondent had to take over the project. But none of the respondents sawthe stress as a reason for a career change, they all plan to continue in the industry. One of themost important methods of counteracting stress that we draw attention to is to prioritize theirduties and perform them in a logical order instead of taking care of everything at once. Wealso discovered that smartphones increases the stress levels of project managers since theyalways carry their work with them in their pocket and thus have trouble relaxing in their sparetime.

  • 10.
    Amadori, Kristian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On Aircraft Conceptual Design: A Framework for Knowledge Based Engineering and Design Optimization2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a design framework where analytical tools are linked together and operated from an efficient system level interface. The application field is aircraft conceptual design. Particular attention has been paid to CAD system integration and design optimization.

    Aircraft design is an inherently multidisciplinary process. The goal is to search for the design that, in the best of possible ways, fulfills the requirements. It is therefore desirable to be able to effectively investigate and analyze solutions from a variety of points of view, weighting together the results and gathering a general figure of merit. At the same time, increasing competition on a global market forces to shorten the design process and to reduce costs. Thus a system that allows a tight and efficient integration of different disciplines and improving data flow and storage plays a key role.

    Integrating a CAD system to the framework is of central relevance. The geometrical model includes most of the information; specific data, required to carry out particular analysis, can be extracted from it. This is possible adopting parametric associative models that are controlled from a spreadsheet user interface. Strategies for building CAD models with a very high degree of flexibility are presented. Not only the external shape can be changed, but also the internal structure can be completely modified. Structural elements can be added or removed, and their position and shaping changed.

    In this work the design of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle is used as test case for comparing three different optimization algorithms. The presented framework is also used for automatically design Micro Aerial Vehicles, starting from a short list of requirements and ending with a physical prototype produced by a rapid prototyping machine.

    List of papers
    1. Use of Panel Code Modeling in a Framework for Aircraft Concept Optimization
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of Panel Code Modeling in a Framework for Aircraft Concept Optimization
    2006 (English)In: 11th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, 6-8 September, Portsmouth, Virginia, USA, 2006, p. 7084-Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

     

    In this study the use of a high-order panel code within a framework for aircraft concept design is discussed. The framework is intended to be a multidisciplinary optimization tool to be adopted from the very beginning of the conceptual design phase in order to define and refine the aircraft design, with respect to its aerodynamic, stability and control, structure and basic aircraft systems. The presented work is aimed at developing a module for aerodynamic analysis of concepts as a basis for a direct search optimization of the concept layout. The design criterion, used in the example presented here, is to minimize the maximum take-off weight required to fulfil the mission. Classic and simple equations are used together with the data generated by the panel code solver to calculate the aircraft’s performances. Weights are calculated by means of statistical group weight equations, but the weight could also be calculated from a CAD-model. The design of an Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle is used as test case for three different optimization algorithms: one gradient method based (Fmincon), one non-gradient based (Complex) and one Genetic Algorithm (GA). Comparison of results and performances shows that the Genetic Algorithm is best fitted for the specific problem, having the by far best hit rate, even if it is at a cost of longer computing time. The Complex algorithm requires less iterations and is also able to find the optimum solution, but with a worse hit rate, while Fmincon can not reach to a global optimum. The suggested optimized configuration for the aircraft is very similar to the Boeing X-45C and Northrop Grumman X-47B.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13306 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-11-10 Created: 2008-05-21 Last updated: 2011-12-16Bibliographically approved
    2. A Framework for Aerodynamic and Structural Optimization in Conceptual Design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Framework for Aerodynamic and Structural Optimization in Conceptual Design
    2007 (English)In: 25th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, 25-28 June, Miami, FL, USA, AIAA , 2007, p. 4061-Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aircraft design is an inherently multidisciplinary activity that requires different models and tools for various aspects of the design. At Linköping University a novel design framework is being developed to support the initial conceptual design phase of a new aircraft. In this work main attention has been paid to wing design, with respect to aerodynamic efficiency and loads, and to structural analysis. By linking together various modules via a user-friendly interface based on a spreadsheet, the framework allows multidisciplinary analysis and optimizations to be carried out. This paper will present the framework, give an overview of its development status and give an indication on the future work.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AIAA, 2007
    Keywords
    Aircraft design, multi domain optimization
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13307 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-05-21 Created: 2008-05-21 Last updated: 2009-04-22
    3. Distributed Framework for Micro Aerial Vehicle Design Automation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed Framework for Micro Aerial Vehicle Design Automation
    2008 (English)In: Proceedings from the 46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 7 - 10 January, Reno, NV, USA, AIAA , 2008, p. 140-Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Micro or mini aerial vehicles are characterized by being simple and inexpensive to build, and due to their small size very important to optimize. They are also likely to be built in relatively small series and be tailored for the sensors and equipment available at the time of deployment. Therefore "design and build on demand" is very attractive, where a modular concept with a more or less automated design process is desirable. In this paper design automation of a Micro or Mini Aerial Vehicle (MAV) is demonstrated using a distributed design optimization framework that involves selections of components from a database of propulsion system equipment and geometrical shape optimization. The framework links together a CAD system, responsible for the aircraft shape generation, with a panel code for aerodynamic evaluations.

     

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AIAA, 2008
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13308 (URN)978-1-62410-128-1 (ISBN)
    Conference
    46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 7 - 10 January, Reno, NV, USA
    Available from: 2008-05-21 Created: 2008-05-21 Last updated: 2012-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 11.
    An, Ping
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    An investigation of the use of software development environments in the industry2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering tools are being used in the industry in order to improve the productivity and the quality of the software development process. The properties of those tools are being perceived to be unsatisfactory. For example, researchers have found that some problems are due to deficient integration among the tools. Furthermore, a continuing problem is that there is a gap between the IT education and real demand of tool-skills form IT industry. Consequently, knowledge is needed of the properties of software development tools as well an understanding of demanded tool-skill from the industry.

    The purpose of this study is to survey commercial software development environment (SDEs) that are used today in professional software engineering and discuss their advantages adn disadvantages. A secondary goal of the study is to identify the actual requirements from the industry on the IT-education.

    A questionnaire was sent out to 90 software developers and IT managers of 30 IT companies in Sweden. The results of the survey show that IT companies, for most part, use SDEs from commercial software vendors. Respondents report that common problems of the SDEs are the following: bad integration among the tools, problems to trace software artifacts in the different phases of the programming cycle, and deficient support for version control and system configuration. Furthermore, some tools are difficult to use which results in a time-consuming development process.

    We conclude that future software development environments need to provide better support for integration, automation, and configuration management. Regarding the required tool-skills, we believe that the IT education would gain from including commercial tools that cover the whole software product lifecycle in the curriculum.

  • 12.
    Anderson, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Theory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tree Structures in Broadcast Encryption2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for broadcast encryption arises when a sender wishes to securely distribute messages to varying subsets of receivers, using a broadcast channel, for instance in a pay-TV scenario. This is done by selecting subsets of users and giving all users in the same subset a common decryption key. The subsets will in general be overlapping so that each user belongs to many subsets and has several different decryption keys. When the sender wants to send a message to some users, the message is encrypted using keys that those users have. In this thesis we describe some broadcast encryption schemes that have been proposed in the literature. We focus on stateless schemes which do not require receivers to update their decryption keys after the initial keys have been received; particularly we concentrate on the Subset Difference (SD) scheme.

    We consider the effects that the logical placement of the receivers in the tree structure used by the SD scheme has on the number of required transmissions for each message. Bounds for the number of required transmissions are derived based on the adjacency of receivers in the tree structure. The tree structure itself is also studied, also resulting in bounds on the number of required transmissions based on the placement of the users in the tree structure.

    By allowing a slight discrepancy between the set of receivers that the sender intends to send to and the set of receivers that actually can decrypt the message, we can reduce the cost in number of transmissions per message. We use the concept of distortion to quantify the discrepancy and develop three simple algorithms to illustrate how the cost and distortion are related.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Sköld, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Evaluation of a diagnostic tool for use during system development and operations2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rodon is a diagnostic tool developed by Sörman. SAAB’s interest in Rodon regards the possibility to use the tool for development and operations of aircraft systems. The main goal of this thesis was to evaluate the capacity of Rodon and determine how SAAB can use the diagnostic tool during development and operations.

    The tool uses model based diagnosis with artificial intelligence for fault isolation which is a powerful approach. If Rodon is introduced at SAAB, then detailed models of systems will be necessary to create, including the nominal behavior of the system and different faulty behaviors. In order to achieve high quality fault isolation, it is necessary to have complete and consistent models. To be able to use all applications that Rodon feature for a modeled system, preferable characteristics are that the model should be static, have discrete control signals, and have well defined system behavioral modes.

    During development of a system Rodon can be used to improve and easy the work for failure analysis, guidance of sensor placements, evaluation of tests, generation of decision structures, and fault isolation. Since design of tests during development is a desirable application that Rodon does not have, two different methods are presented that utilizes Rodon to generate all possible limit checking tests.

    In conclusion, Rodon can be very useful in several different aspects if introduced, but benefits gained by using Rodon will have to be compared to the labor cost of creating good models.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Eriksson, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    You´ve got m@il: en studie om sambandet mellan e-post och effektiv kommunikation i en IT-intensiv organisation2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of electronic communication devices is ever increasing and now many organizations are dependent on information technology, which is now an indispensable part of organizations infrastructures. The point of this study is to develop new knowledge about how individuals perceive efficient communication in an organization that is dependent on information-technology. This study also examines aspects that contribute to, or counteract, the experienced efficiency in the use of e-mail in organizations with a high dependence on Information-technology and how e-mail is combined with other communication tools to obtain desirable efficiency.

    The empirical foundation to this study is derived from an organisation’s study where ten qualitative interviews took place. This study has a hermeneutic alignment because it is based on an interviewee’s interpretation, perceptions and opinions. This study scrutinises empirical data and interviews that have led to results that are inductive in stance. During the interviews, our main concerns have been to assimilate as much information as possible concerning the organisation and their way of working with electronic communication tools with the intentions of eventually unveiling the most relevant facts.

    The result of this study establishes that e-mail is an essential tool for the work place and that it is a condition for efficient communication in an organization with a high reliance on information-technology. E-mail can be seen as a tool in a large toolbox in which the different tools complement each other. It is the co-workers themselves who choose which tool is most suitable for different situations. The result shows, too, that the quantity of information and tasks is constantly rising with the use of electronic communication. This, in turn, leads to a heavier workload and subsequently greater stress for the co-workers.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Jacob
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zahirovic, Elvis
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    För- och Nackdelar med Molnbaserade Affärssystem2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Molnet är en ny revolution inom IT- världen. På senare år har teknologin kring molnbaserade tjänster utvecklats väsentligt och allt fler företag väljer att lägga hela eller delar av sitt affärssystem på molnet. Den grundläggande idén bakom molnet är att beräkningarna utförs på servrar och att informationen därefter strömmas vidare till användaren. De senaste tre åren har investeringarna gällande molnbaserade affärssystem börjat accelerera i allt högre takt. I dagsläget riktar sig molnbaserade affärssystem mot mindre företag som är i ett behov utav ett standardiserat affärssystem som inte kostar multum. Framtiden ser dock ljus ut och investeringarna kring molnbaserade affärssystem har ökat markant sedan 2010.

    Molnbaserade affärssystem har likt de allra flesta nya tekniker sina för- samt nackdelar. Vår undersökning grundar sig i att finna vilka för- samt nackdelar molnbaserade affärssystem för med sig, säkerhetsmässigt samt ekonomiskt för leverantör och kund. Studien har genomförts med en kvalitativ ansats. Det empiriska avsnittet bygger på semistrukturerade intervjuer som genomförts hos flera företag. Teoridelen står som begreppsgrund för den empiriska undersökningen. Intervjupersonernas svar visade vilka för- och nackdelar molnlösningar för med sig, med affärssystem i molnet i synnerhet. Vi jämför vår teoristudie med materialet från den empiriska undersökningen, för att nå svar på våra frågeställningar. Flera problem kan uppstå när ett lokalt affärssystem skall bytas ut eller migreras till ett molnbaserat affärssystem. Säkerheten är ett hett diskussionsämne, klart är att det finns säkerhetshål och att data som färdas mellan servrar på internet alltid är känsligare än data som transporteras lokalt inom en organisation. Säkerheten på molnet är relativt omfattande med diverse säkerhetscertifikat och krypteringar. Hemmasnickrade säkerhetslösningar är en omöjlighet och de flesta företagen följer ”best-practices”. Serverhallarna som information lagras på är byggda med mycket god säkerhet, vilket innebär att inga utomstående personer har tillgång till dessa. Ett stort problem är dock att informationen aldrig lagras lokalt (inom företaget), utan på molnet, vilket kan leda till en misstro hos molnleverantörernas kunder. Ur ett ekonomiskt perspektiv är molnbaserade affärssystem i dagsläget ett bra alternativ för mindre nystartade företag då den initiala kostnaden är låg och som kund betalar man utefter användning. Den initiala kostnaden är således lägre gentemot ett ”traditionellt”, lokalt affärssystem där hårdvara måste inhandlas och personal skall anställas för att sköta underhåll och drift.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Andersson, Katrin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Automated Software Testing in an Embedded Real-Time System2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, automated software testing has been implemented successfully in many systems, however there does still exist relatively unexplored areas as how automated testing can be implemented in a real-time embedded system. This problem has been the foundation for the work in this master thesis, to investigate the possibility to implement an automated software testing process for the testing of an embedded real-time system at IVU Traffic Technologies AG in Aachen, Germany.

    The system that has been the test object is the on board system i.box.

    This report contains the result of a literature study in order to present the foundation behind the solution to the problem of the thesis. Questions answered in the study are: when to automate, how to automate and which traps should one avoid when implementing an automated software testing process in an embedded system.

    The process of automating the manual process has contained steps as constructing test cases for automated testing, analysing whether an existing tool should be used or a unique test system needs to be developed. The analysis, based on the requirements on the test system, the literature study and an investigation of available test tools, lead to the development of a new test tool. Due to limited devlopement time and characterstics of the i.box, the new tool was built based on post execution evaluation. The tool was therefore divided into two parts, a part that executed the test and a part that evaluated the result. By implementing an automated test tool it has been proved that it is possible to automate the test process at system test level in the i.box.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Jonny
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Automatic test vector generation and coverage analysis in model-based software development2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Thorough testing of software is necessary to assure the quality of a product before it is released. The testing process requires substantial resources in software development. Model-based software development provides new possibilities to automate parts of the testing process. By automating tests, valuable time can be saved. This thesis focuses on different ways to utilize models for automatic generation of test vectors and how test coverage analysis can be used to assure the quality of a test suite or to find "dead code" in a model. Different test-automation techniques have been investigated and applied to a model of an adaptive cruise control system (ACC) used at Scania. Source code has been generated automatically from the model, model coverage and code coverage has therefore been compared. The work with this thesis resulted in a new method to create test vectors for models based on a combinatorial test technique.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Leo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Sjöberg, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Spelifiering: En fallstudie med fokus på framställning och slutgiltigt värde2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis is an exploratory investigation about the phenomenon 'Gamification', which by some definitions is about implementing game elements into non-game contexts. For example exercise services as Runkeeper and Nike Plus who both are available on android and iOS platforms. This study is mainly about the potential value of gamified systems and services for companies and its users and how such a system or service is developed. The thesis also discusses the development aspect of gamified systems in order to give the reader a more ‘in depth’ understanding about the phenomenon. This has been achieved by visiting businesses, by studying marketing – and motivational theories and then connect those theories to the theory about gamification. After this case study have we been able to draw the conclusion that an essential part of gamification is the occurrence of real time calculations and game elements. This means that high demands are put on the developer who has to have good knowledge about the different game elements and when these elements are applicable. The system architect has to work with the other developers in order to be able to pick the best software and hardware that can meet the demands of the service. Fast calculations and high performance are critical factors to be able to offer a good experience to the users of the service. We have also been able to conclude that the guests that has been using the service MySkiStar has become more active in their skiing. Exactly what types of business and customer values MySkiStar as a gamified service has generated is not possible to specify. The reason for this is that SkiStar has not done any follow up in order to map the different areas that we have been interested in. The final value of such a service is therefore merely based on speculations until an investigation has been done to map the value. 

  • 19.
    Andersson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Artificiella immunsystem kan inte ge säkrare datorsystem2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningen om artificiella immunsystem försöker använda människans immunförsvar som modell för hur ett datorsystem på egen hand skall kunna försvara sig mot okänt inkräktande, till skillnad från traditionella antiviruslösningar som bygger på manuell detektion av nya virus.

    Denna uppsats hävdar att människans immunförsvar inte är någon relevant modell för ett artificiellt immunsystem som tillgodoser användarnas behov av säkrare datorsystem, eftersom det finns skillnader i hur datorsystem och människor principiellt fungerar.

    Ett antal hypoteser ställs upp som beläggs med data från den immunologiska forskningen, Microsofts säkerhetsbulletiner, samt virusbeskrivningar från antivirusföretaget Sophos. Hypoteserna kopplas ihop i en slutledningskedja som visar att de hypoteser som relaterar till datorsystem, inte är förenliga med de hypoteser som relaterar till människans immunförsvar, om det artificiella immunsystemet skall tillgodose användarnas behov av säkrare datorsystem.

    Forskningen om artificiella immunsystem diskuteras, där de principer och antaganden som de olika lösningarna bygger på monteras ned genom att implicita inkonsistenser görs explicita. Uppsatsen avslutas med en belysning av varför hypoteserna egentligen går att belägga, där grundbulten är att människans immunförsvar skyddar behovet hos sin värd, den mänskliga individen, till skillnad från det artificiella immunsystemet, som inte är tänkt att skydda behovet hos sin värd, själva datorsystemet, utan snarare behovet hos användaren av datorsystemet.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utvärdering av ramverket JQuery for mobile2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet har utförts på Lawson, som idag gör en satsning mot de mobila användarna. Då det idag finns många olika typer av enheter, webbläsare och operativsystem utvecklas det mobila applikationer till varje plattform vilket medför stora kostnader och längre utvecklingstider. Den här rapporten är skriven i syfte att se över vad det finns för möjligheter att använda ny teknik som HTML5 och CSS3 tillsammans med ramverket jQuery for mobile för att utveckla webbapplikationer.

    För att visa på funktionaliteten och vad man kan göra så har två exempelapplikationer tagits fram och testas på flera olika plattformar/enheter, bland annat en iPad och en Samsung Galaxy Tab 8.9. Koden för dessa applikationer finns som bilaga i rapporten.

    Målet var att se över vad det fanns för stöd för swipes, enhetlig native-design/känsla, kunna använda enhetens kamera och GPS. En hel del, bland annat swipes, GPS och lokal lagring, går att lösa med HTML5 och jQuery for mobile. Men vill man komma åt ännu mer hårdvarunära funktionalitet, så som kamera, så behöver man lägga på ett ramverk, i mitt fall valde jag att utöka arbetet och även se över ramverket Cordova. Det ramverket gjorde att man kunde komma åt kameran i mobilen.

    Slutsatsen av undersökningen är att det går att göra mycket med jQuery for mobile som bygger på webbtekniker som JavaScript, HTML5 och CSS3. Men för att få hårdvarunära funktionalitet behövs det användas en annan typ av ramverk, t.ex. Cordova, som erbjuder ett API mot själva hårdvarufunktionaliteten. För att den funktionaliteten sedan ska fungera måste applikationen kompileras, på samma sätt som en native-applikation. Dock så använder Cordova samma teknik som ramverket jQuery for mobile, så kostnader och utvecklingstid kan hållas nere. Vid små applikationer fungerar det utmärkt att använda denna teknik men vid större kan man behöva göra lite fler prestandatester innan man säkert kan avgöra om tekniken är lämplig.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Norén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Utvärderingsmetoder för e-tjänster: Användningsbaserad granskning av utvärderingsmetoderna Effektstyrning, DEVIS och Expertutvärdering2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Denna studie har två huvudsyften, ett praktiskt och ett akademiskt. Det praktiska huvudsyftet är att genomföra en utvärdering av e-tjänsten Nationella Exjobb-poolen (’xjobb.nu’) som drivs av Verket för Högskoleservice (’VHS’). Kopplat till detta har vi haft vårt akademiska huvudsyfte som varit att utvärdera hur väl tre metoder (’Effektstyrning’, ’DEVIS’ och ’Expertutvärdering’) passar för att utvärdera en existerande e-tjänst.

    Frågor: Vi har utgått från tre forskningsfrågor som med grund i vårt syfte är uppdelade i akademiska och praktiska frågor med inriktning på att utvärdera användbarheten hos en e-tjänst och hur användbara de tre metoderna är för utvärdering av e-tjänst.

    Forskningsmetod: Vår studie har varit till största delen kvalitativ med inslag av kvantitativ metod och har haft en induktiv ansats. Arbetet har även varit en fallstudie ur det perspektivet att våra studier av metoderna kan ses som fall. Arbetsordningen har varit sådan att vi sammanställde metoderna för att kunna ställa upp dem så att den efterföljande metodjämförelsen blev möjlig. Efter metodjämförelsen har vi sedan tillämpat metoderna på vårt undersökningsobjekt och analyserat resultatet av detta för att få fram vårt utvärderingsresultat.

    Kunskapsbidrag: Vår studie har ett praktiskt kunskapsbidrag och ett akademiskt kunskapsbidrag. Det praktiska kunskapsbidraget är ett utvärderingsresultat till VHS; att deras sida är funktionell och stödjer de flesta designregler för användbarhet men har ett antal punkter som kan åtgärdas. Det akademiska kunskapsbidraget är i form av ett utvärderingsresultat av de tre metoderna; att metoderna kan användas tillsammans och åtminstone Effektstyrning inte bör användas ensamt vid utvärdering. Vi har även valt att kalla den uppsättning verktyg vi har använt för en metod vid namn S.A.E. – Systematisk Användbarhetsutvärdering av E-tjänst.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Implementation of website for cognitive behavioural therapy using the development framework Symfony2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report follows the process of developing a website for cognitive behavioural therapy using the web development framework Symfony. The purpose was to find out if it is appropriate to use Symfony to ease development and maintenance of a website for therapy. For this to be true the framework had to be able to help create a website that was secure, user-friendly and easy to maintain.

    The website was developed using several features of the framework including database abstraction, automatic code generation and URL-rewriting. A plugin was used to enhance the security by adding a complete solution for user authentication. The website was tested by using built-in test functionality of the framework that could run test on functions or emulating a browser visiting the website.

    During the development the framework was tested and evaluated. The worst drawback turned out to be Symfonys steep learning curve, its security solution that only worked if the website was installed correctly and its slow loading time. Except those faults the framework performed well and was easy to use ones the initial learning time was over.

     

  • 23.
    Angelakis, Vangelis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Askoxylakis, Ioannis
    FORTH, Institute of Computer Science, Greece.
    Fowler, Scott
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gundlegård, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Traganitis, Apostolos
    FORTH, Institute of Computer Science, Greece.
    Yuan, Di
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Security and Resilience in Cognitive Radio Networks2011In: European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics Magazine, ISSN 0926-4981, no 85, p. 48-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After more than a decade of research, system securityand resilience is now the major technological barrier forthe Cognitive Radio (CR) to be adopted by the telecommunication industry. New ideas are required tomake CR networks secure and robust against attacks taking advantage the inherent characteristics of the CR functionality. This work explores key points that urgentlyneed to be addressed.

  • 24.
    Angelakis, Vangelis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Papadakis, Stefanos
    FORTH.
    Traganitis, Apostolos
    FORTH & UoC.
    Vasilios, Siris
    AUEB.
    Adjacent Channel Interference in 802.11a Is Harmful: Testbed Validation of a Simple Quantification Model2011In: IEEE COMMUNICATIONS MAGAZINE, ISSN 0163-6804, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 160-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless LAN radio interfaces based on the IEEE 802.11a standard have lately found widespread use in many wireless applications. A key reason for this was that although the predecessor, IEEE 802.11b/ g, had a poor channelization scheme, which resulted in strangling adjacent channel interference (ACI), 802.11a was widely believed to be ACI-free due to a better channelization combined with OFDM transmission. We show that this is not the case. ACI does exist in 802.11a, and we can quantify its magnitude and predict its results. For this, we present minor modifications of a simple model originally introduced by [1] that allow us to calculate bounding values of the 802.11a ACI, which can be used in link budget calculations. Using a laboratory testbed, we verify the estimations of the model, performing experiments designed to isolate the affected 802.11 mechanisms. This isolation was enabled by not using the wireless medium, and emulating it over cables and attenuators. Our results show clear throughput degradation because of ACI in 802.11a, the magnitude of which depends on the interfering data rates, packet sizes, and utilization of the medium.

  • 25.
    Ardi, Shanai
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    A Nonlinear Programming Approach for Dynamic Voltage Scaling2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded computing systems in portable devices need to be energy efficient, yet they have to deliver adequate performance to the often computationally expensive applications. Dynamic voltage scaling is a technique that offers a speed versus power trade-off, allowing the application to achieve considerable energy savings and, at the same time, to meet the imposed time constraints.

    In this thesis, we explore the possibility of using optimal voltage scaling algorithms based on nonlinear programming at the system level, for a complex multiprocessor scheduling problem. We present an optimization approach to the modeled nonlinear programming formulation of the continuous voltage selection problem excluding the consideration of transition overheads. Our approach achieves the same optimal results as the previous work using the same model, but due to its speed, can be efficiently used for design space exploration. We validate our results using numerous automatically generated benchmarks.

  • 26.
    Arvidsson, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Simulering av miljoner grindar med Count Algoritmen2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A key part in the development and verification of digital systems is simulation. But hardware simulators are expensive, and software simulation is not fast enough for designs with a large number of gates. As today’s digital zesigns constantly grow in size (number of gates), and that trend shows no signs to end, faster simulators handling millions of gates are needed.

    We investigate how to create a software gate-level simulator able to simulate a high number of gates fast. This involves a trade-off between memory requirement and speed. A compact netlist representation can utilize cache memories more efficient but requires more work to interpret, while high memory requirements can limit the performance to the speed of main memory.

    We have selected the Counting Algorithm to implement the experimental simulator MICA. The main reasons for this choice is the compact way in which gates can be stored, but still be evaluated in a simple and standard way.

    The report describes the issues and solutions encountered and evaluate the resulting simulator. MICA simulates a SPARC architecture processor called Leon. Larger netlists are achieved by simulating several instances of this processor. Simulation of 128 instances is done at a speed of 9 million gates per second using only 3.5MB memory. In MICA this design correspond to 2.5 million gates.

  • 27.
    Attergrim, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bladh, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kravelicitering inom webbutveckling: En undersökning över hur företag hanterar vanliga problem med kravelicitering2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Krav är nödvändiga egenskaper hos en produkt för att på bästa sätt tillfredställa en slutanvändare. I takt med att antalet kunder ökar, ökar även mängden krav. I dagens samhälle är det inte helt ovanligt att ett system har en koppling till internet och därför även dess applikationer. Vidare får internet en allt större inverkan på vår vardag, vilket gör att krav och behov behöver tillfredställas för en allt bredare publik. Detta ställer högre krav på en fungerande och tillförlitlig webbutveckling samt en förmåga att kunna se till alla intressenters behov och önskningar i takt med att dessa bara blir fler och fler. 

     

    Behovet av en fungerande och tillförlitlig kravhantering har ökat. I och med att dagens webbutvecklingsföretag inte tycks lägga tillräckligt med tid och fokus på behov har det medfört problem. Webbutvecklingsföretagen ser oftast främst till designen av produkten och inte till de bakomliggande kraven. Den ”riktiga” målgruppen tycks alltså inte vara i fokus. Det bidrar till att problem inom kravelicitering existerar. Trots vetskapen om dessa problem läggs inte tillräckligt med tid och resurser på forskning för att minimera dem.

     

    Vårt syfte med studien är därför att undersöka vilka problem som förekommer i dagens kravinsamlingsmetoder samt se till hur dessa hanteras. Vi vill sedan verklighetsförankra detta genom en empirisk studie av två olika webbyråer i Linköping. Verklighetsförankringen innebär att vi ska analysera hur dessa företag hanterar de problem som den genomförda litteraturstudien visar finns.

     

    Utifrån resultatet av denna studie kan vi konstatera att det idag inte finns någon problemhanteringsmetod inom kraveliciteringsfasen som alltid fungerar. Att det i dagsläget inte finns någon sådan metod beror på att webbutveckling är en alldeles för oförutsägbar bransch där varje projekt är unikt.

     

    Det kvarstår dock många problem och det är av stor vikt att påvisa dessa. Studiens resultat visar att en förstudie, i många fall, minimerar dessa problem samt att ett iterativt arbetssätt kan fungera för att hantera dem.

     

    Avslutningsvis ges ett förslag till vidare studier då kravelicitering, främst inom webbutvecklingsprojekt, är relativt outforskat och dynamiskt. Det innebär att vidare forskning kommer att behövas.

  • 28.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Analysing Business Interaction in a Virtual Organisation: Using Business Action Theory to Study Complex Inter-organisational Contexts2003In: Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations, ISSN 1539-2937, E-ISSN 1539-2929, ISSN 1539-2937, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Applying an Ethical Perspective on Stakeholder Participation in Public E-service Development2013In: GI Edition Proceedings Band 221: Electronic Government and Electronic Participation / [ed] Wimmer M.A., Janssen M, Macintosh, A., Scholl H.J., and Tambouris, E., 2013, p. 150-159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to balance between citizen and agency aspects’ importance and visibility in public e-service development, the question how to involve different stakeholders is often raised. However, identifying and analyzing several internal as well as external stakeholders in relation to e-government development raises some ethical questions: Who should participate and who should not? For what reasons do we involve stakeholders? What will the result of stakeholder participation and involvement be? In this article empirical findings from an egovernment project are revisited and discussed from an ethical perspective. The main conclusion is that we need to consider ethical aspects of stakeholder participation in e-government projects more thoroughly. The ethical discussion in stakeholder participation rhetoric has often been shallow. An important task for e-government researchers is therefore to address this discussion in public e-service development,as the results in terms of quality of the e-services as well as citizen benefits are at stake.

  • 30.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Business interactions in a virtual organisation: Visualising inter-organisational systems complexity2004In: The Social and Cognitive Impacts of e-Commerce on Modern Organizations / [ed] Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, Hershey: Idea Group Publishing , 2004, p. 136-164Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Social and Cognitive Impacts of E-Commerce on Modern Organizations includes articles addressing the social, cultural, organizational, and cognitive impacts of e-commerce technologies and advances on organizations around the world. Looking specifically at the impacts of electronic commerce on consumer behavior, as well as the impact of e-commerce on organizational behavior, development, and management in organizations. This important new book aims to expand the overall body of knowledge regarding the human aspects of electronic commerce technologies and utilization in modern organizations and to assist researchers and practitioners to devise more effective systems for managing the human side of e-commerce.

  • 31.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Exploring Relationships between Products Characteristics and B2C Interaction in Electronic Commerce2008In: Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, ISSN 0718-1876, E-ISSN 0718-1876, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the paper is to explore and discuss the influence of product type on customer interaction in electronic commerce. We have conducted two qualitative case studies in distance selling companies to inductively explore how the product characteristics of garments and music-CDs influence customer interaction. We apply a product classification scheme built on product theory to characterize and classify these products. By classifying product types according to this scheme we focus certain aspects; e.g., in which situation the customer uses the product and, thus, experiences potential satisfaction. By applying product theory to the electronic commerce context we are expanding this theory into a new area. Knowledge about product characteristics- influence on customer interaction in various phases of electronic commerce enriches and specifies the existing product theory. In order to put this theory contribution into practice, a set of focal questions with the aim to increase product understanding in an electronic commerce setting is formulated. The questions highlight product related issues that are important to consider when deciding communication media in electronic commerce.

  • 32.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Körkortstillstånd på nätet: Utmaningar & lärdomar2006In: Sundsvall 42, 2006, 2006, p. 73-75Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Four Tactics of Establishing and Preserving Data Stability2010In: Journal of Information, Information Technology and Organization (JIITO), ISSN 1557-1327, Vol. 5, p. 67-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on core ideas behind an information centric approach concerning stability in databases. We investigate if and how data stability is obtained when an information centric approach is implemented in practice. The results of our two case studies reveal four tactics focusing on actions conducted in order to obtain and maintain stability in databases: (1) change avoidance, (2) anticipated generalization, (3) constructive standardization, and (4) expansion to new application areas. Based on our empirical findings, we argue that data stability is a result of social construction in organizations rather than just an effect of structured information systems planning. The contributions in this paper can be used to explain IS design effects in organizations and analyze organizational situations from a data stability perspective.

  • 34.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Social Construction of Data Stability: Discovering Tactics for Establishing and Preserving Stability in Data Bases2008In: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Information Systems / [ed] Golden W, Acton T, Conboy K, van der Heijden H and Tuunainen VK, Galway: International university of Ireland , 2008, , p. 2257-2268Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper questions the idea of data stability. We focus on core ideas behind an information centric strategy concerning stability in databases (created through enterprise-wide data modeling). We investigate if and how data stability is obtained when an information centric strategy is implemented in practice. We claim that, even though there are many research contributions about information centric strategies, there are still few papers focusing on problems concerning consequences of the strategies’ practical implementation. This is, however, an important issue since data integration is a key element of strategic management in, e.g., ERP-systems, data mining applications, and service-oriented architecture (SOA). It is, thus, most important not to neglect existing experiences, when developing the IT systems of tomorrow. The result of our two case studies reveal four tactics focusing on actions conducted to obtain and maintain stability in databases. The tactics are 1) change avoidance, 2) anticipated generalization, 3) constructive standardization, and 4) expansion to new application areas.

  • 35.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Theory Modelling: Action Focus when Building a Multi-Grounded Theory2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson, Britt-Marie
    Internationella handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Product Characteristics Influencing Customer Communication Media in Distance Selling Settings2005In: The 14th International Conference on Information Systems Development ISD2005,2005, 2005, p. 83-94Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindblad-Gidlund, Katarina
    Department of Information, Technology and Media Mid Sweden University Sweden .
    E-government in Sweden: New Directions: Editorial2009In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 2009, no 2, p. 31-35Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In January 2008, the Swedish Government launched a new eGovernment action plan which was formulated to serve as “a new basis for IT-based organisational development in public administration”. The main objective in the plan was formulated as “as simple as possible for as many as possible”. The definition of eGovernment used in the action plan is the one agreed upon by many other European countries: “eGovernment is organisational development in public administrations that takes advantage of information and communication technologies (ICT) combined with organisational changes and new skills”. Behind the suggested course of actions there is a rhetoric that Sweden was now entering a new path regarding eGovernment development. Taken together the declarations in the plan made it and the expressed expectations of profound changes in public administration an interesting target for critical review.Having identified the importance in critically discussing and analysing the action plan, the Swedish Researchers Network in eGovernment (www.egov.nu) arranged a network meeting at the national conference for public sector in Sweden June 2008. The theme for the meeting was “Reflections on the Swedish action plan for eGovernment”. Several researchers and practitioners shared and debated their reflections during this meeting. In order to continue this very interesting discussion after the conference, we then invited authors to submit an article on the same theme, i.e. analysing different aspects of the Swedish action plan for eGovernment. This call for papers was directed both to participants at the network meeting and others, who wanted to contribute to this on-going debate. The call was to encourage authors to communicate and share their insights and opinions regarding the action plan in order to provide knowledge to decision-makers and other practitioners.

  • 38.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An inter-organisational perspective on challenges in one-stop government2008In: International Journal of Electronic Governance, ISSN 1742-7509, E-ISSN 1742-7517, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 296-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragmentation and isolated development are main problems that hinder successful e-government. This paper has an inter-organisational perspective on challenges in one-stop government. We present a conceptual framework that characterises an inter-organisational relationship and its dimensions. The conceptual framework is used for analysing data from an inter-organisational one-stop government project. When applying the framework we focus on some interesting issues and explain some of the challenges that our interviewees identified. By addressing these inter-organisational aspects we reached further understanding of the problems associated with this case, which can provide added value to discussions of e-government challenges, barriers and problems in general.

  • 39.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Facilitating Citizen Participation and Involvement in eGovernment Development Projects2008In: 5th Scandinavian Workshop on e-Government,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    How to Use the Potential of Learning Outcomes in IS Courses: Listening to the Voices of Students2010In: 2010 ISECON Proceedings: v27 n1327, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study illustrates how students view the role and meaning of learning outcomes. We have conducted a focus group with students who attended the course “Enterprise (ERP) systems and organizing” within an IS bachelor program in Sweden. Our study shows that students, as a course’s main stakeholder group, regard the multi-functionality of learning outcomes. What they still miss is knowledge about the role and meaning of learning outcomes as control instruments for the entire educational process. When teachers formulate learning outcomes in a transparent and clear way, students will be able to use them actively prior to courses, during courses and after courses. In order to better use the potential of learning outcomes in practice, we need to find ways of not just formulating learning outcomes in a standardized manner, but also practicing them in our courses. When this learning outcome model has been accepted and applied in teachers’ course activities, not just their syllabus writing, we have possibilities to use the full potential of learning outcomes.

  • 41.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Seven key lessons learned from e-government development: A reflective analysis of an e-government project2009In: Scandinavian Workshop on eGovernment, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a longitudinal case study of an e-government development project is reported. The authors have followed a development project during three years, from its initiation to its end. The purpose of the paper is to identify and analyze important decisions made and external factors that occurred during the project and discuss their consequences. The findings are presented as seven key lessons that other e-government projects can learn from. The contributions are, thus, both a reflective analysis of an empirical e-government development example and normative statements about how to conduct successful e-government projects.

  • 42.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Six key lessons for e-government projects2009In: Ongoing Research: General Development Issues and Projects of EGOV 09, 8th International Conference / [ed] Scholl HJ, Janssen M, Traunmüller R and Wimmer M, Linz: TRAUNER Verlag, 2009, p. 93-103Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we analyze a public e-service development project from its initiation to its end and reflect upon the process as well as its results. The purpose of the paper is to develop knowledge about how e-government projects should be managed and performed in order to be successful. We do this by identifying and analyzing important decisions made and external factors that occurred during the project and discussing their consequences. The findings are presented as six key lessons for e-government projects. The novel knowledge contribution is that the lessons combine aspects from established CSFs of IT projects with e-government-focused issues. Together these six lessons can be more useful in e-government projects than previous sets of general CSFs for IT projects.

  • 43.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Talking to, Not About, Citizens: Experiences of Focus Groups in Public E-Service Development2007In: Electronic Government, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, , p. 179-190p. 179-190Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses deficient understanding of citizens’ needs regarding public e-services. In Sweden e-government efforts are motivated by dual goals of citizen benefit and agencies’ internal efficiency. Rhetorical, this is a persuasive ambition, but in practice it seems to be easier to focus agency efficiency and redesign of business processes and information systems than to find out what citizens really want. Citizens, i.e. the future users of the e-service, are in best case represented in the project by citizen organizations. More seldom do individual citizens take part in the project. User needs are, thus, sometimes “guessed” instead of analyzed. We report from an e-government project which started with little understanding of the future users. To overcome this we introduced focus groups as a method to meet and talk to citizens and find out their needs regarding the e-service. The paper discusses how focus groups can be used in e-government projects.

  • 44.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Understanding B2B interaction: A model to accentuate inter-organisational systems design issues2002In: The 10th European Conference on Information Systems ECIS2002,2002, 2002, p. 541-550Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Developing public e-services for several stakeholders: a multifaceted view of the needs for an e-service2009In: Proceeding of the 17th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS2009) / [ed] Susan Newell, Edgar A. Whitley, Nancy Pouloudi, Jonathan Wareham, Lars Mathiassen, 2009, p. 2804-2815Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how several stakeholders in a public e-service development project consider a future e-service and expected changes in administrative processes and working routines. Our findings indicate a much more multifaceted view than the common win-win situation, with increased quality for citizens and increased efficiency for agencies, which is rhetorically put forth as an effect of public e-service implementation. We have studied a development project resulting in an e-service for handling student anonymity when marking written exams in higher education. In this case we have identified five distinct stakeholder groups related to this e-service; students, teachers, course administrators, exam guards, and the university at an agency level. All of them having certain expectations and fears about the new situation. By presenting this diversity in opinions we add further understanding to the notion of e-services as being more or less beneficial for certain stakeholders.

  • 46.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Exploring the importance of citizen participation and involvement in e-government projects: Practice, incentives, and organization2010In: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 299-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to investigate if, and in that case, how and what the e-government field can learn from user participation concepts and theories in general IS research. We aim to contribute with further understanding of the importance of citizen participation and involvement within the e-government research body of knowledge and when developing public e-services in practice.

    Design/Methodology/Approach – The analysis in the article is made from a comparative, qualitative case study of two e-government projects. Three analysis themes are induced from the literature review; practice of participation, incentives for participation, and organization of participation. These themes are guiding the comparative analysis of our data with a concurrent openness to interpretations from the field.

    Findings – The main results in this article are that the e-government field can get inspiration and learn from methods and approaches in traditional IS projects concerning user participation, but in e-government we also need methods to handle the challenges that arise when designing public e-services for large, heterogeneous user groups. Citizen engagement cannot be seen as a separate challenge in e-government, but rather as an integrated part of the process of organizing, managing, and performing e-government projects. Our analysis themes of participation generated from literature; practice, incentives and organization can be used in order to highlight, analyze, and discuss main issues regarding the challenges of citizen participation within e-government. This is an important implication based on our study that contributes both to theory on and practice of e-government.

    Practical implications – Lessons to learn from this study concern that many e-government projects have a public e-service as one outcome and an internal e-administration system as another outcome. A dominating internal, agency perspective in such projects might imply that citizens as the user group of the e-service are only seen as passive receivers of the outcome – not as active participants in the development. By applying the analysis themes, proposed in this article, citizens as active participants can be thoroughly discussed when initiating (or evaluating) an e-government project.

    Originality/value – This article addresses challenges regarding citizen participation in e-government development projects. User participation is well-researched within the IS discipline, but the e-government setting implies new challenges, that are not explored enough.

  • 47.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stakeholder Salience Changes in an e-Government Implementation Project2013In: Stakeholder Salience Changes in an e-Government Implementation Project: 12th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2013, Koblenz, Germany, September 16-19, 2013. Proceedings / [ed] Maria A. Wimmer, Marijn Janssen, Hans J. Scholl, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 237-249Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we discuss in what ways an e-government project can give both expected and unexpected effects for agency employees and their working tasks. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the fact that, besides the aim to increase agency efficiency and citizen benefit, e-government implementation might also change the salience of involved stakeholders. We do this by focusing on one stakeholder group which was reluctant and hesitating in the beginning of the studied project; marginalized, passive, easily convinced, and old-fashioned. After the e-government implementation, this group had turned to satisfied, proud, influential, active, powerful, and modern IT users. The case shows how stakeholder salience might change over time in an e-government project. Stakeholder influence aspects and IT driven change aspects are intertwined. This makes it necessary for any e-government project to address the notion of stakeholder involvement in decision-making during the development and implementation phases, but also to acknowledge e-services force to change how things and people are perceived during these phases.

  • 48.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Communication Analysis of Public Forms: Discovering Multi-functional Purposes in Citizen and Government Communication2007In: International journal of public information systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 3, p. 161-181Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Persson, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Information systems mediation in communication between citizens and government agencies: Experiences from communication analysis of forms2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 50.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Wedlund, Tommy
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, VITS - Development of Informations Systems and Work Context.
    Student Activity in Seminars: Designing Multi-functional Assessment Events2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

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