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  • 1.
    Abdel Aziz, Ilaria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain.
    Gladisch, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Griggs, Sophie
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Moser, Maximilian
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Biesmans, Hanne
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beloqui, Ana
    Univ Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain; Basque Fdn Sci, Spain.
    McCulloch, Iain
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Drug delivery via a 3D electro-swellable conjugated polymer hydrogel2024In: Journal of materials chemistry. B, ISSN 2050-750X, E-ISSN 2050-7518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatiotemporal controlled drug delivery minimizes side-effects and enables therapies that require specific dosing patterns. Conjugated polymers (CP) can be used for electrically controlled drug delivery; however so far, most demonstrations were limited to molecules up to 500 Da. Larger molecules could be incorporated only during the CP polymerization and thus limited to a single delivery. This work harnesses the record volume changes of a glycolated polythiophene p(g3T2) for controlled drug delivery. p(g3T2) undergoes reversible volumetric changes of up to 300% during electrochemical doping, forming pores in the nm-size range, resulting in a conducting hydrogel. p(g3T2)-coated 3D carbon sponges enable controlled loading and release of molecules spanning molecular weights of 800-6000 Da, from simple dyes up to the hormone insulin. Molecules are loaded as a combination of electrostatic interactions with the charged polymer backbone and physical entrapment in the porous matrix. Smaller molecules leak out of the polymer while larger ones could not be loaded effectively. Finally, this work shows the temporally patterned release of molecules with molecular weight of 1300 Da and multiple reloading and release cycles without affecting the on/off ratio.

  • 2. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synthetic Functionalities for Ion and Electron Conductive Polymers: Applications in Organic Electronics and Biological Interfaces2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the search for understanding and communicating with all biological systems, in humans, animals, plants, and even microorganisms, we find a common language of all communicating via electrons, ions and molecules. Since the discovery of organic electronics, the ability to bridge the gap and communicate be-tween modern technology and biology has emerged. Organic chemistry pro-vides us with tools for understanding and a material platform of polymer electronics for communication. Such insights give us not only the ability to observe fundamental phenomenon but to actively design and construct materials with chemical functionalities towards better interfaces and applications. Organic electronic materials and devices have found their way to be implemented in the field of medicine for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, but also in water purification and to help tackle the monumental task in creating the next generation of sustainable energy production and storage. Ultimately it’s safe to say that organic electronics are not going to replace our traditional technology based on inorganic materials but rather the two fields can find a way to complement each other for various purposes and applications. Compared to conventional silicon based technology, production of carbon-based organic electronic polymer materials are extremely cheap and devices can even be made flexible and soft with great compatibility towards biology.  

    The main focus of this thesis has been developing and synthesizing new types of organic electronic and ionic conductive polymeric materials. Rational chemical design and modifications of the materials have been utilized to introduce specific functionalities to the materials. The functionalities serving the purpose to facilitate ion and electron conductive charge transport for organic electronics and with biological interface implementation of the polymer materials. 

    Multi-functional ionic conductive hyperbranched polyglycerol polyelectrolytes (dendrolytes) were developed comprising both ionically charged groups and cross-linkable groups. The hyperbranched polyglycerol core structure of the material possesses a hydrophilic solvating platform for both ions and maintenance of solvent molecules, while being a biocompatible structure. Coupled with the peripheral charged ionic functionalities of the polymer, the dendrolyte materials are highly ionic conductive and selective towards cationic and anionic charged atoms and large molecules when implemented as ion-exchange membranes. Homogenous ion-exchange membrane casting has been achieved by the implementation of cross-linkable functionalities in the dendrolytes, utilizing robust click-chemistry for efficient micro and macro fabrication processing of the ion-ex-change membranes for organic electronic devices. The ion-exchange membrane material was implemented in electrophoretic drug delivery devices (organic electronic ion pumps), which are used for delivery of ions and neurotransmitters with spatiotemporal resolution and are able to communicate and be used for therapeutic drug delivery purposes in biological interfaces. The dendrolyte materials were also able to form free-standing membranes, making it possible for implementation in fuel cell and desalination purposes. 

    Trimeric conjugated thiophene pre-polymer structures were also developed in the thesis and synthesized for the purpose of implementation of the material in vivo to form electrically conductive polymer structures, and in such manner to be able to create electrodes and ultimately to connect with the central nervous system. The conjugated pre-polymers being both water soluble and enzymatically polymerizable serve as a platform to realize such a concept. Also, modifying the trimeric structure with cross-linkable functionality created the capability to form better interfaces and stability towards biological environments.   

    List of papers
    1. Formation of Monolithic Ion-Selective Transport Media Based on "Click" Cross-Linked Hyperbranched Polyglycerol
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formation of Monolithic Ion-Selective Transport Media Based on "Click" Cross-Linked Hyperbranched Polyglycerol
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Chemistry, E-ISSN 2296-2646, Vol. 7, article id 484Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the emerging field of organic bioelectronics, conducting polymers and ion-selective membranes are combined to form resistors, diodes, transistors, and circuits that transport and process both electronic and ionic signals. Such bioelectronics concepts have been explored in delivery devices that translate electronic addressing signals into the transport and dispensing of small charged biomolecules at high specificity and spatiotemporal resolution. Manufacturing such "iontronic" devices generally involves classical thin film processing of polyelectrolyte layers and insulators followed by application of electrolytes. This approach makes miniaturization and integration difficult, simply because the ion selective polyelectrolytes swell after completing the manufacturing. To advance such bioelectronics/iontronics and to enable applications where relatively larger molecules can be delivered, it is important to develop a versatile material system in which the charge/size selectivity can be easily tailormade at the same time enabling easy manufacturing of complex and miniaturized structures. Here, we report a one-pot synthesis approach with minimal amount of organic solvent to achieve cationic hyperbranched polyglycerol films for iontronics applications. The hyperbranched structure allows for tunable pre multi-functionalization, which combines available unsaturated groups used in crosslinking along with ionic groups for electrolytic properties, to achieve a one-step process when applied in devices for monolithic membrane gel formation with selective electrophoretic transport of molecules.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019
    Keywords
    hyperbranched polyglycerol; polyelectrolyte; multi-functionalization; thiol-ene; cross-linking; ion-selective; electrophoretic transport
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159146 (URN)10.3389/fchem.2019.00484 (DOI)000474717900001 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linkoping University; Onnesjo Foundation; Knut and AliceWallenberg Foundation

    Available from: 2019-07-30 Created: 2019-07-30 Last updated: 2024-01-10
    2. Capillary-Fiber Based Electrophoretic Delivery Device
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capillary-Fiber Based Electrophoretic Delivery Device
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 11, no 15, p. 14200-14207Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronic ion pumps (OEIPs) are versatile tools for electrophoretic delivery of substances with high spatiotemporal resolution. To date, OEIPs and similar iontronic components have been fabricated using thin-film techniques and often rely on laborious, multistep photolithographic processes. OEIPs have been demonstrated in a variety of in vitro and in vivo settings for controlling biological systems, but the thin-film form factor and limited repertoire of polyelectrolyte materials and device fabrication techniques unnecessarily constrain the possibilities for miniaturization and extremely localized substance delivery, e.g., the greater range of pharmaceutical compounds, on the scale of a single cell. Here, we demonstrate an entirely new OEIP form factor based on capillary fibers that include hyperbranched polyglycerols (dPGs) as the selective electrophoretic membrane. The dPGs enable electrophoretic channels with a high concentration of fixed charges and well-controlled cross-linking and can be realized using a simple one-pot fluidic manufacturing protocol. Selective electrophoretic transport of cations and anions of various sizes is demonstrated, including large substances that are difficult to transport with other OEIP technologies. We present a method for tailoring and characterizing the electrophoretic channels fixed charge concentration in the operational state. Subsequently, we compare the experimental performance of these capillary OEIPs to a computational model and explain unexpected features in the ionic current for the transport and delivery of larger, lower-mobility ionic compounds. From this model, we are able to elucidate several operational and design principles relevant to miniaturized electrophoretic drug delivery technologies in general. Overall, the compactness of the capillary OEIP enables electrophoretic delivery devices with probelike geometries, suitable for a variety of ionic compounds, paving the way for less-invasive implantation into biological systems and for healthcare applications.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2019
    Keywords
    electrophoresis; polyelectrolyte; iontronics; hyperbranched polymer; bioelectronics; substance delivery
    National Category
    Other Physics Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157207 (URN)10.1021/acsami.8b22680 (DOI)000465189000042 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]; Onnesjo Foundation; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation

    Available from: 2019-06-14 Created: 2019-06-14 Last updated: 2024-06-17
    3. Investigating the role of polymer size on ionic conductivity in free-standing hyperbranched polyelectrolyte membranes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating the role of polymer size on ionic conductivity in free-standing hyperbranched polyelectrolyte membranes
    Show others...
    2021 (English)In: Polymer, ISSN 0032-3861, E-ISSN 1873-2291, Vol. 223, article id 123664Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer-based ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are utilized for many applications such as in water desalination, energy storage, fuel cells and in electrophoretic drug delivery devices, exemplified by the organic electronic ion pump (OEIP). The bulk of current research is primarily focused on finding highly conductive and stable IEM materials. Even though great progress has been made, a lack of fundamental understanding of how specific polymer properties affect ionic transport capabilities still remains. This leads to uncertainty in how to proceed with synthetic approaches for designing better IEM materials. In this study, an investigation of the structure-property relationship between polymer size and ionic conductivity was performed by comparing a series of membranes, based on ionically charged hyperbranched polyglycerol of different polymer sizes. Observing an increase in ionic conductivity associated with increasing polymer size and greater electrolyte exclusion, indi-cating an ionic transportation phenomenon not exclusively based on membrane electrolyte uptake. These findings further our understanding of ion transport phenomena in semi-permeable membranes and indicate a strong starting point for future design and synthesis of IEM polymers to achieve broader capabilities for a variety of ion transport-based applications.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2021
    Keywords
    Ion-exchange membrane; Polymer size dependant ionic conductivity; Hyperbranched polyelectrolyte; Multi-functionalization; Click cross-linking
    National Category
    Polymer Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-175830 (URN)10.1016/j.polymer.2021.123664 (DOI)000643930300006 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swiss Society for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, SSB + RM; Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research CouncilEuropean Commission; European UnionEuropean Commission [834677]

    Available from: 2021-05-26 Created: 2021-05-26 Last updated: 2023-12-28
    4. Seamless integration of bioelectronic interface in an animal model via in vivo polymerization of conjugated oligomers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seamless integration of bioelectronic interface in an animal model via in vivo polymerization of conjugated oligomers
    Show others...
    2022 (English)In: Bioactive Materials, ISSN 2452-199X, Vol. 10, p. 107-116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Leveraging the biocatalytic machinery of living organisms for fabricating functional bioelectronic interfaces, in vivo, defines a new class of micro-biohybrids enabling the seamless integration of technology with living biological systems. Previously, we have demonstrated the in vivo polymerization of conjugated oligomers forming conductors within the structures of plants. Here, we expand this concept by reporting that Hydra, an invertebrate animal, polymerizes the conjugated oligomer ETE-S both within cells that expresses peroxidase activity and within the adhesive material that is secreted to promote underwater surface adhesion. The resulting conjugated polymer forms electronically conducting and electrochemically active μm-sized domains, which are inter-connected resulting in percolative conduction pathways extending beyond 100 μm, that are fully integrated within the Hydra tissue and the secreted mucus. Furthermore, the introduction and in vivo polymerization of ETE-S can be used as a biochemical marker to follow the dynamics of Hydra budding (reproduction) and regeneration. This work paves the way for well-defined self-organized electronics in animal tissue to modulate biological functions and in vivo biofabrication of hybrid functional materials and devices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2022
    Keywords
    polymerization, Bioelectronics interfaces, Conjugated oligomers, Model organism
    National Category
    Neurosciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-181716 (URN)10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.08.025 (DOI)000743377900002 ()34901533 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme [800926]; Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research CouncilEuropean Commission [VR-2017-04910]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF)Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; European Research Council (ERC)European Research Council (ERC)European Commission [834677]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]; MultiPark - A Strategic Research Area at Lund University; MIURMinistry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR) [SHARID - ARS01-01270]

    Available from: 2021-12-07 Created: 2021-12-07 Last updated: 2022-10-12Bibliographically approved
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  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Seitanidou, Maria S
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Roy, Arghyamalya
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Phopase, Jaywant
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moro, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Empa, Switzerland.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Investigating the role of polymer size on ionic conductivity in free-standing hyperbranched polyelectrolyte membranes2021In: Polymer, ISSN 0032-3861, E-ISSN 1873-2291, Vol. 223, article id 123664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer-based ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are utilized for many applications such as in water desalination, energy storage, fuel cells and in electrophoretic drug delivery devices, exemplified by the organic electronic ion pump (OEIP). The bulk of current research is primarily focused on finding highly conductive and stable IEM materials. Even though great progress has been made, a lack of fundamental understanding of how specific polymer properties affect ionic transport capabilities still remains. This leads to uncertainty in how to proceed with synthetic approaches for designing better IEM materials. In this study, an investigation of the structure-property relationship between polymer size and ionic conductivity was performed by comparing a series of membranes, based on ionically charged hyperbranched polyglycerol of different polymer sizes. Observing an increase in ionic conductivity associated with increasing polymer size and greater electrolyte exclusion, indi-cating an ionic transportation phenomenon not exclusively based on membrane electrolyte uptake. These findings further our understanding of ion transport phenomena in semi-permeable membranes and indicate a strong starting point for future design and synthesis of IEM polymers to achieve broader capabilities for a variety of ion transport-based applications.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Adatia, Karishma K.
    et al.
    Institute of Interfacial Process Engineering and Plasma Technology Igvp, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany; Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States.
    Holm, Alexander
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States.
    Southan, Alexander
    Institute of Interfacial Process Engineering and Plasma Technology Igvp, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Frank, Curtis W.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States.
    Tovar, Günter E. M.
    Institute of Interfacial Process Engineering and Plasma Technology Igvp, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany; Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology Igb, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Structure–property relations of amphiphilic poly(furfuryl glycidyl ether)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) macromonomers at the air–water interface2020In: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 1759-9954, E-ISSN 1759-9962, Vol. 11, no 35, p. 5659-5668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To deepen our knowledge of the film formation and the structure–property relations of poly(furfuryl glycidyl ether)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PFGEp-b-PEGq) macromonomers at the air–water interface, we synthesized PFGEp-b-PEGq in six different block lengths. The molar mass of the PFGEp-b-PEGq macromonomers varied from ∼2000 g mol−1 to ∼7000 g mol−1 and included a wide range of hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) values between 3.6 and 13.9. Surface pressure–area (πA) isotherms of these amphiphilic macromonomers revealed that the block lengths and the molar mass influence the isotherm shape and onset. Smaller, more hydrophobic macromonomers (HLB < 8) showed a steeper surface pressure increase in the liquid condensed phase compared to larger, more hydrophilic macromonomers with HLB > 8. The molecular area for isotherm onsets increased almost linearly with growing molar mass of the macromonomers. Static and dynamic film stability measurements demonstrated limited stability of all macromonomer monolayers at the air–water interface. The more hydrophilic macromonomers PFGE8-b-PEG79, PFGE18-b-PEG66 and PFGE13-b-PEG111 (HLB > 8) showed higher film stability compared to the more hydrophobic macromonomers (HLB < 8). Hysteresis experiments displayed an almost linear increase of the film degradation with rising HLB values of the macromonomers. Due to partial film recovery of our macromonomers, we propose an interplay between a reversible folding and an irreversible submersion mechanism for the macromonomer monolayers at the air–water interface. The molecular structure and the film forming ability of the macromonomers at the air–water interface indicate that they are promising surface functionalization reagents for materials formed from aqueous solutions, such as hydrogels. In this regard, PFGE10-b-PEG9 is the most promising hydrogel surface functionalization reagent, because it can introduce the highest number of functional groups per surface area.

  • 5.
    Ajjan, Fátima
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ambrogi, Martina
    Max Planck Institute Colloids and Interfaces, Germany.
    Ayalneh Tiruye, Girum
    IMDEA Energy Institute, Spain.
    Cordella, Daniela
    University of Liege ULg, Belgium.
    Fernandes, Ana M.
    POLYMAT University of Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain.
    Grygiel, Konrad
    Max Planck Institute Colloids and Interfaces, Germany.
    Isik, Mehmet
    POLYMAT University of Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain.
    Patil, Nagaraj
    University of Liege ULg, Belgium.
    Porcarelli, Luca
    POLYMAT University of Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain.
    Rocasalbas, Gillem
    KIOMedPharma, Belgium.
    Vendramientto, Giordano
    University of Bordeaux, France.
    Zeglio, Erica
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Antonietti, Markus
    Max Planck Institute Colloids and Interfaces, Germany.
    Detrembleur, Cristophe
    University of Liege ULg, Belgium.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jerome, Christine
    University of Liege ULg, Belgium.
    Marcilla, Rebeca
    IMDEA Energy Institute, Spain.
    Mecerreyes, David
    POLYMAT University of Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain; Basque Fdn Science, Spain.
    Moreno, Monica
    POLYMAT University of Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain.
    Taton, Daniel
    University of Bordeaux, France.
    Solin, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yuan, Jiayin
    Max Planck Institute Colloids and Interfaces, Germany.
    Innovative polyelectrolytes/poly(ionic liquid)s for energy and the environment2017In: Polymer international, ISSN 0959-8103, E-ISSN 1097-0126, Vol. 66, no 8, p. 1119-1128Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the work carried out within the European project RENAISSANCE-ITN, which was dedicated to the development of innovative polyelectrolytes for energy and environmental applications. Within the project different types of innovative polyelectrolytes were synthesized such as poly(ionic liquid)s coming from renewable or natural ions, thiazolium cations, catechol functionalities or from a new generation of cheap deep eutectic monomers. Further, macromolecular architectures such as new poly(ionic liquid) block copolymers and new (semi)conducting polymer/polyelectrolyte complexes were also developed. As the final goal, the application of these innovative polymers in energy and the environment was investigated. Important advances in energy storage technologies included the development of new carbonaceous materials, new lignin/conducting polymer biopolymer electrodes, new iongels and single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes for supercapacitors and batteries and new poly(ionic liquid) binders for batteries. On the other hand, the use of innovative polyelectrolytes in sustainable environmental technologies led to the development of new liquid and dry water, new materials for water cleaning technologies such as flocculants, oil absorbers, new recyclable organocatalyst platforms and new multifunctional polymer coatings with antifouling and antimicrobial properties. All in all this paper demonstrates the potential of poly(ionic liquid)s for high-value applications in energy and enviromental areas. (c) 2017 Society of Chemical Industry

  • 6.
    Aronsson, Christopher
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Selegård, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aili, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zinc-Triggered Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Fibrous Helix-Loop-Helix Peptide Superstructures for Controlled Encapsulation and Release2016In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 49, no 18, p. 6997-7003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a novel route for hierarchical self-assembly of sub-micrometer-sized peptide superstructures that respond to subtle changes in Zn2+ concentration. The self-assembly process is triggered by a specific folding-dependent coordination of Zn2+ by a de novo designed nonlinear helix-loop-helix peptide, resulting in a propagating fiber formation and formation of spherical superstructures. The superstructures further form larger assemblies that can be completely disassembled upon removal of Zn2+ or degradation of the nonlinear peptide. This flexible and reversible assembly strategy of the superstructures enables facile encapsulation of nanoparticles and drugs that can be released by means of different stimuli.

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  • 7.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Naficy, Sina
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia; School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Foroughi, Javad
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Brown, Hugh R.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia; School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Characterisation of torsional actuation in highly twisted yarns and fibres2015In: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 46, p. 88-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly twisted oriented polymer fibres and carbon nanotube yarns show large scale torsional actuation from volume expansion that can be induced, for example, thermally or by electrochemical charging. When formed into spring-like coils, the torsional actuation within the fibre or yarn generates powerful tensile actuation per muscle weight. For further development of these coil actuators and for the practical application of torsional actuators, it is important to standardise methods for characterising both the torsional stroke (rotation) and torque generated. By analogy with tensile actuators, we here introduce a method to measure both the free stroke and blocked torque in a one-end-tethered fibre. In addition, the torsional actuation can be measured when operating against an externally applied torque (isotonic) and actuation against a return spring fibre (variable torque). A theoretical treatment of torsional actuation was formulated using torsion mechanics and evaluated using a commercially available highly-oriented polyamide fibre. Good agreement between experimental measurements and calculated values was obtained. The analysis allows the prediction of torsional stroke under any external loading condition based on the fundamental characteristics of the actuator: free stroke and stiffness.

  • 8.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Naficy, Sina
    University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Foroughi, Javad
    University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Brown, Hugh R.
    University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Controlled and scalable torsional actuation of twisted nylon 6 fiber2016In: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 54, no 13, p. 1278-1286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large‐scale torsional actuation occurs in twisted fibers and yarns as a result of volume change induced electrochemically, thermally, photonically, and other means. A quantitative relationship between torsional actuation (stroke and torque) and volume change is here introduced. The analysis is based on experimental investigation of the effects of fiber diameter and inserted twist on the torsional stroke and torque measured when heating and cooling nylon 6 fibers over the temperature range of 26–62 °C. The results show that the torsional stroke depends only on the amount of twist inserted into the fiber and is independent of fiber diameter. The torque generated is larger in fibers with more inserted twist and with larger diameters. These results are successfully modeled using a single‐helix approximation of the twisted fiber structure

  • 9.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Australian Institute for Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Naficy, Sina
    School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Foroughi, Javad
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Australian Institute for Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Brown, Hugh R.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Australian Institute for Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Australian Institute for Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Effect of anisotropic thermal expansion on the torsional actuation of twist oriented polymer fibres2017In: Polymer, ISSN 0032-3861, E-ISSN 1873-2291, Vol. 129, p. 127-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Torsional actuation of twisted polymer fibres is the basis for high performance tensile actuation when these fibres are formed into coils. The thermally-induced torsional actuation of twisted polyamide-6 fibres can be predicted by a single helix approximation when the measured diameter and length direction thermal expansion coefficients are known. The single helix model illustrates the sensitivity of the magnitude of torsional actuation to the volume expansion anisotropy for a given volume change. The applicability of the model has been further assessed by investigating three polymer fibres that display different thermal expansion anisotropies. Commercially available polyethylene, polypropylene and polyamide-6 fibres were twisted to the maximum extent without coiling and then heat treated to fix the twisted structure. Heating the twisted fibres between 26 and 62 °C resulted in a partial untwist which was reversed during cooling. The single-helix model of the twisted fibres was used to accurately predict the torsional stroke based on the measured fibre length and diameter change during heating. Comparative torsional stroke of twisted polyamide-6, polyethylene and polypropylene was explained in terms of materials thermo-physical properties. Generated blocked torques was also correctly predicted by the single-helix model when combined with the measured fibre torsional stiffness. Variances between torsional stiffnesses were found to be dependent of different anisotropic thermal properties of tested fibres.

  • 10.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Naficy, Sina
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    Foroughi, Javad
    University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Brown, Hugh R.
    University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Thermomechanical effects in the torsional actuation of twisted nylon 6 fiber2017In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 134, no 47, article id 45529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermally induced torsional and tensile actuators based on twisted polymeric fibers have opened new opportunities for the application of artificial muscles. These newly developed actuators show significant torsional deformations when subjected to temperature changes, and this torsional actuation is the defining mechanism for tensile actuation of twisted and coiled fibers. To date it has been found that these actuators require multiple heat/cool cycles (referred to as “training” cycles) prior to obtaining a fully reversible actuation response. Herein, the effect of annealing conditions applied to twisted nylon 6 monofilament is investigated and it is shown that annealing at 200 °C eliminates the need for the training cycles. Furthermore, the effect of an applied external torque on the torsional actuation is also investigated and torsional creep is shown to be affected by the temperature and load

  • 11.
    Berglund, Linn
    et al.
    Lulea Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Rakar, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Regionledningskontoret, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Junker, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Regionledningskontoret, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    Lulea Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Lulea Univ Technol, Sweden; Univ Oulu, Finland; Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Utilizing the Natural Composition of Brown Seaweed for the Preparation of Hybrid Ink for 3D Printing of Hydrogels2020In: ACS Applied Bio Materials, E-ISSN 2576-6422, Vol. 3, no 9, p. 6510-6520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to utilize the natural composition of brown seaweed by deriving alginate and cellulose concurrently from the stipe (stem-like) and blade (leaf-like) structures of the seaweed; further, this is followed by fibrillation for the direct and resource-efficient preparation of alginate/cellulose nanofiber (CNF) hybrid inks for three-dimensional (3D) printing of hydrogels. The efficiency of the fibrillation process was evaluated, and the obtained gels were further studied with regard to their rheological behavior. As a proof of concept, the inks were 3D printed into discs, followed by cross-linking with CaCl2 to form biomimetic hydrogels. It was shown that the nanofibrillation process from both seaweed structures is very energy-efficient, with an energy demand lower than 1.5 kW h/kg, and with CNF dimensions below 15 nm. The inks displayed excellent shear-thinning behavior and cytocompatibility and were successfully printed into 3D discs that, after cross-linking, exhibited an interconnected network structure with favorable mechanical properties, and a cell viability of 71%. The designed 3D biomimetic hydrogels offers an environmentally benign, cost-efficient, and biocompatible material platform with a favorable structure for the development of biomedical devices, such as 3D bio printing of soft tissues.

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  • 12.
    Björk, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Ulm, Germany.
    Baumann, Bernhard
    Univ Ulm, Germany.
    Hausladen, Florian
    Ulm Univ, Germany.
    Wittig, Rainer
    Ulm Univ, Germany.
    Linden, Mika
    Univ Ulm, Germany.
    Cell adherence and drug delivery from particle based mesoporous silica films2019In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 9, no 31, p. 17745-17753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatially and temporally controlled drug delivery is important for implant and tissue engineering applications, as the efficacy and bioavailability of the drug can be enhanced, and can also allow for drugging stem cells at different stages of development. Long-term drug delivery over weeks to months is however difficult to achieve, and coating of 3D surfaces or creating patterned surfaces is a challenge using coating techniques like spin- and dip-coating. In this study, mesoporous films consisting of SBA-15 particles grown onto silicon wafers using wet processing were evaluated as a scaffold for drug delivery. Films with various particle sizes (100-900 nm) and hence thicknesses were grown onto trichloro(octadecyl)silane-functionalized silicon wafers using a direct growth method. Precise patterning of the areas for film growth could be obtained by local removal of the OTS functionalization through laser ablation. The films were incubated with the drug model 3,3 -dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate (DiO), and murine myoblast cells (C2C12 cells) were seeded onto films with different particle sizes. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to study the cell growth, and a vinculin-mediated adherence of C2C12 cells on all films was verified. The successful loading of DiO into the films was confirmed by UV-vis and CLSM. It was observed that the drugs did not desorb from the particles during 24 hours in cell culture. During adherent growth on the films for 4 h, small amounts of DiO and separate particles were observed inside single cells. After 24 h, a larger number of particles and a strong DiO signal were recorded in the cells, indicating a particle mediated drug uptake. The vast majority of the DiO-loaded particles remained attached to the substrate also after 24 h of incubation, making the films attractive as longer-term reservoirs for drugs on e.g. medical implants.

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  • 13.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Iandolo, Donata
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ecole Natl Super Mines, France.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Controlling the electrochromic properties of conductive polymers using UV-light2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 6, no 17, p. 4663-4670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of electrochromism in conductive polymers is well known and has been exploited in many scientific reports. Using a newly developed patterning technique for conductive polymers, we manufactured high-resolution electrochromic devices from the complementary polymers PEDOT and polypyrrole. The technique, which combines UV-light exposure with vapor phase polymerization, has previously only been demonstrated with the conductive polymer PEDOT. We further demonstrated how the same technique can be used to control the optical properties and the electrochromic contrast in these polymers. Oxidant exposure to UV-light prior to vapor phase polymerization showed a reduction in polymer electrochromic contrast allowing high-resolution (100 mu m) patterns to completely disappear while applying a voltage bias due to their optical similarity in one redox state and dissimilarity in the other. This unique electrochromic property enabled us to construct devices displaying images that appear and disappear with the change in applied voltage. Finally, a modification of the electrochromic device architecture permitted a dual image electrochromic device incorporating patterned PEDOT and patterned polypyrrole on the same electrode, allowing the switching between two different images.

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  • 14.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Freitag, Kathrin
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Mulla, Mohammad Yusuf
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Isacsson, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ahlstrom Grp Innovat, France.
    Ersman, Peter Andersson
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Paper Electronics Utilizing Screen Printing and Vapor Phase Polymerization2023In: ADVANCED SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 7, no 7, article id 2300058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of paper electronics has been accelerated due to the public push for sustainability. Electronic waste can potentially be avoided if certain materials in electronic components can be substituted for greener alternatives such as paper. Within this report, it is demonstrated that conductive polymers poly(3,4-ethylenedoxythiophene) (PEDOT), polypyrrole, and polythiophene, can be synthesized by screen printing combined with vapor phase polymerization on paper substrates and further incorporated into functional electronic components. High patterning resolution (100 mu m) is achieved for all conductive polymers, with PEDOT showing impressive sheet resistance values. PEDOT is incorporated as conductive circuitry and as the active material in all-printed electrochromic displays. The conductive polymer circuits allow for functional light emitting diodes, while the electrochromic displays are comparable to commercial displays utilizing PEDOT on plastic substrates.

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  • 15.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Lay, Makara
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. INM Leibniz Inst New Mat, Germany.
    Jain, Karishma
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Francon, Hugo
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Say, Mehmet Girayhan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Belaineh, Dagmawi
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Wang, Xin
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Hakansson, Karl M. O.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Wagberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nanocellulose and PEDOT:PSS composites and their applications2023In: POLYMER REVIEWS, ISSN 1558-3724, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 437-477Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for achieving sustainable technologies has encouraged research on renewable and biodegradable materials for novel products that are clean, green, and environmentally friendly. Nanocellulose (NC) has many attractive properties such as high mechanical strength and flexibility, large specific surface area, in addition to possessing good wet stability and resistance to tough chemical environments. NC has also been shown to easily integrate with other materials to form composites. By combining it with conductive and electroactive materials, many of the advantageous properties of NC can be transferred to the resulting composites. Conductive polymers, in particular poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), have been successfully combined with cellulose derivatives where suspensions of NC particles and colloids of PEDOT:PSS are made to interact at a molecular level. Alternatively, different polymerization techniques have been used to coat the cellulose fibrils. When processed in liquid form, the resulting mixture can be used as a conductive ink. This review outlines the preparation of NC/PEDOT:PSS composites and their fabrication in the form of electronic nanopapers, filaments, and conductive aerogels. We also discuss the molecular interaction between NC and PEDOT:PSS and the factors that affect the bonding properties. Finally, we address their potential applications in energy storage and harvesting, sensors, actuators, and bioelectronics.

  • 16.
    Chen, Hu
    et al.
    King Abdullah Univ Sci & Technol KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Moser, Maximilian
    Imperial Coll London, England; Imperial Coll London, England; Univ Oxford, England.
    Wang, Suhao
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jellett, Cameron
    Imperial Coll London, England; Imperial Coll London, England.
    Thorley, Karl
    Univ Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Harrison, George T.
    King Abdullah Univ Sci & Technol KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Jiao, Xuechen
    Monash Univ, Australia.
    Xiao, Mingfei
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Purushothaman, Balaji
    King Abdullah Univ Sci & Technol KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Alsufyani, Maryam
    King Abdullah Univ Sci & Technol KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Bristow, Helen
    Imperial Coll London, England; Imperial Coll London, England; Univ Oxford, England.
    De Wolf, Stefaan
    King Abdullah Univ Sci & Technol KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Gasparini, Nicola
    Imperial Coll London, England; Imperial Coll London, England.
    Wadsworth, Andrew
    Imperial Coll London, England; Imperial Coll London, England; Univ Oxford, England.
    McNeill, Christopher R.
    Monash Univ, Australia.
    Sirringhaus, Henning
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    McCulloch, Iain
    King Abdullah Univ Sci & Technol KAUST, Saudi Arabia; Univ Oxford, England.
    Acene Ring Size Optimization in Fused Lactam Polymers Enabling High n-Type Organic Thermoelectric Performance2021In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 143, no 1, p. 260-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three n-type fused lactam semiconducting polymers were synthesized for thermoelectric and transistor applications via a cheap, highly atom-efficient, and nontoxic transition-metal free aldol polycondensation. Energy level analysis of the three polymers demonstrated that reducing the central acene core size from two anthracenes (A-A), to mixed naphthalene-anthracene (A-N), and two naphthalene cores (N-N) resulted in progressively larger electron affinities, thereby suggesting an increasingly more favorable and efficient solution doping process when employing 4-(2,3-dihydro-1,3-dimethyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylbenzenamine (N-DMBI) as the dopant. Meanwhile, organic field effect transistor (OFET) mobility data showed the N-N and A-N polymers to feature the highest charge carrier mobilities, further highlighting the benefits of aryl core contraction to the electronic performance of the materials. Ultimately, the combination of these two factors resulted in N-N, A-N, and A-A to display power factors (PFs) of 3.2 mu W m(-1) K-2, 1.6 mu W m(-1 )K(-2), and 0.3 mu W m(-1) K-2, respectively, when doped with N-DMBI, whereby the PFs recorded for N-N and A-N are among the highest reported in the literature for n-type polymers. Importantly, the results reported in this study highlight that modulating the size of the central acene ring is a highly effective molecular design strategy to optimize the thermoelectric performance of conjugated polymers, thus also providing new insights into the molecular design guidelines for the next generation of high-performance n-type materials for thermoelectric applications.

  • 17.
    Chen, Yi-Jing
    et al.
    Shantou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Jun-Zheng
    Shantou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Zhixing
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Qiao, Ying-Xin
    Shantou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zheng, Lei
    Shantou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wondu Dagnaw, Fentahun
    Shantou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Tong, Qing-Xiao
    Shantou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Jian, Jing-Xin
    Shantou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Molecular Engineering of Perylene Diimide Polymers with a Robust Built-in Electric Field for Enhanced Solar-Driven Water Splitting2023In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The built-in electric field of the polymer semiconductors could be regulated by the dipole moment of its building blocks, thereby promoting the separation of photogenerated carriers and achieving efficient solar-driven water splitting. Herein, three perylene diimide (PDI) polymers, namely oPDI, mPDI and pPDI, are synthesized with different phenylenediamine linkers. Notably, the energy level structure, light-harvesting efficiency, and photogenerated carrier separation and migration of polymers are regulated by the orientation of PDI unit. Among them, oPDI enables a large dipole moment and robust built-in electric field, resulting in enhanced solar-driven water splitting performance. Under simulated sunlight irradiation, oPDI exhibits the highest photocurrent of 115.1 mu A cm-2 for photoelectrochemical oxygen evolution, which is 11.5 times that of mPDI, 26.8 times that of pPDI and 104.6 times that of its counterparts PDI monomer at the same conditions. This work provides a strategy for designing polymers by regulating the orientation of structural units to construct efficient solar energy conversion systems. Three perylene diimide (PDI) polymers were designed and synthesized such that the molecular orientation of the PDI units was regulated to create and modulate their built-in electric fields. Due to the large dipole moment and interfacial electric field, oPDI enables an extraordinary photocurrent density of 115.1 mu A & sdot; cm-2, which is 11.5 and 26.8 times that of mPDI and pPDI, respectively.image

  • 18.
    Clarke, Andrew J.
    et al.
    Swansea Univ, Wales.
    Luke, Joel
    Imperial Coll London, England; Imperial Coll London, England.
    Meitzner, Rico
    Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena, Germany.
    Wu, Jiaying
    Imperial Coll London, England; Imperial Coll London, England.
    Wang, Yuming
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lee, Harrison K. H.
    Swansea Univ, Wales.
    Speller, Emily M.
    Swansea Univ, Wales.
    Bristow, Helen
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Cha, Hyojung
    Imperial Coll London, England; Imperial Coll London, England.
    Newman, Michael J.
    Swansea Univ, Wales.
    Hooper, Katherine
    Swansea Univ, Wales.
    Evans, Alex
    Cardiff Univ, Wales.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hoppe, Harald
    Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena, Germany.
    McCulloch, Iain
    Univ Oxford, England; King Abdullah Univ Sci & Technol KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Schubert, Ulrich S.
    Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena, Germany; Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena, Germany.
    Watson, Trystan M.
    Swansea Univ, Wales.
    Durrant, James R.
    Swansea Univ, Wales; Imperial Coll London, England; Imperial Coll London, England.
    Tsoi, Wing C.
    Swansea Univ, Wales.
    Kim, Ji-Seon
    Imperial Coll London, England; Imperial Coll London, England.
    Li, Zhe
    Queen Mary Univ London, England.
    Non-fullerene acceptor photostability and its impact on organic solar cell lifetime2021In: Cell Reports Physical Science, E-ISSN 2666-3864, Vol. 2, no 7, article id 100498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) has facilitated the realization of efficient organic solar cells (OSCs) with minimal burn-in losses and excellent long-term stability. However, the role of NFA molecular structures on device stability remains unclear, limiting commercialization of NFA-based OSCs. Herein, the photostability of 10 OSC devices, fabricated with various NFAs (O-IDTBR, EH-IDTBR, ITIC, and ITIC-M) blended with donor polymers (PTB7-Th, PffBT4T-2OD, and PBDB-T), is investigated. O-IDTBR and EH-IDTBR form highly stable devices with all three polymers, whereas ITIC and ITIC-M devices suffer from burn-in losses and long-term degradation. Conformational instability is found to be responsible for the poor photostability of ITIC and ITIC-M, resulting in poor device stability. Twisting and potential breakage of the chemical bond that links the end group to the main backbone of ITIC and ITIC-M molecules causes undesirable conformational changes. Potential strategies to overcome such detrimental photo-induced conformational changes in NFAs are proposed.

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  • 19.
    Craighero, Mariavittoria
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Guo, Jiali
    CSIC, Spain.
    Zokaei, Sepideh
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Griggs, Sophie
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Tian, Junfu
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Asatryan, Jesika
    Univ A Coruna, Spain.
    Kimpel, Joost
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Kroon, Renee
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xu, Kai
    CSIC, Spain.
    Reparaz, Juan Sebastian
    CSIC, Spain.
    Martin, Jaime
    Univ A Coruna, Spain; POLYMAT, Spain.
    Mcculloch, Iain
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Campoy-Quiles, Mariano
    CSIC, Spain.
    Mueller, Christian
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Impact of Oligoether Side-Chain Length on the Thermoelectric Properties of a Polar Polythiophene2023In: ACS APPLIED ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, ISSN 2637-6113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers with oligoether side chains make up a promising class of thermoelectric materials. In this work, the impact of the side-chain length on the thermoelectric and mechanical properties of polythiophenes is investigated. Polymers with tri-, tetra-, or hexaethylene glycol side chains are compared, and the shortest length is found to result in thin films with the highest degree of order upon doping with the p-dopant 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F(4)TCNQ). As a result, a stiff material with an electrical conductivity of up to 830 +/- 15 S cm(-1) is obtained, resulting in a thermoelectric power factor of about 21 mu W m(-1) K-2 in the case of as-cast films. Aging at ambient conditions results in an initial decrease in thermoelectric properties but then yields a highly stable performance for at least 3 months, with values of about 200 S cm(-1) and 5 mu W m(-1) K-2. Evidently, identification of the optimal side-chain length is an important criterion for the design of conjugated polymers for organic thermoelectrics.

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  • 20.
    Crispin, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marciniak, S.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Osikowicz, Wojciech
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zotti, G.
    Instituto Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche per l' Energetica e le Interfasi, Padova, Italy.
    Denier Van Der Gon, A. W.
    Faculty of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Louwet, F.
    Chemistry Department, R&D Materials Research, Agfa Gevaert N.V., Mortsel, Belgium.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Groenendaal, L.
    Chemistry Department, R&D Materials Research, Agfa Gevaert N.V., Mortsel, Belgium.
    De Schryver, F.
    Afdeling Fotochemie en Spectroscopie, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Salaneck, William R.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Conductivity, Morphology, Interfacial Chemistry, and Stability of Poly(3,4- ethylene dioxythiophene)–Poly(styrene sulfonate): A Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study2003In: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 41, no 21, p. 2561-2583Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to characterize poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDT/PSS), one of the most common electrically conducting organic polymers. A correlation has been established between the composition, morphology, and polymerization mechanism, on the one hand, and the electric conductivity of PEDT/PSS, on the other hand. XPS has been used to identify interfacial reactions occurring at the polymer-on-ITO and polymer-on-glass interfaces, as well as chemical changes within the polymer blend induced by electrical stress and exposure to ultraviolet light.

  • 21.
    Cui, Yong
    et al.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Chenyi
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Science and Technology Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Yao, Huifeng
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Zhu, Jie
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; Ocean University of China, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Yuming
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jia, Guoxiao
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Science and Technology Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hou, Jianhui
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Efficient Semitransparent Organic Solar Cells with Tunable Color enabled by an Ultralow-Bandgap Nonfullerene Acceptor2017In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 29, no 43, article id 1703080Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semitransparent organic solar cells (OSCs) show attractive potential in power-generating windows. However, the development of semitransparent OSCs is lagging behind opaque OSCs. Here, an ultralow-bandgap non-fullerene acceptor, "IEICO-4Cl", is designed and synthesized, whose absorption spectrum is mainly located in the near-infrared region. When IEICO-4Cl is blended with different polymer donors (J52, PBDB-T, and PTB7-Th), the colors of the blend films can be tuned from purple to blue to cyan, respectively. Traditional OSCs with a nontransparent Al electrode fabricated by J52: IEICO-4Cl, PBDB-T: IEICO-4Cl, and PTB7-Th: IEICO-4Cl yield power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of 9.65 +/- 0.33%, 9.43 +/- 0.13%, and 10.0 +/- 0.2%, respectively. By using 15 nm Au as the electrode, semitransparent OSCs based on these three blends also show PCEs of 6.37%, 6.24%, and 6.97% with high average visible transmittance (AVT) of 35.1%, 35.7%, and 33.5%, respectively. Furthermore, via changing the thickness of Au in the OSCs, the relationship between the transmittance and efficiency is studied in detail, and an impressive PCE of 8.38% with an AVT of 25.7% is obtained, which is an outstanding value in the semitransparent OSCs.

  • 22.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simulations of Silicon Carbide Chemical Vapor Deposition2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the modern electronics technology is based on the semiconducting material silicon. The increasing demands for smaller electronic devices with improved performance at lower costs drive the conventional silicon technology to its limits. To meet the requirements from the industry and to explore new application areas, other materials and fabrication methods must be used. For devices operating at high powers, high temperatures and high frequencies, the so-called wide bandgap semiconductors can be used with great success. Silicon carbide (SiC) and III-nitrides are wide bandgap materials that have gained increased interest in recent years. One important technique in manufacturing of electronic devices is chemical vapor deposition (CVD), by which thin layers can be deposited. These layers may have different electrical properties, depending on the choice of material and doping. Generally in CVD, a reactive gas mixture flows through a heated reactor chamber, where the substrates are placed. Complex chemical reactions take place in the gas and on the substrate surface, leading to many intermediate species and by-products, and eventually to the desired deposition. For the growth of device quality material it is important to be able to control the properties of the grown layers. These properties generally depend on the growth conditions in the reaction chamber, and on the chemistry of the deposition process. So far, empirical trial-and-error methods have been employed in the development of growth processes. Due to the lack of basic understanding of the governing physical processes, progress is costly and time consuming. Improving and optimizing the CVD process, as well as improving the fundamental understanding of the whole process is of great importance when good quality material should be produced. For this, computer simulations of the relevant physical and chemical phenomena can provide the necessary tools. This thesis focuses on computer simulations of the CVD process, in particular CVD of SiC. Simulations can be used not only as a tool for optimizing growth processes and reactor designs, they can also give information about physical phenomena that are difficult to measure, such as the gas-phase composition or the flow paths inside the reactor.

    Heating of the CVD susceptor is a central part of the process. For the growth of high quality SiC a relatively high temperature must be used. A convenient method for heating to high temperatures is by induction. A low resistive material, such as graphite, is placed inside a coil, which is given an alternating current. The graphite is then heated by the induced currents due to ohmic resistance. In this thesis the temperature distribution inside a CVD reactor, and how it is influenced by changes in coil frequency, power input to the coil and graphite thickness, is investigated. It is shown that by changing the placement and shape of the coil and by using insulation material correctly, a more uniform temperature distribution can be obtained.

    A model for the growth of SiC is used to predict growth rates at various process parameters. A number of possible factors influencing the growth rate are investigated using this model. The importance of including thermal diffusion and the effect of etching by hydrogen is shown, and the effect of parasitic growth investigated. Simulations show a mass transport limited growth, as seen from experiments.

    An improved susceptor design with an up-lifted substrate holder plate is investigated and compared to a conventional hot-wall reactor and to a cold-wall reactor. It is shown that stress induced by thermal gradients through the substrate is significantly reduced in the hot-wall reactor, and that stress due to backside growth can be diminished using the new design. Positive side effects are that slightly higher growth rates can be achieved, and that the growth temperature can be slightly lowered in the new susceptor.

    The doping incorporation behavior is thoroughly investigated experimentally for intentional doping with nitrogen and aluminum. The doping incorporation on both faces of SiC, as well as on two different polytypes is investigated. Equilibrium calculations are preformed, giving possible candidates for species responsible for the doping incorporation. To predict nitrogen doping concentrations, a simplified quantitative model is developed and applied to a large number of process parameters. It is seen that the same species as predicted by equilibrium calculations are produced, but the reactions producing these species are relatively slow, so that the highest concentrations are at the outlet of the reactor. It is thus concluded that N2 must be the major specie responsible for the nitrogen incorporation in SiC.

    For the growth of III-nitrides, ammonia is often used to give the nitrogen needed. It is well known that ammonia forms a solid adduct with the metalorganic gas, which is used as the source for the group III elements. It would thus be beneficial to use some other gas instead of ammonia. Since purity is of great importance, N2 gas would be the preferred choice. However, N2 is a very stable molecule and difficult to crack, even at high temperatures. It is shown that hydrogen can help in cracking nitrogen, and that growth of III-nitrides can be performed using N2 as the nitrogen-bearing gas, by only small changes to a conventional hot-wall CVD reactor.

    List of papers
    1. Investigation of the temperature profile in a hot-wall SiC chemical vapour deposition reactor
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of the temperature profile in a hot-wall SiC chemical vapour deposition reactor
    2002 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 235, no 1-4, p. 352-364Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique is widely used to grow epitaxial layers of silicon carbide. To meet the demands for high quality epitaxial layers, which have good morphology and a minimum variation of the doping and thickness, a good knowledge of the CVD process is essential. The present work uses a simulation tool to investigate several parameters influencing the heating of <!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->a hot-wall CVD reactor. The simulations are set up as 2D axisymmetric problems and validation is made in a 2D horizontal hot-wall CVD reactor. By applying the knowledge achieved from the simulations, the temperature profile is optimized to give as large area as possible with homogeneous temperature. New susceptor and coil designs are tested. A very good agreement between the simulated and the measured results is obtained. The new design has a temperature variation of less than 0.5% over more than 70% of the total susceptor length at an operating temperature of 1650°C. In addition, the power input needed to reach the operating temperature is decreased by 15% compared to the original design. 3D simulations are performed to show that the changes made in the 2D case give similar results for the real 3D case.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ScienceDirect, 2002
    Keywords
    A1. Computer simulation, A1. Heat transfer, A3. Chemical, vapor deposition, A3. Hot-wall epitaxy, B2. Semiconducting silicon carbide
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15064 (URN)10.1016/S0022-0248(01)01831-0 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-10-13 Created: 2008-10-13 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    2.
    The record could not be found. The reason may be that the record is no longer available or you may have typed in a wrong id in the address field.
    3. Predicted nitrogen doping concentrations in silicon carbide epitaxial layers grown by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predicted nitrogen doping concentrations in silicon carbide epitaxial layers grown by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition
    2003 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 250, no 3-4, p. 471-478Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A simple quantitative model for the surface adsorption of nitrogen has been developed to simulate the doping incorporation in intentionally doped 4H-SiC samples during epitaxial growth. Different reaction schemes are necessary for the two faces of SiC. The differences are discussed, and implications to the necessary model adjustments are stressed. The simulations are validated by experimental values for a large number of different process parameters with good agreement.

    Keywords
    A1. Doping, A1. Growth models, A3. Chemical vapor deposition, A3. Hot wall epitaxy, B2. Semiconducting silicon carbide
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-46680 (URN)10.1016/S0022-0248(02)02513-7 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    4. Reducing stress in silicon carbide epitaxial layers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reducing stress in silicon carbide epitaxial layers
    2003 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 252, no 1-3, p. 289-296Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A susceptor for the epitaxial growth of silicon carbide, with an up-lifted substrate holder, is investigated and compared to other susceptor designs both experimentally and by the use of computational fluid dynamics simulations. It is shown that the wafer bending due to temperature gradients is diminished in a hot-wall reactor compared to growth in a cold-wall reactor. The substrate backside growth is diminished using the up-lifted substrate holder, limiting the substrate bending due to the backside growth. Thereby the stress built into the epitaxial layers during growth is significantly reduced. Simulations indicate a lower effective C/Si ratio over the wafer, and a lower preferable growth temperature, as compared to the original susceptor design. In addition a slightly higher growth rate is achieved

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2003
    Keywords
    A1. Computer simulation; A3. Chemical vapor deposition; A3. Hot wall epitaxy; B2. Semiconducting silicon carbide
    National Category
    Condensed Matter Physics Other Physics Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104590 (URN)10.1016/S0022-0248(03)00938-2 (DOI)
    Available from: 2014-02-19 Created: 2014-02-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    5. Using N2 as precursor gas in III-nitride CVD growth
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using N2 as precursor gas in III-nitride CVD growth
    2003 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 253, no 1-4, p. 26-37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Computational fluid dynamics simulations have been performed to explore the possibility of using nitrogen gas as a precursor to III-nitride growth. A chemical model for the gas-phase decomposition of N2 has been used to show that large enough amounts of reactive species can be formed under conditions not far from those used in normal metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Simulations were performed in 2D for various concentrations of N2, and comparisons with the use of NH3 were made. A modified reactor design needed to achieve high enough concentrations of reactive species is suggested. The possibility to increase the growth rate and material quality in III-nitride growth is discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2003
    Keywords
    A1. Computer simulation; A1. Growth models; A3. Hot wall epitaxy; A3. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition; B2. Semiconducting III–V materials
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104589 (URN)10.1016/S0022-0248(03)00971-0 (DOI)
    Available from: 2014-02-19 Created: 2014-02-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    6. Nitrogen doping of epitaxial Silicon Carbide
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nitrogen doping of epitaxial Silicon Carbide
    Show others...
    2002 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 236, no 1-3, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Intentional doping with nitrogen of 4H- and 6H-SiC has been performed using a hot-wall CVD reactor. The nitrogen doping dependence on the temperature, pressure, C/Si ratio, growth rate and nitrogen flow has been investigated. The nitrogen incorporation for C-face material showed to be C/Si ratio independent, whereas the doping decreased with increasing C/Si ratio for the Si-face material in accordance with the “site-competition” model. The nitrogen incorporation was constant in a temperature “window” of 75°C on Si-face material indicating a mass transport limited incorporation. Increasing the growth rate resulted in a decrease of nitrogen incorporation on Si-face but an increase on C-face material. Finally, a comparison between previously published results on cold-wall CVD-grown material and the present hot-wall-grown material is presented.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ScienceDirect, 2002
    Keywords
    A1. Doping, A3. Hot wall epitaxy, B2. Superconducting materials
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15068 (URN)10.1016/S0022-0248(01)02198-4 (DOI)
    Note
    The status of this article on the day of the defence was: Submitted and the title of the article was "Nitrogen doping of Silicon Carbide: Effect of Process Parameters"Available from: 2008-10-13 Created: 2008-10-13 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    7. Aluminum doping of epitaxial Silicon Carbide
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aluminum doping of epitaxial Silicon Carbide
    Show others...
    2003 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 253, no 1-4, p. 340-350Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Intentional doping of aluminum in 4H and 6H SiC has been performed using a hot-wall CVD reactor. The dependence of aluminum incorporation on temperature, pressure, C/Si ratio, growth rate, and TMA flow has been investigated. The aluminum incorporation showed to be polarity dependent. The high aluminum incorporation on the Si-face is closely related to the carbon coverage on the SiC surface. Changes in process parameters changes the effective C/Si ratio close to the SiC surface. Increased growth rate and C/Si ratio increases the aluminum incorporation on the Si-face. Diffusion limited incorporation occurs at high growth rate. Reduced pressure increases the effective C/Si ratio, and at low growth rate, the aluminum incorporation increases initially, levels off at a critical pressure, and continues to decrease below the critical pressure. The aluminum incorporation showed to be constant in a temperature range of 50°C. The highest atomic concentration of aluminum observed in this study was 3×1017 and 8×1018 cm−3 in Si and C-face, respectively.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ScienceDirect, 2003
    Keywords
    A1. Doping; A1. Growth models; A3. Chemical vapor deposition processes; A3. Hot wall epitaxy; B2. Semiconducting silicon carbide
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15055 (URN)10.1016/S0022-0248(03)01045-5 (DOI)
    Note
    The status of the article on the defence day was: Submitted and the original title was "Aluminum doping of Silicon Carbide: Effect of Process Parameters".Available from: 2008-10-13 Created: 2008-10-13 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    Download full text (pdf)
    Simulations of Silicon Carbide Chemical Vapor Deposition
  • 23.
    DInnocenzo, V.
    et al.
    Ist Italian Tecnol, Italy; Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Luzio, A.
    Ist Italian Tecnol, Italy.
    Abdalla, Hassan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Loi, M. A.
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Natali, D.
    Ist Italian Tecnol, Italy; Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Petrozza, A.
    Ist Italian Tecnol, Italy.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Caironi, M.
    Ist Italian Tecnol, Italy.
    Two-dimensional charge transport in molecularly ordered polymer field-effect transistors2016In: JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY C, ISSN 2050-7526, Vol. 4, no 47, p. 11135-11142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanometer-thick Langmuir-Schafer monolayers of an electron transporting polymer display charge transport, optical and electro-optical properties that do not depend on the number of layers deposited one above the other. This phenomenon can be rationalized with the micro-structure of the specific multi-layers, which introduces an interlayer hopping penalty confining transport to a neat 2D regime, with a channel not extending beyond a single similar to 3 nm thick polymer strand, as confirmed by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Such findings are critical to establish a quantitative structure-property nexus in high mobility polymer semiconductors and in the control of charge transport at a molecular scale.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Donahue, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, Interdisciplinary Excellence Centre, University of Szeged, Hungary.
    Proctor, Christopher M
    University of Cambridge, UK.
    Strakosas, Xenofon
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Polymers/PEDOT Derivatives for Bioelectronics2020In: Redox Polymers for Energy and Nanomedicine / [ed] Nerea Casado; David Mecerreyes, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020, 1, p. 488-545Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advancement of bioelectronics depends greatly on new material development and engineering solutions. Redox polymers are promising candidates to contribute to this advancement of biointerfacing devices. For such devices to be clinically useful, they must fulfill an assortment of requirements, including biocompatibility, stability, mechanical compliancy and the ability to effectively monitor or influence biological systems. The use of redox polymers in bioelectronic research has demonstrated a great deal of potential in satisfying these constraints. In this chapter, we consider the advantageous aspects of polymer electronics for biomedical applications including electrophysiological recording, neuromodulation, biosensor technologies and drug delivery. Particular emphasis is given to PEDOT-based systems as these have demonstrated the highest degree of bioelectronic device success to date, however, other polymers are also discussed when pertinent.

  • 25.
    Dufil, Gwennael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Parker, Daniela
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gerasimov, Jennifer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Enzyme-assisted in vivo polymerisation of conjugated oligomer based conductors2020In: Journal of materials chemistry. B, ISSN 2050-750X, E-ISSN 2050-7518, Vol. 8, no 19, p. 4221-4227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers conduct both electronic and ionic carriers and thus can stimulate and translate biological signals when used as active materials in bioelectronic devices. Self- and on-demand organization of the active material directly in the in vivo environment can result in the seamless integration of the bioelectronic interface. Along that line, we recently demonstrated spontaneous in vivo polymerization of the conjugated oligomer ETE-S in the vascular tissue of plants and the formation of conducting wires. In this work, we elucidate the mechanism of the in vivo polymerization of the ETE-S trimer and demonstrate that ETE-S polymerizes due to an enzymatic reaction where the enzyme peroxidase is the catalyst and hydrogen peroxide is the oxidant. ETE-S, therefore, represents the first example of a conducting polymer that is enzymatically polymerized in vivo. By reproducing the reaction in vitro, we gain further insight on the polymerization mechanism and show that hydrogen peroxide is the limiting factor. In plants the ETE-S triggers the catalytic cycle responsible for the lignification process, hacks this biochemical pathway and integrates within the plant cell wall, forming conductors along the plant structure.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Dufil, Gwennaël
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Living biohybrid systems via in vivo polymerization of thiophene oligomers2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Life is the result of a multitude of electrical signals which drives our nervous system but also accomplishes a cascade of electrochemical reactions. In the 18th century, Lucia Galeazzi and Luigi Galvani got the idea to stimulate frog legs with electrodes. This first step into the world of bioelectronics showed that electronic systems were able to communicate with living organisms through electrical stimulation, as well as by recording electrical signals from organisms. Until the end of the 20th century, the field of bioelectronics kept progressing using metal electrodes. This class of material inherently exhibits a high conductivity from their dispersed cloud of shared electrons. However, an obvious physical mismatch occurs when inserting metal electrodes inside a living organism. Since these materials are not as soft as living tissues, internal damage followed by an immune response impacts the impedance of such probes.

    In the late 80s', the large-scale commercialization of water processable conducting polymers brought a new paradigm in the choice of electronic material for bioelectronics devices. Compared to metals, conducting polymers are composed of semi-crystalline blocks that interact through electrostatic forces. These soft structures make these materials permeable to aqueous solutions, which allow the introduction of ionic species in the vicinity of the polymer backbone. Ions close to the polymer backbone can tune the conductivity of the material creating a unique ion/electron dialogue that increases the electronic signal resolution. Additionally, these soft structures considerably reduce scaring effects and therefore enable the devices to trigger lower immune responses. Conducting polymers could also be directly inserted within living tissues to create electronic platforms inside a host. Living organisms with new material properties could unravel new functions such as collecting electrophysiological data without surgery.

    Plants are living organisms that made their way out of the ocean and conquered most of the available land on earth. Saying that plants are good climate controllers is a euphemism since plants are legitimately the organisms that have settled the climate conditions for the development of more advanced life forms. Plant biohybrid is a new technological concept where plants are not only seen for their nutritious or environmental aspect but also as devices that can record and transfer information about their local environmental conditions. Such data could be used in a positive feedback loop to improve the production yield of crops or understand the underlying communication mechanism that occurs between plants or with plant micro-biomes. Most of the approaches toward plant biohybrids nowadays focus on nanomaterials that act as fluorescent probes in leaves and detect analytes from plants' local environment.

    In this thesis, we push forward a plant biohybrid strategy that instead uses conducting polymers as vectors to build conductors inside plants with the aim to build electrochemical platforms that could be used for applications such as energy storage, sensing, and energy production. Works developed in this thesis are going in an array of directions that aims for the better integration of electronic platforms in living systems with more focus on plants.

    We first identified a plant enzymatic mechanism that triggers the polymerization of a thiophene oligomer, namely ETE-S in vivo and in vitro. Such plant enzymatic pathways can then be reused to develop electronic systems in plantae without additional reagents. In the next work, we presented the synthesis of three new oligomers called ETE-N, EEE-S, and EEE-N that have a similar architecture compared to ETE-S but with different chemical moieties such as a different ionic side chain or an EDOT instead of thiophene in the middle position of the oligomer. We then demonstrated the effective enzymatic polymerization of these oligomers both in vivo and in vitro and how the resulting polymers' optoelectronic and tissue integrations properties differ. Towards even more versatility, we demonstrated that this electronic integration in vivo was also observed in the case of an animal: the freshwater hydra polyp. The polymerization was observed mostly in differentiated cells from the gastric column of the animal that normally secretes an adhesive used to fix the animal underwater. P(ETE-S) was incorporated in this glue that we managed to characterize using electrochemical methods. Lastly, we performed demonstrations of electrochemical applications with a plant root system. By dipping several roots in an ETE-S solution, we created a network of conducting roots that can effectively store charge as a capacitor with performance comparable to what is classically obtained with conducting polymers. In addition, we modified roots with two different surface modification concepts to make them specific to glucose oxidation: the first method uses a traditional redox hydrogel with a crosslinker and glucose oxidase. The second one uses the embedment of a glucosespecific enzyme inside the p(ETE-S) layer during its formation. These devices are presented as possible new solutions for environmental glucose sensors that could collect current from the environment and store it in neighbouring capacitive roots.

    Overall, this thesis shows that the enzymatic activity of living systems can be used from an engineering point of view as part of a deposition methods for the development of biohybrid applications. 

    List of papers
    1. Enzyme-assisted in vivo polymerisation of conjugated oligomer based conductors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enzyme-assisted in vivo polymerisation of conjugated oligomer based conductors
    Show others...
    2020 (English)In: Journal of materials chemistry. B, ISSN 2050-750X, E-ISSN 2050-7518, Vol. 8, no 19, p. 4221-4227Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers conduct both electronic and ionic carriers and thus can stimulate and translate biological signals when used as active materials in bioelectronic devices. Self- and on-demand organization of the active material directly in the in vivo environment can result in the seamless integration of the bioelectronic interface. Along that line, we recently demonstrated spontaneous in vivo polymerization of the conjugated oligomer ETE-S in the vascular tissue of plants and the formation of conducting wires. In this work, we elucidate the mechanism of the in vivo polymerization of the ETE-S trimer and demonstrate that ETE-S polymerizes due to an enzymatic reaction where the enzyme peroxidase is the catalyst and hydrogen peroxide is the oxidant. ETE-S, therefore, represents the first example of a conducting polymer that is enzymatically polymerized in vivo. By reproducing the reaction in vitro, we gain further insight on the polymerization mechanism and show that hydrogen peroxide is the limiting factor. In plants the ETE-S triggers the catalytic cycle responsible for the lignification process, hacks this biochemical pathway and integrates within the plant cell wall, forming conductors along the plant structure.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2020
    National Category
    Polymer Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-166479 (URN)10.1039/d0tb00212g (DOI)000536814200020 ()32167116 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|European UnionEuropean Union (EU) [800926]; Swedish Research Council (VR)Swedish Research Council; Wallenberg Wood Science Center [KAW 2018.0452]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF)Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; European Research Council (ERC) project e-NeuroPharmaEuropean Research Council (ERC) [834677]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]; LOreal-Unesco For Women in Science (FWIS); Department of EnergyUnited States Department of Energy (DOE) [DE-SC0017659]

    Available from: 2020-06-20 Created: 2020-06-20 Last updated: 2022-10-12
    2. Thiophene-Based Trimers for In Vivo Electronic Functionalization of Tissues
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thiophene-Based Trimers for In Vivo Electronic Functionalization of Tissues
    Show others...
    2020 (English)In: ACS APPLIED ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, ISSN 2637-6113, Vol. 2, no 12, p. 4065-4071Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic materials that can self-organize in vivo and form functional components along the tissue of interest can result in a seamless integration of the bioelectronic interface. Previously, we presented in vivo polymerization of the conjugated oligomer ETE-S in plants, forming conductors along the plant structure. The EDOT-thiophene-EDOT trimer with a sulfonate side group polymerized due to the native enzymatic activity of the plant and integrated within the plant cell wall. Here, we present the synthesis of three different conjugated trimers based on thiophene and EDOT or purely EDOT trimers that are able to polymerize enzymatically in physiological pH in vitro as well as in vivo along the roots of living plants. We show that by modulating the backbone and the side chain, we can tune the electronic properties of the resulting polymers as well as their localization and penetration within the root. Our work paves the way for the rational design of electronic materials that can self-organize in vivo for spatially controlled electronic functionalization of living tissue.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2020
    Keywords
    EDOT; conducting polymers; enzymatic polymerization; plant-mediated polymerization; bioelectronics; tissue engineering
    National Category
    Plant Biotechnology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-172913 (URN)10.1021/acsaelm.0c00861 (DOI)000603295000032 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|European UnionEuropean Union (EU) [800926]; MSCA-IF-2018 [838171]

    Available from: 2021-01-26 Created: 2021-01-26 Last updated: 2022-10-12
    3. Seamless integration of bioelectronic interface in an animal model via in vivo polymerization of conjugated oligomers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seamless integration of bioelectronic interface in an animal model via in vivo polymerization of conjugated oligomers
    Show others...
    2022 (English)In: Bioactive Materials, ISSN 2452-199X, Vol. 10, p. 107-116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Leveraging the biocatalytic machinery of living organisms for fabricating functional bioelectronic interfaces, in vivo, defines a new class of micro-biohybrids enabling the seamless integration of technology with living biological systems. Previously, we have demonstrated the in vivo polymerization of conjugated oligomers forming conductors within the structures of plants. Here, we expand this concept by reporting that Hydra, an invertebrate animal, polymerizes the conjugated oligomer ETE-S both within cells that expresses peroxidase activity and within the adhesive material that is secreted to promote underwater surface adhesion. The resulting conjugated polymer forms electronically conducting and electrochemically active μm-sized domains, which are inter-connected resulting in percolative conduction pathways extending beyond 100 μm, that are fully integrated within the Hydra tissue and the secreted mucus. Furthermore, the introduction and in vivo polymerization of ETE-S can be used as a biochemical marker to follow the dynamics of Hydra budding (reproduction) and regeneration. This work paves the way for well-defined self-organized electronics in animal tissue to modulate biological functions and in vivo biofabrication of hybrid functional materials and devices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2022
    Keywords
    polymerization, Bioelectronics interfaces, Conjugated oligomers, Model organism
    National Category
    Neurosciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-181716 (URN)10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.08.025 (DOI)000743377900002 ()34901533 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme [800926]; Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research CouncilEuropean Commission [VR-2017-04910]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF)Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; European Research Council (ERC)European Research Council (ERC)European Commission [834677]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]; MultiPark - A Strategic Research Area at Lund University; MIURMinistry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR) [SHARID - ARS01-01270]

    Available from: 2021-12-07 Created: 2021-12-07 Last updated: 2022-10-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Biohybrid plants with electronic roots via in vivo polymerization of conjugated oligomers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biohybrid plants with electronic roots via in vivo polymerization of conjugated oligomers
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    2021 (English)In: Materials Horizons, ISSN 2051-6347, E-ISSN 2051-6355, Vol. 8, no 12, p. 3295-3305Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Plant processes, ranging from photosynthesis through production of biomaterials to environmental sensing and adaptation, can be used in technology via integration of functional materials and devices. Previously, plants with integrated organic electronic devices and circuits distributed in their vascular tissue and organs have been demonstrated. To circumvent biological barriers, and thereby access the internal tissue, plant cuttings were used, which resulted in biohybrids with limited lifetime and use. Here, we report intact plants with electronic functionality that continue to grow and develop enabling plant-biohybrid systems that fully maintain their biological processes. The biocatalytic machinery of the plant cell wall was leveraged to seamlessly integrate conductors with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity along the root system of the plants. Cell wall peroxidases catalyzed ETE-S polymerization while the plant tissue served as the template, organizing the polymer in a favorable manner. The conductivity of the resulting p(ETE-S) roots reached the order of 10 S cm(-1) and remained stable over the course of 4 weeks while the roots continued to grow. The p(ETE-S) roots were used to build supercapacitors that outperform previous plant-biohybrid charge storage demonstrations. Plants were not affected by the electronic functionalization but adapted to this new hybrid state by developing a more complex root system. Biohybrid plants with electronic roots pave the way for autonomous systems with potential applications in energy, sensing and robotics.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Royal Society of Chemistry, 2021
    National Category
    Theoretical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-181043 (URN)10.1039/d1mh01423d (DOI)000714170900001 ()34730593 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|European UnionEuropean Commission [800926, 838171]; Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research CouncilEuropean Commission [VR-2017-04910]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Wallenberg Wood Science Center [KAW 2018.0452]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009-00971]; European Research Council (ERC)European Research Council (ERC)European Commission [834677]

    Available from: 2021-11-18 Created: 2021-11-18 Last updated: 2022-10-12
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  • 27.
    Dånmark, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aronsson, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aili, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tailoring Supramolecular Peptide-Poly(ethylene glycol) Hydrogels by Coiled Coil Self-Assembly and Self-Sorting2016In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 2260-2267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical hydrogels are extensively used in a wide range of biomedical applications. However, different applications require hydrogels with different mechanical and structural properties. Tailoring these properties demands exquisite control over the supramolecular peptides with different affinities for dimerization. Four different mechanical properties of hydrogels using de novo designed coiled coil interactions involved. Here we show that it is possible to control the nonorthogonal peptides, designed to fold into four different coiled coil heterodimers with dissociation constants spanning from mu M to pM, were conjugated to star-shaped 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The different PEG-coiled coil conjugates self-assemble as a result of peptide heterodimerization. Different combinations of PEG peptide conjugates assemble into PEG peptide networks and hydrogels with distinctly different thermal stabilities, supramolecular, and rheological properties, reflecting the peptide dimer affinities. We also demonstrate that it is possible to rationally modulate the self-assembly process by means of thermodynamic self-sorting by sequential additions of nonpegylated peptides. The specific interactions involved in peptide dimerization thus provides means for programmable and reversible self-assembly of hydrogels with precise control over rheological properties, which can significantly facilitate optimization of their overall performance and adaption to different processing requirements and applications.

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  • 28.
    Edberg, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Iandolo, Donata
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brooke, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Musumeci, Chiara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wenzel Andreasen, Jens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Evans, Drew
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Patterning and Conductivity Modulation of Conductive Polymers by UV Light Exposure2016In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, no 38, p. 6950-6960Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel patterning technique of conductive polymers produced by vapor phase polymerization is demonstrated. The method involves exposing an oxidant film to UV light which changes the local chemical environment of the oxidant and subsequently the polymerization kinetics. This procedure is used to control the conductivity in the conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): tosylate by more than six orders of magnitude in addition to producing high-resolution patterns and optical gradients. The mechanism behind the modulation in the polymerization kinetics by UV light irradiation as well as the properties of the resulting polymer are investigated.

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  • 29. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Elfwing, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    On decoration of biomolecular scaffolds with a conjugated polyelectrolyte2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biotemplating is the art of using a biological structure as a scaffold which is decorated with a functional material. In this fashion the structures will gain new functionalities and biotemplating offers a simple route of mass-producing mesoscopic material with new interesting properties. Biological structures are abundant and come in a great variety of elaborate and due to their natural origin they could be more suitable for interaction with biological systems than wholly synthetic materials. Conducting polymers are a novel class of material which was developed just 40 years ago and are well suited for interaction with biological material due to their organic composition. Furthermore the electronic properties of the conducting polymers can be tuned giving rise to dynamic control of the behavior of the material. Self-assembly processes are interesting since they do not require complicated or energy demanding processing conditions. This is particularly important as most biological materials are unstable at elevated temperatures or harsh environments. The main aim of this thesis is to show the possibility of using self-assembly to decorate a conducting polymer onto various biotemplates. Due to the intrinsic variety in charge, size and structure between the available natural scaffolds it is difficult, if not impossible, to find a universal method.

    In this thesis we show how biotemplating can be used to create new hybrid materials by self-assembling a conducting polymer with biological structures based on DNA, protein, lipids and cellulose, and in this fashion create material with novel optical and electronic properties.

    List of papers
    1. Functionalisation of recombinant spider silk with conjugated polyelectrolytes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functionalisation of recombinant spider silk with conjugated polyelectrolytes
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    2011 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 2909-2915Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polyelectrolytes are demonstrated to permit facile staining of recombinant spider silk fibres. We find that the polyelectrolyte concentration and pH of the staining solution as well as the incubation temperature strongly influence the efficiency of this self-assembly process, which appears to be principally mediated through favourable electrostatic interactions. Thus, depending on the choice of staining conditions as well as the polyelectrolyte, electrically conductive or photoluminescent recombinant silk fibres could be produced. In addition, staining of natural Bombyx mori silk is established, which emphasises the versatility of the here advanced approach to functionalise silk-based materials.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Royal Society of Chemistry, 2011
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-66131 (URN)10.1039/c0jm03270k (DOI)000287369300019 ()
    Available from: 2011-03-04 Created: 2011-03-04 Last updated: 2017-12-11
    2. Electronic Polymers and DNA Self-assembled in Nanowire Transistors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electronic Polymers and DNA Self-assembled in Nanowire Transistors
    2013 (English)In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 363-368Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the fully acidic form of PEDOT-S was used for the purpose of self-assembly onto DNA. We have previously shown that PEDOT-S is a short polymer that is self-doped with !1/3 of the sulfonate side groups acting as the self-doping sites (see supporting info.). The remaining sulfonate groups contribute to a net anionic charge, and a water-soluble polymer, with an intrinsic bulk conductivity of around 30 S/cm. It has been shown that PEDOT-S can bind to oppositely charged cationic amyloid protein structures in water and form conducting nano fibrillar networks, and it has also been shown to form hybrid structures with synthetic peptides, and gold nanoparticles.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-VCH Verlag Berlin, 2013
    Keywords
    Organic electronics, conducting polymers, DNA nanotechnology, molecular selfassembly, organic electrochemical transistors
    National Category
    Natural Sciences Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81344 (URN)10.1002/smll.201201771 (DOI)000314547200005 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Strategic Research Foundation SSF through the program OPEN||

    Available from: 2012-09-12 Created: 2012-09-12 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    3. Electronic polymers in lipid membranes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electronic polymers in lipid membranes
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    2015 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, no 11242Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical interfaces between biological cells and man-made electrical devices exist in many forms, but it remains a challenge to bridge the different mechanical and chemical environments of electronic conductors (metals, semiconductors) and biosystems. Here we demonstrate soft electrical interfaces, by integrating the metallic polymer PEDOT-S into lipid membranes. By preparing complexes between alkyl-ammonium salts and PEDOT-S we were able to integrate PEDOT-S into both liposomes and in lipid bilayers on solid surfaces. This is a step towards efficient electronic conduction within lipid membranes. We also demonstrate that the PEDOT-S@alkyl-ammonium: lipid hybrid structures created in this work affect ion channels in the membrane of Xenopus oocytes, which shows the possibility to access and control cell membrane structures with conductive polyelectrolytes.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Nature Publishing Group, 2015
    National Category
    Biophysics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120045 (URN)10.1038/srep11242 (DOI)000356090400002 ()26059023 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Research Council

    Available from: 2015-07-06 Created: 2015-07-06 Last updated: 2024-01-10
    4. Protein nanowires with conductive properties
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protein nanowires with conductive properties
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    2015 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 3, no 25, p. 6499-6504Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Herein we report on the investigation of self-assembled protein nanofibrils functionalized with metallic organic compounds. We have characterized the electronic behaviour of individual nanowires using conductive atomic force microscopy. In order to follow the self assembly process we have incorporated fluorescent molecules into the protein and used the energy transfer between the internalized dye and the metallic coating to probe the binding of the polyelectrolyte to the fibril.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120179 (URN)10.1039/c5tc00896d (DOI)000356529100010 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation through a Wallenberg Scholar grant

    Available from: 2015-07-13 Created: 2015-07-13 Last updated: 2024-01-10
    5. Conducting microhelices from self-assembly of protein fibrils
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conducting microhelices from self-assembly of protein fibrils
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    2017 (English)In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 13, no 25, p. 4412-4417Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Herein we utilize insulin to prepare amyloid based chiral heliceswith either right or left handed helicity. We demonstrate that thehelices can be utilized as structural templates for the conductingpolymer alkoxysulfonate poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT-S).The chirality of the helical assembly is transferred to PEDOT-S asdemonstrated by polarized optical microscopy (POM) and CircularDichroism (CD). Analysis of the helices by conductive atomic force(c-AFM) shows significant conductivity. In addition the morphologyof the template structure is stabilized by PEDOT-S. Theseconductive helical structures represent promising candidates in ourquest for THz resonators.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017
    National Category
    Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137821 (URN)10.1039/c7sm00068e (DOI)000404564500001 ()28590474 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [SFO-Mat-LiU 2009-00971]; Strategic Research Foundation through the project OPEN; Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation; Wallenberg Scholar gran

    Available from: 2017-05-31 Created: 2017-05-31 Last updated: 2024-01-10
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    On decoration of biomolecular scaffolds with a conjugated polyelectrolyte
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  • 30.
    Elfwing, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ponseca, Carlito
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Urbanowicz, Andrzej
    Ctr Phys Sci and Technol, Lithuania; TERAVIL Ltd, Lithuania.
    Krotkus, Arunas
    Ctr Phys Sci and Technol, Lithuania.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conducting Helical Structures from Celery Decorated with a Metallic Conjugated Polymer Give Resonances in the Terahertz Range2018In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 28, no 24, article id 1706595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to decorate cellulose-based helices retrieved from the plant celery with a conductive polymer is proposed. Using a layer-by-layer method, the decoration of the polyanionic conducting polymer poly(4-(2,3-dihydrothieno [3,4-b]-[1,4]dioxin-2-yl-methoxy)-1-butanesulfonic acid (PEDOT-S) is enhanced after coating the negatively charged cellulose helix with a polycationic polyethyleneimine. Microscopy techniques and two-point probe are used to image the structure and measure the conductivity of the helix. Analysis of the optical and electrical properties of the coated helix in the terahertz (THz) frequency range shows a resonance close to 1 THz and a broad shoulder that extends to 3.5 THz, consistent with electromagnetic models. Moreover, as helical antennas, it is shown that both axial and normal modes are present, which are correlated to the orientation and antenna electrical lengths of the coated helices. This work opens the possibility of designing tunable terahertz antennas through simple control of their dimensions and orientation.

  • 31.
    Erdtman, Edvin
    et al.
    Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi, Högskolan i Borås, Borås, Sverige.
    Bohlén, Martin
    Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi, Högskolan i Borås, Borås, Sverige.
    Ahlström, Peter
    Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi, Högskolan i Borås, Borås, Sverige.
    Gkourmpis, Thomas
    Innovation & Technology, Borealis AB, Stenungsund, Sweden.
    Berlin, Mikael
    Tetra Pak Packaging Solutions AB, Ruben Rausings Gata, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, Thorbjörn
    Tetra Pak Packaging Solutions AB, Ruben Rausings Gata, Lund, Sweden.
    Bolton, Kim
    Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi, Högskolan i Borås, Borås, Sverige.
    A molecular-level computational study of the diffusion and solubility of water and oxygen in carbonaceous polyethylene nanocomposites2016In: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 589-602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect on the solubility, diffusion, and permeability of water and oxygen when adding graphene or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to polyethylene (PE). When compared with pure PE, addition of graphene lowered the solubility of water, whereas at lower temperatures, the oxygen solubility increased because of the oxygen–graphene interaction. Addition of SWCNTs lowered the solubility of both water and oxygen when compared with pure PE. A detailed analysis showed that an ordered structure of PE is induced near the additive surface, which leads to a decrease in the diffusion coefficient of both penetrants in this region. The addition of graphene does not change the permeation coefficient of oxygen (in the direction parallel to the filler) and, in fact, may even increase this coefficient when compared with pure PE. In contrast, the water permeability is decreased when graphene is added to PE. The addition of SWCNTs decreases the permeability of both penetrants. Graphene can consequently be added to selectively increase the solubility and permeation of oxygen over water, at least at lower temperatures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2016, 54, 589–602

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  • 32.
    Fang, Junfeng
    et al.
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Wallikewitz, Bodo H.
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tu, Guoli
    University of Cambridge, England; Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Mueller, Christian
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Pace, Giuseppina
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Friend, Richard H.
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Huck, Wilhelm T. S.
    University of Cambridge, England; Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Conjugated Zwitterionic Polyelectrolyte as the Charge Injection Layer for High-Performance Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes2011In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 133, no 4, p. 683-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new zwitterionic conjugated polyelectrolyte without free counterions has been used as an electron injection material in polymer light-emitting diodes. Both the efficiency and maximum brightness were considerably improved in comparison with standard Ca cathode devices. The devices showed very fast response times, indicating that the improved performance is, in addition to hole blocking, due to dipoles at the cathode interface, which facilitate electron injection.

  • 33.
    Feng, Guitao
    et al.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Li, Junyu
    DSM DMSC RandD Solut, Netherlands.
    Colberts, Fallon J. M.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Li, Mengmeng
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Zhang, Jianqi
    National Centre Nanosci and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Fan
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Jin, Yingzhi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janssen, Rene A. J.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Li, Cheng
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Li, Weiwei
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    “Double-Cable” Conjugated Polymers with Linear Backbone toward High Quantum Efficiencies in Single-Component Polymer Solar Cells2017In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 139, no 51, p. 18647-18656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of "double-cable" conjugated polymers were developed for application in efficient single-component polymer solar cells, in which high quantum efficiencies could be achieved due to the optimized nanophase separation between donor and acceptor parts. The new double-cable polymers contain electron-donating poly(benzodithiophene) (BDT) as linear conjugated backbone for hole transport and pendant electron-deficient perylene bisimide (PBI) units for electron transport, connected via a dodecyl linker. Sulfur and fluorine substituents were introduced to tune the energy levels and crystallinity of the conjugated polymers. The double-cable polymers adopt a "face-on" orientation in which the conjugated BDT backbone and the pendant PBI units have a preferential pi-pi stacking direction perpendicular to the substrate, favorable for interchain charge transport normal to the plane. The linear conjugated backbone acts as a scaffold for the crystallization of the PBI groups, to provide a double-cable nanophase separation of donor and acceptor phases. The optimized nanophase separation enables efficient exciton dissociation as well as charge transport as evidenced from the high-up to 80%-internal quantum efficiency for photon-to-electron conversion. In single-component organic solar cells, the double-cable polymers provide power conversion efficiency up to 4.18%. This is one of the highest performances in single-component organic solar cells. The nanophase-separated design can likely be used to achieve high-performance single-component organic solar cells.

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  • 34.
    Fu, Huiting
    et al.
    City Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Li, Yuxiang
    City Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China; Xian Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Yu, Jianwei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wu, Ziang
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Fan, Qunping
    City Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Lin, Francis
    City Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Woo, Han Young
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhu, Zonglong
    City Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Jen, Alex K-Y
    City Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China; City Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China; Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    High Efficiency (15.8%) All-Polymer Solar Cells Enabled by a Regioregular Narrow Bandgap Polymer Acceptor2021In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 143, no 7, p. 2665-2670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Y Despite the significant progresses made in all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) recently, the relatively low short-circuit current density (J(sc)) and large energy loss are still quite difficult to overcome for further development. To address these challenges, we developed a new class of narrow-bandgap polymer acceptors incorporating a benzotriazole (BTz)-core fused-ring segment, named the PZT series. Compared to the commonly used benzothiadiazole (BT)-containing polymer PYT, the less electron-deficient BTz renders PZT derivatives with significantly red-shifted optical absorption and up-shifted energy levels, leading to simultaneously improved J(sc) and open-circuit voltage in the resultant all-PSCs. More importantly, a regioregular PZT (PZT-gamma) has been developed to achieve higher regiospecificity for avoiding the formation of isomers during polymerization. Benefiting from the more extended absorption, better backbone ordering, and more optimal blend morphology with donor component, PZT-gamma-based all-PSCs exhibit a record-high power conversion efficiency of 15.8% with a greatly enhanced J(sc) of 24.7 mA/cm(2) and a low energy loss of 0.51 eV.

  • 35.
    Gamage, Sampath
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Banerjee, Debashree
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alam, Md Mehebub
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hallberg, Tomas
    FOI Swedish Def Res Agcy, Dept Electroopt Syst, S-58111 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Åkerlind, Christina
    FOI Swedish Def Res Agcy, Dept Electroopt Syst, S-58111 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Sultana, Ayesha
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shanker, Ravi
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kariis, Hans
    FOI Swedish Def Res Agcy, Dept Electroopt Syst, S-58111 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Reflective and transparent cellulose-based passive radiative coolers2021In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 28, p. 9383-9393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiative cooling passively removes heat from objects via emission of thermal radiation to cold space. Suitable radiative cooling materials absorb infrared light while they avoid solar heating by either reflecting or transmitting solar radiation, depending on the application. Here, we demonstrate a reflective radiative cooler and a transparent radiative cooler solely based on cellulose derivatives manufactured via electrospinning and casting, respectively. By modifying the microstructure of cellulose materials, we control the solar light interaction from highly reflective (&gt; 90%, porous structure) to highly transparent (approximate to 90%, homogenous structure). Both cellulose materials show high thermal emissivity and minimal solar absorption, making them suitable for daytime radiative cooling. Used as coatings on silicon samples exposed to sun light at daytime, the reflective and transparent cellulose coolers could passively reduce sample temperatures by up to 15 degrees C and 5 degrees C, respectively.

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  • 36.
    Gerasimov, Jennifer Yevgenia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Halder, Arnab
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mousa, Abdelrazek H.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ghosh, Sarbani
    Birla Inst Technol & Sci BITS, Dept Chem Engn, Pilani 333031, Rajasthan, India..
    Padinhare, Harikesh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bliman, David
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Strandberg, Jan
    Res Inst Sweden, RISE, Printed Elect, SE-60221 Norrkoping, Sweden..
    Massetti, Matteo
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Olsson, Roger
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Chem & Mol Biol, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Chem Biol & Therapeut, Dept Expt Med Sci, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden..
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rational Materials Design for In Operando Electropolymerization of Evolvable Organic Electrochemical Transistors2022In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 32, no 32, article id 2202292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electrochemical transistors formed by in operando electropolymerization of the semiconducting channel are increasingly becoming recognized as a simple and effective implementation of synapses in neuromorphic hardware. However, very few studies have reported the requirements that must be met to ensure that the polymer spreads along the substrate to form a functional conducting channel. The nature of the interface between the substrate and various monomer precursors of conducting polymers through molecular dynamics simulations is investigated, showing that monomer adsorption to the substrate produces an increase in the effective monomer concentration at the surface. By evaluating combinatorial couples of monomers baring various sidechains with differently functionalized substrates, it is shown that the interactions between the substrate and the monomer precursor control the lateral growth of a polymer film along an inert substrate. This effect has implications for fabricating synaptic systems on inexpensive, flexible substrates.

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  • 37. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Gladisch, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Investigating volume change and ion transport in conjugated polymers2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Volume changes are the foundation for a wide range of phenomena and applications, ranging from the movement of plants to valves and drug delivery devices. Therefore, it does not come as a surprise that controlled volume changes are an interesting topic of research. In this thesis, volume changes in polymers are the object of investigation. Polymers are a class of macromolecules that comprise repetitive units. Owing to the wide variety of such units, polymers can exhibit manifold properties, including but not limited to strong water attraction and electrical conductivity. The former is the defining property in polymer hydrogels while the latter is a core property of conducting polymers. Both the water attracting properties and conductivity are closely linked to transport events on a molecular level. In the case of hydrogels, it is predominantly water uptake, while in the case of conducting polymers it is a complex interplay between charges, ionic charge balancing entities and water. However, in either case the transport events lead to volume changes. Despite the similarities, the properties of the materials differ greatly. On the one hand volume changes in hydrogels are very large but hard to control. On the other hand, volume changes in conducting polymers are much smaller than in hydrogels, but the control is easier due to the electronic addressing.   

    P(gXTX) polymers combine a conducting polymer backbone with hydrogel sidechains. As described in publication 1, this combination of molecular entities was found to enabled unique properties of an electrically controllable giant volume change and concomitant solid-gel transition. In the second publication, the effect of the side chain lengths on the volume change properties of the polymers were explored. The knowledge acquired from these studies helped us to develop an electroactive filter based on p(gXTX) polymers which enabled electrochemical modulation of flow (publication 3). The aim of the fourth publication was to study the complex electronic-ionic transport processes and volume changes in a model conducting polymer, PEDOT:Tos. 

    The understanding of fundamental processes and properties of controllable volume changes may pave the way for advances in various applications, including electroactive meshes, actuators and drug delivery devices.   

    List of papers
    1. Reversible Electronic Solid-Gel Switching of a Conjugated Polymer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reversible Electronic Solid-Gel Switching of a Conjugated Polymer
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    2020 (English)In: ADVANCED SCIENCE, ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 7, no 2, article id 1901144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers exhibit electrically driven volume changes when included in electrochemical devices via the exchange of ions and solvent. So far, this volumetric change is limited to 40% and 100% for reversible and irreversible systems, respectively, thus restricting potential applications of this technology. A conjugated polymer that reversibly expands by about 300% upon addressing, relative to its previous contracted state, while the first irreversible actuation can achieve values ranging from 1000-10 000%, depending on the voltage applied is reported. From experimental and theoretical studies, it is found that this large and reversible volumetric switching is due to reorganization of the polymer during swelling as it transforms between a solid-state phase and a gel, while maintaining percolation for conductivity. The polymer is utilized as an electroactive cladding to reduce the void sizes of a porous carbon filter electrode by 85%.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    WILEY, 2020
    Keywords
    conjugated polymers; electroactive materials; hydrogels; volume change
    National Category
    Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161843 (URN)10.1002/advs.201901144 (DOI)000492740700001 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Wallenberg Wood Science Center [KAW 2018.0452]; Swedish Research Council (VR)Swedish Research Council; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]; Engineering and Physical Sciences Research CouncilEngineering & Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) [EP/G037515/1, EP/N509486/1]

    Available from: 2019-11-18 Created: 2019-11-18 Last updated: 2023-09-08
    2. Controlling Electrochemically Induced Volume Changes in Conjugated Polymers by Chemical Design: from Theory to Devices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Controlling Electrochemically Induced Volume Changes in Conjugated Polymers by Chemical Design: from Theory to Devices
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    2021 (English)In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. n/a, no n/aArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemically induced volume changes in organic mixed ionic-electronic conductors (OMIECs) are particularly important for their use in dynamic microfiltration systems, biomedical machinery, and electronic devices. Although significant advances have been made to maximize the dimensional changes that can be accomplished by OMIECs, there is currently limited understanding of how changes in their molecular structures impact their underpinning fundamental processes and their performance in electronic devices. Herein, a series of ethylene glycol functionalized conjugated polymers is synthesized, and their electromechanical properties are evaluated through a combined approach of experimental measurements and molecular dynamics simulations. As demonstrated, alterations in the molecular structure of OMIECs impact numerous processes occurring during their electrochemical swelling, with sidechain length shortening decreasing the number of incorporated water molecules, reducing the generated void volumes and promoting the OMIECs to undergo different phase transitions. Ultimately, the impact of these combined molecular processes is assessed in organic electrochemical transistors, revealing that careful balancing of these phenomena is required to maximize device performance.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley, 2021
    Keywords
    bioelectronics, electrochemical swelling, MD simulations, organic electrochemical transistors, organic mixed ionic-electronic conductors
    National Category
    Polymer Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-175346 (URN)10.1002/adfm.202100723 (DOI)000640753600001 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: KAUSTKing Abdullah University of Science & Technology; Office of Sponsored Research (OSR) [OSR-2018-CRG/CCF-3079, OSR-2019-CRG8-4086, OSR-2018-CRG7-3749]; ERC Synergy Grant SC2 [610115]; European UnionEuropean Commission [952911, 862474]; EPSRCUK Research & Innovation (UKRI)Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) [EP/T026219/1]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Wallenberg Wood Science Center [KAW 2018.0452]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]; TomKat Center for Sustainable Energy at Stanford University

    Available from: 2021-04-28 Created: 2021-04-28 Last updated: 2021-12-29Bibliographically approved
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  • 38.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tunable conjugated polymers for bacterial differentiation2016In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 222, p. 839-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel rapid method for bacterial differentiation is explored based on the specific adhesion pattern of bacterial strains to tunable polymer surfaces. Different types of counter ions were used to electrochemically fabricate dissimilar polypyrrole (PPy) films with diverse physicochemical properties such as hydrophobicity, thickness and roughness. These were then modulated into three different oxidation states in each case. The dissimilar sets of conducting polymers were exposed to five different bacterial strains, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Alcaligenes faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. By analysis of the fluorescent microscope images, the number of bacterial cells adhered to each surface were evaluated. Generally, the number of cells of a particular bacterial strain that adhered varied when exposed to dissimilar polymer surfaces, due to the effects of the surface properties of the polymer on bacterial attachment. Similarly, the number of cells that adhered varied with different bacterial strains exposed to the same surface, reflecting the different surface properties of the bacteria. Principal component analysis showed that each strain of bacteria had its own specific adhesion pattern. Hence, they could be discriminated by this simple, label-free method based on tunable polymer arrays combined with pattern recognition. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • 39.
    Gomez-Carretero, Salvador
    et al.
    Dep. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Kristin M
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Libberton, Benjamin
    Dep. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svennersten, Karl
    Dep. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rhen, Mikael
    Dep. of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Dep. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salmonella Biofilm Modulation with Electrically Conducting Polymers2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofilms are ubiquitous in many human activities, constituting a threat or an advantage depending on the context of application. It is therefore of great interest to obtain new materials to study and control how biofilms are formed. Here, heparin and DBS (dodecylbenzenesulfonate) are incorporated as counter-ions to the PEDOT (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) backbone, forming conducting polymer thin-films. Polymer synthesis is based on electrodeposition, allowing for the adjustment, during fabrication, of properties like charge and hydrophobicity, important in bacterial adhesion. The electrochemical redox state of the polymer is of fundamental importance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium biofilm modulation. Oxidized composites show increased levels of biofilm growth compared to reduced and pristine polymer films. As a result, biofilm formation is modulated by the application of a low electric voltage. Moreover, biofilm morphology and topology are affected by both the electrochemical redox state and the incorporated counter-ion, making these materials a useful tool in biofilm engineering.

  • 40.
    Hallam, Toby
    et al.
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Lee, MiJung
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Zhao, Ni
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Nandhakumar, Iris
    University of Southampton, England.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    University of Cambridge, England; Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Heeney, Martin
    University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England.
    McCulloch, Iain
    University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England.
    Sirringhaus, Henning
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Local Charge Trapping in Conjugated Polymers Resolved by Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy2009In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 103, no 25, article id 256803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The microstructure of conjugated polymers is heterogeneous on the length scale of individual polymer chains, but little is known about how this affects their electronic properties. Here we use scanning Kelvin probe microscopy with resolution-enhancing carbon nanotube tips to study charge transport on a 100 nm scale in a chain-extended, semicrystalline conjugated polymer. We show that the disordered grain boundaries between crystalline domains constitute preferential charge trapping sites and lead to variations on a 100 nm scale of the carrier concentration under accumulation conditions.

  • 41.
    Herland, Anna
    et al.
    Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Persson, Kristin M
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin, Vanessa
    Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jager, Edwin W H
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Teixeira, Ana I
    Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Electrochemical Control of Growth Factor Presentation To Steer Neural Stem Cell Differentiation2011In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 50, no 52, p. 12529-12533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphical Abstract

    Let it grow: The conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was synthesized with heparin as the counterion to form a cell culture substrate. The surface of PEDOT:heparin in the neutral state associated biologically active growth factors (see picture). Electrochemical in situ oxidation of PEDOT during live cell culture decreased the bioavailability of the growth factor and created an exact onset of neural stem cell differentiation.

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  • 42.
    Huang, Yuting
    et al.
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Haiyang
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Fan, Qunping
    Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Ziyuan
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Ding, Junyuan
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Heyi
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Zhe
    Ulsan Natl Inst Sci & Technol UNIST, South Korea.
    Zhang, Rui
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Weijie
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Changduk
    Ulsan Natl Inst Sci & Technol UNIST, South Korea.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Yaowen
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Host-Guest Strategy Enabling Nonhalogenated Solvent Processing for High-Performance All-Polymer Hosted Solar Cells2023In: Chinese journal of chemistry, ISSN 1001-604X, E-ISSN 1614-7065, Vol. 41, no 9, p. 1066-1074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs), usually processed from low-boiling-point and toxic solvents, have reached high values of 18%. However, poor miscibility and uncontrollable crystallinity in polymer blends lead to a notable drop in the PCEs when using green solvents, limiting the practical development of all-PSCs. Herein, a third component (guest) BTO was employed to optimize the miscibility and enhance the crystallinity of PM6/PY2Se-F host film processed from green solvent toluene (TL), which can effectively suppress the excessive aggregation of PY2Se-F and facilitate a nano-scale interpenetrating network morphology for exciton dissociation and charge transport. As a result, TL-processed all-polymer hosted solar cells (all-PHSCs) exhibited an impressive PCE of 17.01%. Moreover, the strong molecular interaction between the host and guest molecules also enhances the thermal stability of the devices. Our host-guest strategy provides a unique approach to developing high-efficiency and stable all-PHSCs processed from green solvents, paving the way for the industrial development of all-PHSCs.

  • 43.
    Hultmark, Sandra
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Craighero, Mariavittoria
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Zokaei, Sepideh
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Kim, Donghyun
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Järsvall, Emmy
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Farooqi, Furqan
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Marina, Sara
    Univ Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain.
    Kroon, Renee
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Martin, Jaime
    Univ Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Müller, Christian
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden; Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Impact of oxidation-induced ordering on the electrical and mechanical properties of a polythiophene co-processed with bistriflimidic acid2023In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 11, no 24, p. 8091-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interplay between the nanostructure of a doped polythiophene with oligoether side chains and its electrical as well as mechanical properties is investigated. The degree of order of the polymer is found to strongly vary when co-processed with bistriflimidic acid (H-TFSI). The neat polythiophene as well as strongly oxidized material are largely disordered while intermediate concentrations of H-TFSI give rise to a high degree of pi-stacking. The structural disorder of strongly oxidized material correlates with a decrease in the kinetic fragility with H-TFSI concentration, suggesting that positive interactions between TFSI anions and the polymer reduce the ability to crystallize. The electrical conductivity as well as the Youngs modulus first increase upon the addition of 4-10 mol% of H-TFSI, while the loss of pi-stacking observed for strongly oxidized material more significantly affects the latter. As a result, material comprising 25 mol% H-TFSI displays an electrical conductivity of 58 S cm(-1) but features a relatively low Youngs modulus of only 80 MPa. Decoupling of the electrical and mechanical properties of doped conjugated polymers may allow the design of soft conductors that are in high demand for wearable electronics and bioelectronics.

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  • 44.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kiefer, David
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yu, Liyang
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kroon, Renee
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Munir, Rahim
    King Abdullah University of Science and Technology KAUST, Saudi Arabia; King Abdullah University of Science and Technology KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Amassian, Aram
    King Abdullah University of Science and Technology KAUST, Saudi Arabia; King Abdullah University of Science and Technology KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mueller, Christian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Enhanced Electrical Conductivity of Molecularly p-Doped Poly(3-hexylthiophene) through Understanding the Correlation with Solid-State Order2017In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 50, no 20, p. 8140-8148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular p-doping of the conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyano-quinodimethane (F4TCNQ) is a widely studied model system. Underlying structure property relationships are poorly understood because processing and doping are often carried out simultaneously. Here, we exploit doping from the vapor phase, which allows us to disentangle the influence of processing and doping. Through this approach, we are able to establish how the electrical conductivity varies with regard to a series of predefined structural parameters. We demonstrate that improving the degree of solid-state order, which we control through the choice of processing solvent and regioregularity, strongly increases the electrical conductivity. As a result, we achieve a value of up to 12.7 S cm(-2) for P3HT:F4TCNQ, We determine the F4TCNQ anion concentration and find that the number of (bound + mobile) charge carriers of about 10(-4) mol cm(-3) is not influenced by the degree of solid-state order. Thus, the observed increase in electrical conductivity by almost 2 orders of magnitude can be attributed to an increase in charge-carrier mobility to more than 10(-1) cm(2) V-1 s(-1). Surprisingly, in contrast to charge transport in undoped P3HT, we find that the molecular weight of the polymer does not strongly influence the electrical conductivity, which highlights the need for studies that elucidate structure property relationships of strongly doped conjugated polymers.

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  • 45.
    Håkansson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Han, Shaobo
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Suhao
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of (3-Glycidyloxypropyl)Trimethoxysilane (GOPS) on the Electrical Properties of PEDOT:PSS Films2017In: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 55, no 10, p. 814-820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been reported as a successful functional material in a broad variety of applications. One of the most important advantages of PEDOT:PSS is its water-solubility, which enables simple and environmental friendly manufacturing processes. Unfortunately, this also implies that pristine PEDOT:PSS films are unsuitable for applications in aqueous environments. To reach stability in polar solvents, (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GOPS) is typically used to cross-link PEDOT:PSS. Although this strategy is widely used, its mechanism and effect on PEDOT:PSS performance have not been articulated yet. Here, we present a broad study that provides a better understanding of the effect of GOPS on the electrical and electronic properties of PEDOT:PSS. We show that the GOPS reacts with the sulfonic acid group of the excess PSS, causing a change in the PEDOT:PSS film morphology, while the oxidation level of PEDOT remains unaffected. This is at the origin of the observed conductivity changes. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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  • 46.
    Jiang, Haiying
    et al.
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Zhen
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Lianjie
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Zhong, Anxing
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xuncheng
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Pan, Feilong
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Wanzhu, Cai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Yi
    Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, CA 94720 USA.
    Chen, Junwu
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Cao, Yong
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    A Highly Crystalline Wide-Band-Gap Conjugated Polymer toward High-Performance As-Cast Nonfullerene Polymer Solar Cells2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 41, p. 36061-36069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new wide-band-gap conjugated polymer PBODT was successfully synthesized that showed high crystallinity and was utilized as, the active material in nonfullerene bulk-heterojunction, polymer solar cells (PSCs). The photovoltaic devices based on the as-cast blend films of PBODT with ITIC and IDIC acceptors showed notable power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 7.06% and 9:09%, with high open-circuit voltages of 1.00 and 0.93 V that correspond to low energy losses of 0.59 and 0.69 eV, respectively. In the case of PBODT:ITIC, lower exciton quenching efficiency and monomolecular recombination are found for devices with small driving force. On the other hand, the relatively higher driving force and suppressed monomolecular recombination for PBODT:IDIC devices are identified to be the reason for their higher short-circuit current density (J(sc)) and higher PCEs. In addition, when processed with the nonchlorinated solvent 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, a good, PCE of 8.19% was still, achieved for the IDIC-based device. Our work shows that such wide-band-gap polymers have great potential for the environmentally friendly fabrication of highly efficient PSCs.

  • 47. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Jury, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biophysics and bioengineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modular Hyaluronan-Based Hydrogels for 3D Cell Culture and Bioprinting2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture facilitates development of biological relevant assays for drug screening and toxicity testing. Compared to conventional 2D cell culture, cells cultured in 3D can more accurately mimic human tissues and organs and thus provide ex vivo data with potentially better predictive value for cancer research, pharmacology, and toxicology, reducing the need for animal models, improving experimental reproducibility, and reducing time and costs in drug development. The most widely used options for scaffold-based 3D cell culture are, however, based on poorly defined biologically derived extracellular matrix (ECM) with limited possibilities to tailor material properties and that are difficult to combine with state-of-the art biofabrication techniques.   

    The overall aim this thesis was to design and explore modular hyaluronan (HA) based ECM-mimicking hydrogels with tuneable physiochemical properties and biofunctionalities, for development of advanced 3D cell models and biofabrication. The thesis work is presented in five papers. In paper I, we used copper free click chemistry for both hydrogel cross-linking and functionalization with fibronectin derived peptide sequences for culture of human induced pluripotent-derived hepatocytes in a perfused microfluidic system. The tuneable and bioorthogonal cross-linking enabled both retention of high cell viabilities and fabrication of a functional liver-on-chip solution. In paper II, we combined the developed HA-based hydrogel system with homo- and heterodimerizing helix-loop-helix peptides for modulation of both cross-linking density and biofunctionalization. We further demonstrated the possibilities to use these hydrogels as bioinks for 3D bioprinting where both the molecular composition and the physical properties of the printed structures could be dynamically altered, providing new avenues for four-dimensional (4D) bioprinting. In paper III we investigated the possibilities to chemically conjugate full size recombinant human laminin-521 (LN521) in the HA-based hydrogels system using copper-free click chemistry, with the aim to enable 3D culture and 3D bioprinting of neurons. We quantified the impact of using different linkers to tether LN521 and the influence of LN-functionalization on the structural and mechanical properties of the hydrogels. We show that both differentiated and non-differentiated neuroblastoma cells and long-term self-renewing neuroepithelial stem cells (lt-NES) remained viable in the hydrogels. The hydrogels also had a protected effect on lt-NES during syringe ejection and bioprinting. In paper IV, we used HA-based hydrogels modified with peptides sequences derived from fibronectin and laminin for culture of fetal primary astrocytes (FPA). We explored both the interactions between the hydrogels and FPA and possibilities to 3D bioprint FPAs.  Finally, in paper V, we developed HA-nanocellulose composite hydrogels with the aim to increase printing fidelity and enable fabrication of multi-layered bioprinted structures without the use of a support bath. In addition to HA, we used wood-fibre derived nanocellulose (NC) to increase the viscosity of the bioink during the printing process.  

    The developed biorthogonal and modular hydrogel systems provide a large degree of flexibility that allows for encapsulation and culture of different cell types and processing using different techniques, which can contribute to further exploration of fabrication of biologically relevant tissue and disease models.   

    List of papers
    1. Fabrication of modular hyaluronan-PEG hydrogels to support 3D cultures of hepatocytes in a perfused liver-on-a-chip device
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabrication of modular hyaluronan-PEG hydrogels to support 3D cultures of hepatocytes in a perfused liver-on-a-chip device
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    2019 (English)In: Biofabrication, ISSN 1758-5082, E-ISSN 1758-5090, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-13, article id 015013Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Liver cell culture models are attractive in both tissue engineering and for development of assays for drug toxicology research. To retain liver specific cell functions, the use of adequate cell types and culture conditions, such as a 3D orientation of the cells and a proper supply of nutrients and oxygen, are critical. In this article, we show how extracellular matrix mimetic hydrogels can support hepatocyte viability and functionality in a perfused liver-on-a-chip device. A modular hydrogel system based on hyaluronan and poly(ethylene glycol) (HA-PEG), modified with cyclooctyne moieties for bioorthogonal strain-promoted alkyne-azide 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition (SPAAC), was developed, characterized, and compared for cell compatibility to hydrogels based on agarose and alginate. Hepatoma cells (HepG2) formed spheroids with viable cells in all hydrogels with the highest expression of albumin and urea in alginate hydrogels. By including an excess of cyclooctyne in the HA backbone, azide-modified cell adhesion motifs (linear and cyclic RGD peptides) could be introduced in order to enhance viability and functionality of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived hepatocytes (hiPS-HEPs). In the HA-PEG hydrogels modified with cyclic RGD peptides hiPS-HEPs migrated and grew in 3D and showed an increased viability and higher albumin production compared to when cultured in the other hydrogels. This flexible SPAAC crosslinked hydrogel system enabled fabrication of perfused 3D cell culture of hiPS-HEPs and is a promising material for further development and optimization of liver-on-a-chip devices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute of Physics (IOP), 2019
    National Category
    Cell and Molecular Biology Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy) Cell Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154008 (URN)10.1088/1758-5090/aaf657 (DOI)000454550900002 ()
    Available from: 2019-01-22 Created: 2019-01-22 Last updated: 2022-04-29Bibliographically approved
    2. Dynamic peptide-folding mediated biofunctionalization and modulation of hydrogels for 4D bioprinting
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic peptide-folding mediated biofunctionalization and modulation of hydrogels for 4D bioprinting
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    2020 (English)In: Biofabrication, ISSN 1758-5082, E-ISSN 1758-5090, Vol. 12, no 3, article id 035031Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogels are used in a wide range of biomedical applications, including three-dimensional (3D) cell culture, cell therapy and bioprinting. To enable processing using advanced additive fabrication techniques and to mimic the dynamic nature of the extracellular matrix (ECM), the properties of the hydrogels must be possible to tailor and change over time with high precision. The design of hydrogels that are both structurally and functionally dynamic, while providing necessary mechanical support is challenging using conventional synthesis techniques. Here, we show a modular and 3D printable hydrogel system that combines a robust but tunable covalent bioorthogonal cross-linking strategy with specific peptide-folding mediated interactions for dynamic modulation of cross-linking and functionalization. The hyaluronan-based hydrogels were covalently cross-linked by strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition using multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol). In addition, ade novodesigned helix-loop-helix peptide was conjugated to the hyaluronan backbone to enable specific peptide-folding modulation of cross-linking density and kinetics, and hydrogel functionality. An array of complementary peptides with different functionalities was developed and used as a toolbox for supramolecular tuning of cell-hydrogel interactions and for controlling enzyme-mediated biomineralization processes. The modular peptide system enabled dynamic modifications of the properties of 3D printed structures, demonstrating a novel route for design of more sophisticated bioinks for four-dimensional bioprinting.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020
    Keywords
    hydrogel; hyaluronan; peptide; folding; bioprinting; biomineralization
    National Category
    Cell and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-168253 (URN)10.1088/1758-5090/ab9490 (DOI)000548339700001 ()32428894 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SFF)Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research [FFL15-0026]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]; Carl Tryggers Foundation [CTS15:7, CTS18:5]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation [KAW 2016.0231]

    Available from: 2020-08-22 Created: 2020-08-22 Last updated: 2024-02-07
    3. Bioorthogonally Cross-Linked Hyaluronan-Laminin Hydrogels for 3D Neuronal Cell Culture and Biofabrication
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bioorthogonally Cross-Linked Hyaluronan-Laminin Hydrogels for 3D Neuronal Cell Culture and Biofabrication
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    2022 (English)In: Advanced Healthcare Materials, ISSN 2192-2640, E-ISSN 2192-2659, Vol. 11, no 11, article id 2102097Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Laminins (LNs) are key components in the extracellular matrix of neuronal tissues in the developing brain and neural stem cell niches. LN-presenting hydrogels can provide a biologically relevant matrix for the 3D culture of neurons toward development of advanced tissue models and cell-based therapies for the treatment of neurological disorders. Biologically derived hydrogels are rich in fragmented LN and are poorly defined concerning composition, which hampers clinical translation. Engineered hydrogels require elaborate and often cytotoxic chemistries for cross-linking and LN conjugation and provide limited possibilities to tailor the properties of the materials. Here a modular hydrogel system for neural 3D cell cultures, based on hyaluronan and poly(ethylene glycol), that is cross-linked and functionalized with human recombinant LN-521 using bioorthogonal copper-free click chemistry, is shown. Encapsulated human neuroblastoma cells demonstrate high viability and grow into spheroids. Long-term neuroepithelial stem cells (lt-NES) cultured in the hydrogels can undergo spontaneous differentiation to neural fate and demonstrate significantly higher viability than cells cultured without LN. The hydrogels further support the structural integrity of 3D bioprinted structures and maintain high viability of bioprinted and syringe extruded lt-NES, which can facilitate biofabrication and development of cell-based therapies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2022
    Keywords
    3D bioprinting; 3D cell cultures; hyaluronan; hydrogels; laminin; neural stem cells
    National Category
    Biophysics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-183407 (URN)10.1002/adhm.202102097 (DOI)000758054400001 ()35114074 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85124817683 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies: Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SFF) [FFL15-0026]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linköping University [2009-00971]; Carl Tryggers Foundation; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation [KAW 2016.0231, 2020.0206]

    Available from: 2022-03-07 Created: 2022-03-07 Last updated: 2023-10-24Bibliographically approved
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  • 48.
    Juárez-Rivera, Olga R.
    et al.
    Cinvestav-Unidad Querétaro, Mexico.
    Mauricio-Sánchez, Reina A.
    Cinvestav-Unidad Querétaro, Mexico.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mendoza-Galván, Arturo
    Cinvestav-Unidad Querétaro, Mexico.
    Shear-Coated Linear Birefringent and Chiral Cellulose Nanocrystal Films Prepared from Non-Sonicated Suspensions with Different Storage Time2021In: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 2239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocelluloses are very attractive materials for creating structured films with unique optical properties using different preparation techniques. Evaporation-induced self-assembly of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) aqueous suspensions produces iridescent films with selective circular Bragg reflection. Blade coating of sonicated CNC suspensions leads to birefringent CNC films. In this work, fabrication of both birefringent and chiral films from non-sonicated CNC suspensions using a shear-coating method is studied. Polarization optical microscopy and steady-state viscosity profiles show that non-sonicated CNC suspensions (concentration of 6.5 wt%) evolve with storage time from a gel-like shear-thinning fluid to a mixture of isotropic and chiral nematic liquid crystalline phases. Shear-coated films prepared from non-sonicated fresh CNC suspensions are birefringent, whereas films prepared from suspensions stored several weeks show reflection of left-handed polarized light. Quantification of linear and circular birefringence as well circular dichroism in the films is achieved by using a Mueller matrix formalism.

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  • 49.
    Kiefer, David
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Giovannitti, Alexander
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Sun, Hengda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biskup, Till
    Albert Ludwigs Univ Freiburg, Germany.
    Hofmann, Anna
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Koopmans, Marten
    Zernike Inst Adv Mat, Netherlands.
    Cendra, Camila
    Stanford Univ, CA 94304 USA.
    Weber, Stefan
    Albert Ludwigs Univ Freiburg, Germany.
    Koster, L. Jan Anton
    Zernike Inst Adv Mat, Netherlands.
    Olsson, Eva
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Rivnay, Jonathan
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60035 USA.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    McCulloch, Iain
    Imperial Coll London, England; Imperial Coll London, England; King Abdullah Univ Sci and Technol, Saudi Arabia.
    Muller, Christian
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Enhanced n-Doping Efficiency of a Naphthalenediimide-Based Copolymer through Polar Side Chains for Organic Thermoelectrics2018In: ACS Energy Letters, E-ISSN 2380-8195, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 278-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    N-doping of conjugated polymers either requires a high dopant fraction or yields a low electrical conductivity because of their poor compatibility with molecular dopants. We explore n doping of the polar naphthalenediimide-bithiophene copolymer p(gNDI-gT2) that carries oligoethylene glycol-based side chains and show that the polymer displays superior miscibility with the benzimidazole-dimethylbenzenamine-based n-dopant N-DMBI. The good compatibility of p(gNDI-gT2) and N-DMBI results in a relatively high doping efficiency of 13% for n-dopants, which leads to a high electrical conductivity of more than 10(-1) S cm(-1) for a dopant concentration of only 10 mol % when measured in an inert atmosphere. We find that the doped polymer is able to maintain its electrical conductivity for about 20 min when exposed to air and recovers rapidly when returned to a nitrogen atmosphere. Overall, solution coprocessing of p(gNDI-gT2) and N-DMBI results in a larger thermoelectric power factor of up to 0.4 mu W K-2 m(-1) compared to other NDI-based polymers.

  • 50.
    Lander, Sanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. BillerudKorsnas Gruvon, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Korhonen, Leena
    BillerudKorsnas Frovi, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Sulfonated Cellulose Membranes: Physicochemical Properties and Ionic Transport versus Degree of Sulfonation2022In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 6, no 11, article id 2200275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The next generation of green ion selective membranes is foreseen to be based on cellulosic nanomaterials with controllable properties. The introduction of ionic groups into the cellulose structure via chemical modification is one strategy to obtain desired functionalities. In this work, bleached softwood fibers are oxidatively sulfonated and thereafter homogenized to liberate the cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) from the fiber walls. The liberated CNFs are subsequently used to prepare and characterize novel cellulose membranes. It is found that the degree of sulfonation collectively affects several important properties of the membranes via the density of fixed charged groups on the surfaces of the CNFs, in particular the membrane morphology, water uptake and swelling, and correspondingly the ionic transport. Both ionic conductivity and cation transport increase with the increased level of sulfonation of the starting material. Thus, it is shown that the chemical modification of the CNFs can be used as a tool for precise and rational design of green ion selective membranes that can replace expensive conventional fluorinated ionomer membranes.

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