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  • 1.
    Ajjan, Fátima
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ambrogi, Martina
    Max Planck Institute Colloids and Interfaces, Germany.
    Ayalneh Tiruye, Girum
    IMDEA Energy Institute, Spain.
    Cordella, Daniela
    University of Liege ULg, Belgium.
    Fernandes, Ana M.
    POLYMAT University of Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain.
    Grygiel, Konrad
    Max Planck Institute Colloids and Interfaces, Germany.
    Isik, Mehmet
    POLYMAT University of Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain.
    Patil, Nagaraj
    University of Liege ULg, Belgium.
    Porcarelli, Luca
    POLYMAT University of Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain.
    Rocasalbas, Gillem
    KIOMedPharma, Belgium.
    Vendramientto, Giordano
    University of Bordeaux, France.
    Zeglio, Erica
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Antonietti, Markus
    Max Planck Institute Colloids and Interfaces, Germany.
    Detrembleur, Cristophe
    University of Liege ULg, Belgium.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jerome, Christine
    University of Liege ULg, Belgium.
    Marcilla, Rebeca
    IMDEA Energy Institute, Spain.
    Mecerreyes, David
    POLYMAT University of Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain; Basque Fdn Science, Spain.
    Moreno, Monica
    POLYMAT University of Basque Country UPV EHU, Spain.
    Taton, Daniel
    University of Bordeaux, France.
    Solin, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yuan, Jiayin
    Max Planck Institute Colloids and Interfaces, Germany.
    Innovative polyelectrolytes/poly(ionic liquid)s for energy and the environment2017Ingår i: Polymer international, ISSN 0959-8103, E-ISSN 1097-0126, Vol. 66, nr 8, s. 1119-1128Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the work carried out within the European project RENAISSANCE-ITN, which was dedicated to the development of innovative polyelectrolytes for energy and environmental applications. Within the project different types of innovative polyelectrolytes were synthesized such as poly(ionic liquid)s coming from renewable or natural ions, thiazolium cations, catechol functionalities or from a new generation of cheap deep eutectic monomers. Further, macromolecular architectures such as new poly(ionic liquid) block copolymers and new (semi)conducting polymer/polyelectrolyte complexes were also developed. As the final goal, the application of these innovative polymers in energy and the environment was investigated. Important advances in energy storage technologies included the development of new carbonaceous materials, new lignin/conducting polymer biopolymer electrodes, new iongels and single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes for supercapacitors and batteries and new poly(ionic liquid) binders for batteries. On the other hand, the use of innovative polyelectrolytes in sustainable environmental technologies led to the development of new liquid and dry water, new materials for water cleaning technologies such as flocculants, oil absorbers, new recyclable organocatalyst platforms and new multifunctional polymer coatings with antifouling and antimicrobial properties. All in all this paper demonstrates the potential of poly(ionic liquid)s for high-value applications in energy and enviromental areas. (c) 2017 Society of Chemical Industry

  • 2.
    Aronsson, Christopher
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Selegård, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Aili, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zinc-Triggered Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Fibrous Helix-Loop-Helix Peptide Superstructures for Controlled Encapsulation and Release2016Ingår i: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 49, nr 18, s. 6997-7003Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a novel route for hierarchical self-assembly of sub-micrometer-sized peptide superstructures that respond to subtle changes in Zn2+ concentration. The self-assembly process is triggered by a specific folding-dependent coordination of Zn2+ by a de novo designed nonlinear helix-loop-helix peptide, resulting in a propagating fiber formation and formation of spherical superstructures. The superstructures further form larger assemblies that can be completely disassembled upon removal of Zn2+ or degradation of the nonlinear peptide. This flexible and reversible assembly strategy of the superstructures enables facile encapsulation of nanoparticles and drugs that can be released by means of different stimuli.

  • 3.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Naficy, Sina
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia; School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Foroughi, Javad
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Brown, Hugh R.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia; School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Characterisation of torsional actuation in highly twisted yarns and fibres2015Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 46, s. 88-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly twisted oriented polymer fibres and carbon nanotube yarns show large scale torsional actuation from volume expansion that can be induced, for example, thermally or by electrochemical charging. When formed into spring-like coils, the torsional actuation within the fibre or yarn generates powerful tensile actuation per muscle weight. For further development of these coil actuators and for the practical application of torsional actuators, it is important to standardise methods for characterising both the torsional stroke (rotation) and torque generated. By analogy with tensile actuators, we here introduce a method to measure both the free stroke and blocked torque in a one-end-tethered fibre. In addition, the torsional actuation can be measured when operating against an externally applied torque (isotonic) and actuation against a return spring fibre (variable torque). A theoretical treatment of torsional actuation was formulated using torsion mechanics and evaluated using a commercially available highly-oriented polyamide fibre. Good agreement between experimental measurements and calculated values was obtained. The analysis allows the prediction of torsional stroke under any external loading condition based on the fundamental characteristics of the actuator: free stroke and stiffness.

  • 4.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Naficy, Sina
    University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Foroughi, Javad
    University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Brown, Hugh R.
    University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    University of Wollongong, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Controlled and scalable torsional actuation of twisted nylon 6 fiber2016Ingår i: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 54, nr 13, s. 1278-1286Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Large‐scale torsional actuation occurs in twisted fibers and yarns as a result of volume change induced electrochemically, thermally, photonically, and other means. A quantitative relationship between torsional actuation (stroke and torque) and volume change is here introduced. The analysis is based on experimental investigation of the effects of fiber diameter and inserted twist on the torsional stroke and torque measured when heating and cooling nylon 6 fibers over the temperature range of 26–62 °C. The results show that the torsional stroke depends only on the amount of twist inserted into the fiber and is independent of fiber diameter. The torque generated is larger in fibers with more inserted twist and with larger diameters. These results are successfully modeled using a single‐helix approximation of the twisted fiber structure

  • 5.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Australian Institute for Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Naficy, Sina
    School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Foroughi, Javad
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Australian Institute for Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Brown, Hugh R.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Australian Institute for Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science and Australian Institute for Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    Effect of anisotropic thermal expansion on the torsional actuation of twist oriented polymer fibres2017Ingår i: Polymer, ISSN 0032-3861, E-ISSN 1873-2291, Vol. 129, s. 127-134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Torsional actuation of twisted polymer fibres is the basis for high performance tensile actuation when these fibres are formed into coils. The thermally-induced torsional actuation of twisted polyamide-6 fibres can be predicted by a single helix approximation when the measured diameter and length direction thermal expansion coefficients are known. The single helix model illustrates the sensitivity of the magnitude of torsional actuation to the volume expansion anisotropy for a given volume change. The applicability of the model has been further assessed by investigating three polymer fibres that display different thermal expansion anisotropies. Commercially available polyethylene, polypropylene and polyamide-6 fibres were twisted to the maximum extent without coiling and then heat treated to fix the twisted structure. Heating the twisted fibres between 26 and 62 °C resulted in a partial untwist which was reversed during cooling. The single-helix model of the twisted fibres was used to accurately predict the torsional stroke based on the measured fibre length and diameter change during heating. Comparative torsional stroke of twisted polyamide-6, polyethylene and polypropylene was explained in terms of materials thermo-physical properties. Generated blocked torques was also correctly predicted by the single-helix model when combined with the measured fibre torsional stiffness. Variances between torsional stiffnesses were found to be dependent of different anisotropic thermal properties of tested fibres.

  • 6.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Naficy, Sina
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    Foroughi, Javad
    University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Brown, Hugh R.
    University of Wollongong, Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Thermomechanical effects in the torsional actuation of twisted nylon 6 fiber2017Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 134, nr 47, artikel-id 45529Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermally induced torsional and tensile actuators based on twisted polymeric fibers have opened new opportunities for the application of artificial muscles. These newly developed actuators show significant torsional deformations when subjected to temperature changes, and this torsional actuation is the defining mechanism for tensile actuation of twisted and coiled fibers. To date it has been found that these actuators require multiple heat/cool cycles (referred to as “training” cycles) prior to obtaining a fully reversible actuation response. Herein, the effect of annealing conditions applied to twisted nylon 6 monofilament is investigated and it is shown that annealing at 200 °C eliminates the need for the training cycles. Furthermore, the effect of an applied external torque on the torsional actuation is also investigated and torsional creep is shown to be affected by the temperature and load

  • 7.
    Björk, Emma
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Ulm, Germany.
    Baumann, Bernhard
    Univ Ulm, Germany.
    Hausladen, Florian
    Ulm Univ, Germany.
    Wittig, Rainer
    Ulm Univ, Germany.
    Linden, Mika
    Univ Ulm, Germany.
    Cell adherence and drug delivery from particle based mesoporous silica films2019Ingår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 9, nr 31, s. 17745-17753Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatially and temporally controlled drug delivery is important for implant and tissue engineering applications, as the efficacy and bioavailability of the drug can be enhanced, and can also allow for drugging stem cells at different stages of development. Long-term drug delivery over weeks to months is however difficult to achieve, and coating of 3D surfaces or creating patterned surfaces is a challenge using coating techniques like spin- and dip-coating. In this study, mesoporous films consisting of SBA-15 particles grown onto silicon wafers using wet processing were evaluated as a scaffold for drug delivery. Films with various particle sizes (100-900 nm) and hence thicknesses were grown onto trichloro(octadecyl)silane-functionalized silicon wafers using a direct growth method. Precise patterning of the areas for film growth could be obtained by local removal of the OTS functionalization through laser ablation. The films were incubated with the drug model 3,3 -dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate (DiO), and murine myoblast cells (C2C12 cells) were seeded onto films with different particle sizes. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to study the cell growth, and a vinculin-mediated adherence of C2C12 cells on all films was verified. The successful loading of DiO into the films was confirmed by UV-vis and CLSM. It was observed that the drugs did not desorb from the particles during 24 hours in cell culture. During adherent growth on the films for 4 h, small amounts of DiO and separate particles were observed inside single cells. After 24 h, a larger number of particles and a strong DiO signal were recorded in the cells, indicating a particle mediated drug uptake. The vast majority of the DiO-loaded particles remained attached to the substrate also after 24 h of incubation, making the films attractive as longer-term reservoirs for drugs on e.g. medical implants.

  • 8.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Iandolo, Donata
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Ecole Natl Super Mines, France.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Controlling the electrochromic properties of conductive polymers using UV-light2018Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 6, nr 17, s. 4663-4670Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of electrochromism in conductive polymers is well known and has been exploited in many scientific reports. Using a newly developed patterning technique for conductive polymers, we manufactured high-resolution electrochromic devices from the complementary polymers PEDOT and polypyrrole. The technique, which combines UV-light exposure with vapor phase polymerization, has previously only been demonstrated with the conductive polymer PEDOT. We further demonstrated how the same technique can be used to control the optical properties and the electrochromic contrast in these polymers. Oxidant exposure to UV-light prior to vapor phase polymerization showed a reduction in polymer electrochromic contrast allowing high-resolution (100 mu m) patterns to completely disappear while applying a voltage bias due to their optical similarity in one redox state and dissimilarity in the other. This unique electrochromic property enabled us to construct devices displaying images that appear and disappear with the change in applied voltage. Finally, a modification of the electrochromic device architecture permitted a dual image electrochromic device incorporating patterned PEDOT and patterned polypyrrole on the same electrode, allowing the switching between two different images.

  • 9.
    Crispin, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Marciniak, S.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Osikowicz, Wojciech
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zotti, G.
    Instituto Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche per l' Energetica e le Interfasi, Padova, Italy.
    Denier Van Der Gon, A. W.
    Faculty of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Louwet, F.
    Chemistry Department, R&D Materials Research, Agfa Gevaert N.V., Mortsel, Belgium.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Groenendaal, L.
    Chemistry Department, R&D Materials Research, Agfa Gevaert N.V., Mortsel, Belgium.
    De Schryver, F.
    Afdeling Fotochemie en Spectroscopie, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Salaneck, William R.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Conductivity, Morphology, Interfacial Chemistry, and Stability of Poly(3,4- ethylene dioxythiophene)–Poly(styrene sulfonate): A Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study2003Ingår i: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 41, nr 21, s. 2561-2583Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to characterize poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDT/PSS), one of the most common electrically conducting organic polymers. A correlation has been established between the composition, morphology, and polymerization mechanism, on the one hand, and the electric conductivity of PEDT/PSS, on the other hand. XPS has been used to identify interfacial reactions occurring at the polymer-on-ITO and polymer-on-glass interfaces, as well as chemical changes within the polymer blend induced by electrical stress and exposure to ultraviolet light.

  • 10.
    Cui, Yong
    et al.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Chenyi
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Science and Technology Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Yao, Huifeng
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Zhu, Jie
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; Ocean University of China, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Yuming
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jia, Guoxiao
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Science and Technology Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hou, Jianhui
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Efficient Semitransparent Organic Solar Cells with Tunable Color enabled by an Ultralow-Bandgap Nonfullerene Acceptor2017Ingår i: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 29, nr 43, artikel-id 1703080Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Semitransparent organic solar cells (OSCs) show attractive potential in power-generating windows. However, the development of semitransparent OSCs is lagging behind opaque OSCs. Here, an ultralow-bandgap non-fullerene acceptor, "IEICO-4Cl", is designed and synthesized, whose absorption spectrum is mainly located in the near-infrared region. When IEICO-4Cl is blended with different polymer donors (J52, PBDB-T, and PTB7-Th), the colors of the blend films can be tuned from purple to blue to cyan, respectively. Traditional OSCs with a nontransparent Al electrode fabricated by J52: IEICO-4Cl, PBDB-T: IEICO-4Cl, and PTB7-Th: IEICO-4Cl yield power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of 9.65 +/- 0.33%, 9.43 +/- 0.13%, and 10.0 +/- 0.2%, respectively. By using 15 nm Au as the electrode, semitransparent OSCs based on these three blends also show PCEs of 6.37%, 6.24%, and 6.97% with high average visible transmittance (AVT) of 35.1%, 35.7%, and 33.5%, respectively. Furthermore, via changing the thickness of Au in the OSCs, the relationship between the transmittance and efficiency is studied in detail, and an impressive PCE of 8.38% with an AVT of 25.7% is obtained, which is an outstanding value in the semitransparent OSCs.

  • 11.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Simulations of Silicon Carbide Chemical Vapor Deposition2002Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the modern electronics technology is based on the semiconducting material silicon. The increasing demands for smaller electronic devices with improved performance at lower costs drive the conventional silicon technology to its limits. To meet the requirements from the industry and to explore new application areas, other materials and fabrication methods must be used. For devices operating at high powers, high temperatures and high frequencies, the so-called wide bandgap semiconductors can be used with great success. Silicon carbide (SiC) and III-nitrides are wide bandgap materials that have gained increased interest in recent years. One important technique in manufacturing of electronic devices is chemical vapor deposition (CVD), by which thin layers can be deposited. These layers may have different electrical properties, depending on the choice of material and doping. Generally in CVD, a reactive gas mixture flows through a heated reactor chamber, where the substrates are placed. Complex chemical reactions take place in the gas and on the substrate surface, leading to many intermediate species and by-products, and eventually to the desired deposition. For the growth of device quality material it is important to be able to control the properties of the grown layers. These properties generally depend on the growth conditions in the reaction chamber, and on the chemistry of the deposition process. So far, empirical trial-and-error methods have been employed in the development of growth processes. Due to the lack of basic understanding of the governing physical processes, progress is costly and time consuming. Improving and optimizing the CVD process, as well as improving the fundamental understanding of the whole process is of great importance when good quality material should be produced. For this, computer simulations of the relevant physical and chemical phenomena can provide the necessary tools. This thesis focuses on computer simulations of the CVD process, in particular CVD of SiC. Simulations can be used not only as a tool for optimizing growth processes and reactor designs, they can also give information about physical phenomena that are difficult to measure, such as the gas-phase composition or the flow paths inside the reactor.

    Heating of the CVD susceptor is a central part of the process. For the growth of high quality SiC a relatively high temperature must be used. A convenient method for heating to high temperatures is by induction. A low resistive material, such as graphite, is placed inside a coil, which is given an alternating current. The graphite is then heated by the induced currents due to ohmic resistance. In this thesis the temperature distribution inside a CVD reactor, and how it is influenced by changes in coil frequency, power input to the coil and graphite thickness, is investigated. It is shown that by changing the placement and shape of the coil and by using insulation material correctly, a more uniform temperature distribution can be obtained.

    A model for the growth of SiC is used to predict growth rates at various process parameters. A number of possible factors influencing the growth rate are investigated using this model. The importance of including thermal diffusion and the effect of etching by hydrogen is shown, and the effect of parasitic growth investigated. Simulations show a mass transport limited growth, as seen from experiments.

    An improved susceptor design with an up-lifted substrate holder plate is investigated and compared to a conventional hot-wall reactor and to a cold-wall reactor. It is shown that stress induced by thermal gradients through the substrate is significantly reduced in the hot-wall reactor, and that stress due to backside growth can be diminished using the new design. Positive side effects are that slightly higher growth rates can be achieved, and that the growth temperature can be slightly lowered in the new susceptor.

    The doping incorporation behavior is thoroughly investigated experimentally for intentional doping with nitrogen and aluminum. The doping incorporation on both faces of SiC, as well as on two different polytypes is investigated. Equilibrium calculations are preformed, giving possible candidates for species responsible for the doping incorporation. To predict nitrogen doping concentrations, a simplified quantitative model is developed and applied to a large number of process parameters. It is seen that the same species as predicted by equilibrium calculations are produced, but the reactions producing these species are relatively slow, so that the highest concentrations are at the outlet of the reactor. It is thus concluded that N2 must be the major specie responsible for the nitrogen incorporation in SiC.

    For the growth of III-nitrides, ammonia is often used to give the nitrogen needed. It is well known that ammonia forms a solid adduct with the metalorganic gas, which is used as the source for the group III elements. It would thus be beneficial to use some other gas instead of ammonia. Since purity is of great importance, N2 gas would be the preferred choice. However, N2 is a very stable molecule and difficult to crack, even at high temperatures. It is shown that hydrogen can help in cracking nitrogen, and that growth of III-nitrides can be performed using N2 as the nitrogen-bearing gas, by only small changes to a conventional hot-wall CVD reactor.

    Delarbeten
    1. Investigation of the temperature profile in a hot-wall SiC chemical vapour deposition reactor
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Investigation of the temperature profile in a hot-wall SiC chemical vapour deposition reactor
    2002 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 235, nr 1-4, s. 352-364Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique is widely used to grow epitaxial layers of silicon carbide. To meet the demands for high quality epitaxial layers, which have good morphology and a minimum variation of the doping and thickness, a good knowledge of the CVD process is essential. The present work uses a simulation tool to investigate several parameters influencing the heating of <!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->a hot-wall CVD reactor. The simulations are set up as 2D axisymmetric problems and validation is made in a 2D horizontal hot-wall CVD reactor. By applying the knowledge achieved from the simulations, the temperature profile is optimized to give as large area as possible with homogeneous temperature. New susceptor and coil designs are tested. A very good agreement between the simulated and the measured results is obtained. The new design has a temperature variation of less than 0.5% over more than 70% of the total susceptor length at an operating temperature of 1650°C. In addition, the power input needed to reach the operating temperature is decreased by 15% compared to the original design. 3D simulations are performed to show that the changes made in the 2D case give similar results for the real 3D case.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    ScienceDirect, 2002
    Nyckelord
    A1. Computer simulation, A1. Heat transfer, A3. Chemical, vapor deposition, A3. Hot-wall epitaxy, B2. Semiconducting silicon carbide
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Övrig annan teknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15064 (URN)10.1016/S0022-0248(01)01831-0 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2008-10-13 Skapad: 2008-10-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-11Bibliografiskt granskad
    2.
    Posten kunde inte hittas. Det kan bero på att posten inte längre är tillgänglig eller att du har råkat ange ett felaktigt id i adressfältet.
    3. Predicted nitrogen doping concentrations in silicon carbide epitaxial layers grown by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Predicted nitrogen doping concentrations in silicon carbide epitaxial layers grown by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition
    2003 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 250, nr 3-4, s. 471-478Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A simple quantitative model for the surface adsorption of nitrogen has been developed to simulate the doping incorporation in intentionally doped 4H-SiC samples during epitaxial growth. Different reaction schemes are necessary for the two faces of SiC. The differences are discussed, and implications to the necessary model adjustments are stressed. The simulations are validated by experimental values for a large number of different process parameters with good agreement.

    Nyckelord
    A1. Doping, A1. Growth models, A3. Chemical vapor deposition, A3. Hot wall epitaxy, B2. Semiconducting silicon carbide
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-46680 (URN)10.1016/S0022-0248(02)02513-7 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-11 Skapad: 2009-10-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13
    4. Reducing stress in silicon carbide epitaxial layers
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Reducing stress in silicon carbide epitaxial layers
    2003 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 252, nr 1-3, s. 289-296Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A susceptor for the epitaxial growth of silicon carbide, with an up-lifted substrate holder, is investigated and compared to other susceptor designs both experimentally and by the use of computational fluid dynamics simulations. It is shown that the wafer bending due to temperature gradients is diminished in a hot-wall reactor compared to growth in a cold-wall reactor. The substrate backside growth is diminished using the up-lifted substrate holder, limiting the substrate bending due to the backside growth. Thereby the stress built into the epitaxial layers during growth is significantly reduced. Simulations indicate a lower effective C/Si ratio over the wafer, and a lower preferable growth temperature, as compared to the original susceptor design. In addition a slightly higher growth rate is achieved

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2003
    Nyckelord
    A1. Computer simulation; A3. Chemical vapor deposition; A3. Hot wall epitaxy; B2. Semiconducting silicon carbide
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Den kondenserade materiens fysik Annan fysik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104590 (URN)10.1016/S0022-0248(03)00938-2 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-02-19 Skapad: 2014-02-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Using N2 as precursor gas in III-nitride CVD growth
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Using N2 as precursor gas in III-nitride CVD growth
    2003 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 253, nr 1-4, s. 26-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Computational fluid dynamics simulations have been performed to explore the possibility of using nitrogen gas as a precursor to III-nitride growth. A chemical model for the gas-phase decomposition of N2 has been used to show that large enough amounts of reactive species can be formed under conditions not far from those used in normal metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Simulations were performed in 2D for various concentrations of N2, and comparisons with the use of NH3 were made. A modified reactor design needed to achieve high enough concentrations of reactive species is suggested. The possibility to increase the growth rate and material quality in III-nitride growth is discussed.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2003
    Nyckelord
    A1. Computer simulation; A1. Growth models; A3. Hot wall epitaxy; A3. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition; B2. Semiconducting III–V materials
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Materialkemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104589 (URN)10.1016/S0022-0248(03)00971-0 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2014-02-19 Skapad: 2014-02-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
    6. Nitrogen doping of epitaxial Silicon Carbide
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Nitrogen doping of epitaxial Silicon Carbide
    Visa övriga...
    2002 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 236, nr 1-3, s. 101-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Intentional doping with nitrogen of 4H- and 6H-SiC has been performed using a hot-wall CVD reactor. The nitrogen doping dependence on the temperature, pressure, C/Si ratio, growth rate and nitrogen flow has been investigated. The nitrogen incorporation for C-face material showed to be C/Si ratio independent, whereas the doping decreased with increasing C/Si ratio for the Si-face material in accordance with the “site-competition” model. The nitrogen incorporation was constant in a temperature “window” of 75°C on Si-face material indicating a mass transport limited incorporation. Increasing the growth rate resulted in a decrease of nitrogen incorporation on Si-face but an increase on C-face material. Finally, a comparison between previously published results on cold-wall CVD-grown material and the present hot-wall-grown material is presented.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    ScienceDirect, 2002
    Nyckelord
    A1. Doping, A3. Hot wall epitaxy, B2. Superconducting materials
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Övrig annan teknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15068 (URN)10.1016/S0022-0248(01)02198-4 (DOI)
    Anmärkning
    The status of this article on the day of the defence was: Submitted and the title of the article was "Nitrogen doping of Silicon Carbide: Effect of Process Parameters"Tillgänglig från: 2008-10-13 Skapad: 2008-10-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-11Bibliografiskt granskad
    7. Aluminum doping of epitaxial Silicon Carbide
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Aluminum doping of epitaxial Silicon Carbide
    Visa övriga...
    2003 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 253, nr 1-4, s. 340-350Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Intentional doping of aluminum in 4H and 6H SiC has been performed using a hot-wall CVD reactor. The dependence of aluminum incorporation on temperature, pressure, C/Si ratio, growth rate, and TMA flow has been investigated. The aluminum incorporation showed to be polarity dependent. The high aluminum incorporation on the Si-face is closely related to the carbon coverage on the SiC surface. Changes in process parameters changes the effective C/Si ratio close to the SiC surface. Increased growth rate and C/Si ratio increases the aluminum incorporation on the Si-face. Diffusion limited incorporation occurs at high growth rate. Reduced pressure increases the effective C/Si ratio, and at low growth rate, the aluminum incorporation increases initially, levels off at a critical pressure, and continues to decrease below the critical pressure. The aluminum incorporation showed to be constant in a temperature range of 50°C. The highest atomic concentration of aluminum observed in this study was 3×1017 and 8×1018 cm−3 in Si and C-face, respectively.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    ScienceDirect, 2003
    Nyckelord
    A1. Doping; A1. Growth models; A3. Chemical vapor deposition processes; A3. Hot wall epitaxy; B2. Semiconducting silicon carbide
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Övrig annan teknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15055 (URN)10.1016/S0022-0248(03)01045-5 (DOI)
    Anmärkning
    The status of the article on the defence day was: Submitted and the original title was "Aluminum doping of Silicon Carbide: Effect of Process Parameters".Tillgänglig från: 2008-10-13 Skapad: 2008-10-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-11Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 12.
    DInnocenzo, V.
    et al.
    Ist Italian Tecnol, Italy; Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Luzio, A.
    Ist Italian Tecnol, Italy.
    Abdalla, Hassan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Komplexa material och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Loi, M. A.
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Natali, D.
    Ist Italian Tecnol, Italy; Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Petrozza, A.
    Ist Italian Tecnol, Italy.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Komplexa material och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Caironi, M.
    Ist Italian Tecnol, Italy.
    Two-dimensional charge transport in molecularly ordered polymer field-effect transistors2016Ingår i: JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY C, ISSN 2050-7526, Vol. 4, nr 47, s. 11135-11142Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanometer-thick Langmuir-Schafer monolayers of an electron transporting polymer display charge transport, optical and electro-optical properties that do not depend on the number of layers deposited one above the other. This phenomenon can be rationalized with the micro-structure of the specific multi-layers, which introduces an interlayer hopping penalty confining transport to a neat 2D regime, with a channel not extending beyond a single similar to 3 nm thick polymer strand, as confirmed by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Such findings are critical to establish a quantitative structure-property nexus in high mobility polymer semiconductors and in the control of charge transport at a molecular scale.

  • 13.
    Dånmark, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Aronsson, Christopher
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Aili, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tailoring Supramolecular Peptide-Poly(ethylene glycol) Hydrogels by Coiled Coil Self-Assembly and Self-Sorting2016Ingår i: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 17, nr 6, s. 2260-2267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical hydrogels are extensively used in a wide range of biomedical applications. However, different applications require hydrogels with different mechanical and structural properties. Tailoring these properties demands exquisite control over the supramolecular peptides with different affinities for dimerization. Four different mechanical properties of hydrogels using de novo designed coiled coil interactions involved. Here we show that it is possible to control the nonorthogonal peptides, designed to fold into four different coiled coil heterodimers with dissociation constants spanning from mu M to pM, were conjugated to star-shaped 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The different PEG-coiled coil conjugates self-assemble as a result of peptide heterodimerization. Different combinations of PEG peptide conjugates assemble into PEG peptide networks and hydrogels with distinctly different thermal stabilities, supramolecular, and rheological properties, reflecting the peptide dimer affinities. We also demonstrate that it is possible to rationally modulate the self-assembly process by means of thermodynamic self-sorting by sequential additions of nonpegylated peptides. The specific interactions involved in peptide dimerization thus provides means for programmable and reversible self-assembly of hydrogels with precise control over rheological properties, which can significantly facilitate optimization of their overall performance and adaption to different processing requirements and applications.

  • 14.
    Edberg, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Iandolo, Donata
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Brooke, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Musumeci, Chiara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wenzel Andreasen, Jens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Evans, Drew
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Patterning and Conductivity Modulation of Conductive Polymers by UV Light Exposure2016Ingår i: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, nr 38, s. 6950-6960Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel patterning technique of conductive polymers produced by vapor phase polymerization is demonstrated. The method involves exposing an oxidant film to UV light which changes the local chemical environment of the oxidant and subsequently the polymerization kinetics. This procedure is used to control the conductivity in the conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): tosylate by more than six orders of magnitude in addition to producing high-resolution patterns and optical gradients. The mechanism behind the modulation in the polymerization kinetics by UV light irradiation as well as the properties of the resulting polymer are investigated.

  • 15.
    Elfwing, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    On decoration of biomolecular scaffolds with a conjugated polyelectrolyte2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Biotemplating is the art of using a biological structure as a scaffold which is decorated with a functional material. In this fashion the structures will gain new functionalities and biotemplating offers a simple route of mass-producing mesoscopic material with new interesting properties. Biological structures are abundant and come in a great variety of elaborate and due to their natural origin they could be more suitable for interaction with biological systems than wholly synthetic materials. Conducting polymers are a novel class of material which was developed just 40 years ago and are well suited for interaction with biological material due to their organic composition. Furthermore the electronic properties of the conducting polymers can be tuned giving rise to dynamic control of the behavior of the material. Self-assembly processes are interesting since they do not require complicated or energy demanding processing conditions. This is particularly important as most biological materials are unstable at elevated temperatures or harsh environments. The main aim of this thesis is to show the possibility of using self-assembly to decorate a conducting polymer onto various biotemplates. Due to the intrinsic variety in charge, size and structure between the available natural scaffolds it is difficult, if not impossible, to find a universal method.

    In this thesis we show how biotemplating can be used to create new hybrid materials by self-assembling a conducting polymer with biological structures based on DNA, protein, lipids and cellulose, and in this fashion create material with novel optical and electronic properties.

    Delarbeten
    1. Functionalisation of recombinant spider silk with conjugated polyelectrolytes
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Functionalisation of recombinant spider silk with conjugated polyelectrolytes
    Visa övriga...
    2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 21, nr 9, s. 2909-2915Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polyelectrolytes are demonstrated to permit facile staining of recombinant spider silk fibres. We find that the polyelectrolyte concentration and pH of the staining solution as well as the incubation temperature strongly influence the efficiency of this self-assembly process, which appears to be principally mediated through favourable electrostatic interactions. Thus, depending on the choice of staining conditions as well as the polyelectrolyte, electrically conductive or photoluminescent recombinant silk fibres could be produced. In addition, staining of natural Bombyx mori silk is established, which emphasises the versatility of the here advanced approach to functionalise silk-based materials.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Royal Society of Chemistry, 2011
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-66131 (URN)10.1039/c0jm03270k (DOI)000287369300019 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2011-03-04 Skapad: 2011-03-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-11
    2. Electronic Polymers and DNA Self-assembled in Nanowire Transistors
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Electronic Polymers and DNA Self-assembled in Nanowire Transistors
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 363-368Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the fully acidic form of PEDOT-S was used for the purpose of self-assembly onto DNA. We have previously shown that PEDOT-S is a short polymer that is self-doped with !1/3 of the sulfonate side groups acting as the self-doping sites (see supporting info.). The remaining sulfonate groups contribute to a net anionic charge, and a water-soluble polymer, with an intrinsic bulk conductivity of around 30 S/cm. It has been shown that PEDOT-S can bind to oppositely charged cationic amyloid protein structures in water and form conducting nano fibrillar networks, and it has also been shown to form hybrid structures with synthetic peptides, and gold nanoparticles.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Wiley-VCH Verlag Berlin, 2013
    Nyckelord
    Organic electronics, conducting polymers, DNA nanotechnology, molecular selfassembly, organic electrochemical transistors
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Naturvetenskap Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81344 (URN)10.1002/smll.201201771 (DOI)000314547200005 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Strategic Research Foundation SSF through the program OPEN||

    Tillgänglig från: 2012-09-12 Skapad: 2012-09-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-07Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Electronic polymers in lipid membranes
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Electronic polymers in lipid membranes
    Visa övriga...
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, nr 11242Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical interfaces between biological cells and man-made electrical devices exist in many forms, but it remains a challenge to bridge the different mechanical and chemical environments of electronic conductors (metals, semiconductors) and biosystems. Here we demonstrate soft electrical interfaces, by integrating the metallic polymer PEDOT-S into lipid membranes. By preparing complexes between alkyl-ammonium salts and PEDOT-S we were able to integrate PEDOT-S into both liposomes and in lipid bilayers on solid surfaces. This is a step towards efficient electronic conduction within lipid membranes. We also demonstrate that the PEDOT-S@alkyl-ammonium: lipid hybrid structures created in this work affect ion channels in the membrane of Xenopus oocytes, which shows the possibility to access and control cell membrane structures with conductive polyelectrolytes.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Nature Publishing Group, 2015
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Biofysik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120045 (URN)10.1038/srep11242 (DOI)000356090400002 ()26059023 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Research Council

    Tillgänglig från: 2015-07-06 Skapad: 2015-07-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-25
    4. Protein nanowires with conductive properties
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Protein nanowires with conductive properties
    Visa övriga...
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 3, nr 25, s. 6499-6504Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Herein we report on the investigation of self-assembled protein nanofibrils functionalized with metallic organic compounds. We have characterized the electronic behaviour of individual nanowires using conductive atomic force microscopy. In order to follow the self assembly process we have incorporated fluorescent molecules into the protein and used the energy transfer between the internalized dye and the metallic coating to probe the binding of the polyelectrolyte to the fibril.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Biologiska vetenskaper
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120179 (URN)10.1039/c5tc00896d (DOI)000356529100010 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation through a Wallenberg Scholar grant

    Tillgänglig från: 2015-07-13 Skapad: 2015-07-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-04
    5. Conducting microhelices from self-assembly of protein fibrils
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Conducting microhelices from self-assembly of protein fibrils
    Visa övriga...
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 13, nr 25, s. 4412-4417Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Herein we utilize insulin to prepare amyloid based chiral heliceswith either right or left handed helicity. We demonstrate that thehelices can be utilized as structural templates for the conductingpolymer alkoxysulfonate poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT-S).The chirality of the helical assembly is transferred to PEDOT-S asdemonstrated by polarized optical microscopy (POM) and CircularDichroism (CD). Analysis of the helices by conductive atomic force(c-AFM) shows significant conductivity. In addition the morphologyof the template structure is stabilized by PEDOT-S. Theseconductive helical structures represent promising candidates in ourquest for THz resonators.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Kemi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137821 (URN)10.1039/c7sm00068e (DOI)000404564500001 ()28590474 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies: Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [SFO-Mat-LiU 2009-00971]; Strategic Research Foundation through the project OPEN; Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation; Wallenberg Scholar gran

    Tillgänglig från: 2017-05-31 Skapad: 2017-05-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-10-04
  • 16.
    Elfwing, Anders
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ponseca, Carlito
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Urbanowicz, Andrzej
    Ctr Phys Sci and Technol, Lithuania; TERAVIL Ltd, Lithuania.
    Krotkus, Arunas
    Ctr Phys Sci and Technol, Lithuania.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Informationskodning. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Informationskodning. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Conducting Helical Structures from Celery Decorated with a Metallic Conjugated Polymer Give Resonances in the Terahertz Range2018Ingår i: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 28, nr 24, artikel-id 1706595Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to decorate cellulose-based helices retrieved from the plant celery with a conductive polymer is proposed. Using a layer-by-layer method, the decoration of the polyanionic conducting polymer poly(4-(2,3-dihydrothieno [3,4-b]-[1,4]dioxin-2-yl-methoxy)-1-butanesulfonic acid (PEDOT-S) is enhanced after coating the negatively charged cellulose helix with a polycationic polyethyleneimine. Microscopy techniques and two-point probe are used to image the structure and measure the conductivity of the helix. Analysis of the optical and electrical properties of the coated helix in the terahertz (THz) frequency range shows a resonance close to 1 THz and a broad shoulder that extends to 3.5 THz, consistent with electromagnetic models. Moreover, as helical antennas, it is shown that both axial and normal modes are present, which are correlated to the orientation and antenna electrical lengths of the coated helices. This work opens the possibility of designing tunable terahertz antennas through simple control of their dimensions and orientation.

  • 17.
    Erdtman, Edvin
    et al.
    Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi, Högskolan i Borås, Borås, Sverige.
    Bohlén, Martin
    Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi, Högskolan i Borås, Borås, Sverige.
    Ahlström, Peter
    Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi, Högskolan i Borås, Borås, Sverige.
    Gkourmpis, Thomas
    Innovation & Technology, Borealis AB, Stenungsund, Sweden.
    Berlin, Mikael
    Tetra Pak Packaging Solutions AB, Ruben Rausings Gata, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, Thorbjörn
    Tetra Pak Packaging Solutions AB, Ruben Rausings Gata, Lund, Sweden.
    Bolton, Kim
    Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi, Högskolan i Borås, Borås, Sverige.
    A molecular-level computational study of the diffusion and solubility of water and oxygen in carbonaceous polyethylene nanocomposites2016Ingår i: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 54, nr 5, s. 589-602Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect on the solubility, diffusion, and permeability of water and oxygen when adding graphene or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to polyethylene (PE). When compared with pure PE, addition of graphene lowered the solubility of water, whereas at lower temperatures, the oxygen solubility increased because of the oxygen–graphene interaction. Addition of SWCNTs lowered the solubility of both water and oxygen when compared with pure PE. A detailed analysis showed that an ordered structure of PE is induced near the additive surface, which leads to a decrease in the diffusion coefficient of both penetrants in this region. The addition of graphene does not change the permeation coefficient of oxygen (in the direction parallel to the filler) and, in fact, may even increase this coefficient when compared with pure PE. In contrast, the water permeability is decreased when graphene is added to PE. The addition of SWCNTs decreases the permeability of both penetrants. Graphene can consequently be added to selectively increase the solubility and permeation of oxygen over water, at least at lower temperatures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2016, 54, 589–602

  • 18.
    Fang, Junfeng
    et al.
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Wallikewitz, Bodo H.
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tu, Guoli
    University of Cambridge, England; Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Mueller, Christian
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Pace, Giuseppina
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Friend, Richard H.
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Huck, Wilhelm T. S.
    University of Cambridge, England; Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Conjugated Zwitterionic Polyelectrolyte as the Charge Injection Layer for High-Performance Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes2011Ingår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 133, nr 4, s. 683-685Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new zwitterionic conjugated polyelectrolyte without free counterions has been used as an electron injection material in polymer light-emitting diodes. Both the efficiency and maximum brightness were considerably improved in comparison with standard Ca cathode devices. The devices showed very fast response times, indicating that the improved performance is, in addition to hole blocking, due to dipoles at the cathode interface, which facilitate electron injection.

  • 19.
    Feng, Guitao
    et al.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Li, Junyu
    DSM DMSC RandD Solut, Netherlands.
    Colberts, Fallon J. M.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Li, Mengmeng
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Zhang, Jianqi
    National Centre Nanosci and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Fan
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China; University of Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Jin, Yingzhi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Janssen, Rene A. J.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Li, Cheng
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Li, Weiwei
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    “Double-Cable” Conjugated Polymers with Linear Backbone toward High Quantum Efficiencies in Single-Component Polymer Solar Cells2017Ingår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 139, nr 51, s. 18647-18656Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of "double-cable" conjugated polymers were developed for application in efficient single-component polymer solar cells, in which high quantum efficiencies could be achieved due to the optimized nanophase separation between donor and acceptor parts. The new double-cable polymers contain electron-donating poly(benzodithiophene) (BDT) as linear conjugated backbone for hole transport and pendant electron-deficient perylene bisimide (PBI) units for electron transport, connected via a dodecyl linker. Sulfur and fluorine substituents were introduced to tune the energy levels and crystallinity of the conjugated polymers. The double-cable polymers adopt a "face-on" orientation in which the conjugated BDT backbone and the pendant PBI units have a preferential pi-pi stacking direction perpendicular to the substrate, favorable for interchain charge transport normal to the plane. The linear conjugated backbone acts as a scaffold for the crystallization of the PBI groups, to provide a double-cable nanophase separation of donor and acceptor phases. The optimized nanophase separation enables efficient exciton dissociation as well as charge transport as evidenced from the high-up to 80%-internal quantum efficiency for photon-to-electron conversion. In single-component organic solar cells, the double-cable polymers provide power conversion efficiency up to 4.18%. This is one of the highest performances in single-component organic solar cells. The nanophase-separated design can likely be used to achieve high-performance single-component organic solar cells.

  • 20.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tunable conjugated polymers for bacterial differentiation2016Ingår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 222, s. 839-848Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel rapid method for bacterial differentiation is explored based on the specific adhesion pattern of bacterial strains to tunable polymer surfaces. Different types of counter ions were used to electrochemically fabricate dissimilar polypyrrole (PPy) films with diverse physicochemical properties such as hydrophobicity, thickness and roughness. These were then modulated into three different oxidation states in each case. The dissimilar sets of conducting polymers were exposed to five different bacterial strains, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Alcaligenes faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. By analysis of the fluorescent microscope images, the number of bacterial cells adhered to each surface were evaluated. Generally, the number of cells of a particular bacterial strain that adhered varied when exposed to dissimilar polymer surfaces, due to the effects of the surface properties of the polymer on bacterial attachment. Similarly, the number of cells that adhered varied with different bacterial strains exposed to the same surface, reflecting the different surface properties of the bacteria. Principal component analysis showed that each strain of bacteria had its own specific adhesion pattern. Hence, they could be discriminated by this simple, label-free method based on tunable polymer arrays combined with pattern recognition. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Gomez-Carretero, Salvador
    et al.
    Dep. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Kristin M
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Libberton, Benjamin
    Dep. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svennersten, Karl
    Dep. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rhen, Mikael
    Dep. of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Dep. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salmonella Biofilm Modulation with Electrically Conducting Polymers2014Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofilms are ubiquitous in many human activities, constituting a threat or an advantage depending on the context of application. It is therefore of great interest to obtain new materials to study and control how biofilms are formed. Here, heparin and DBS (dodecylbenzenesulfonate) are incorporated as counter-ions to the PEDOT (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) backbone, forming conducting polymer thin-films. Polymer synthesis is based on electrodeposition, allowing for the adjustment, during fabrication, of properties like charge and hydrophobicity, important in bacterial adhesion. The electrochemical redox state of the polymer is of fundamental importance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium biofilm modulation. Oxidized composites show increased levels of biofilm growth compared to reduced and pristine polymer films. As a result, biofilm formation is modulated by the application of a low electric voltage. Moreover, biofilm morphology and topology are affected by both the electrochemical redox state and the incorporated counter-ion, making these materials a useful tool in biofilm engineering.

  • 22.
    Hallam, Toby
    et al.
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Lee, MiJung
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Zhao, Ni
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Nandhakumar, Iris
    University of Southampton, England.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    University of Cambridge, England; Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Heeney, Martin
    University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England.
    McCulloch, Iain
    University of London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, England.
    Sirringhaus, Henning
    University of Cambridge, England.
    Local Charge Trapping in Conjugated Polymers Resolved by Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy2009Ingår i: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 103, nr 25, artikel-id 256803Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The microstructure of conjugated polymers is heterogeneous on the length scale of individual polymer chains, but little is known about how this affects their electronic properties. Here we use scanning Kelvin probe microscopy with resolution-enhancing carbon nanotube tips to study charge transport on a 100 nm scale in a chain-extended, semicrystalline conjugated polymer. We show that the disordered grain boundaries between crystalline domains constitute preferential charge trapping sites and lead to variations on a 100 nm scale of the carrier concentration under accumulation conditions.

  • 23.
    Herland, Anna
    et al.
    Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Persson, Kristin M
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lundin, Vanessa
    Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jager, Edwin W H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Teixeira, Ana I
    Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Electrochemical Control of Growth Factor Presentation To Steer Neural Stem Cell Differentiation2011Ingår i: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 50, nr 52, s. 12529-12533Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphical Abstract

    Let it grow: The conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was synthesized with heparin as the counterion to form a cell culture substrate. The surface of PEDOT:heparin in the neutral state associated biologically active growth factors (see picture). Electrochemical in situ oxidation of PEDOT during live cell culture decreased the bioavailability of the growth factor and created an exact onset of neural stem cell differentiation.

  • 24.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kiefer, David
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yu, Liyang
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kroon, Renee
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Munir, Rahim
    King Abdullah University of Science and Technology KAUST, Saudi Arabia; King Abdullah University of Science and Technology KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Amassian, Aram
    King Abdullah University of Science and Technology KAUST, Saudi Arabia; King Abdullah University of Science and Technology KAUST, Saudi Arabia.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Komplexa material och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mueller, Christian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Enhanced Electrical Conductivity of Molecularly p-Doped Poly(3-hexylthiophene) through Understanding the Correlation with Solid-State Order2017Ingår i: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 50, nr 20, s. 8140-8148Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular p-doping of the conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyano-quinodimethane (F4TCNQ) is a widely studied model system. Underlying structure property relationships are poorly understood because processing and doping are often carried out simultaneously. Here, we exploit doping from the vapor phase, which allows us to disentangle the influence of processing and doping. Through this approach, we are able to establish how the electrical conductivity varies with regard to a series of predefined structural parameters. We demonstrate that improving the degree of solid-state order, which we control through the choice of processing solvent and regioregularity, strongly increases the electrical conductivity. As a result, we achieve a value of up to 12.7 S cm(-2) for P3HT:F4TCNQ, We determine the F4TCNQ anion concentration and find that the number of (bound + mobile) charge carriers of about 10(-4) mol cm(-3) is not influenced by the degree of solid-state order. Thus, the observed increase in electrical conductivity by almost 2 orders of magnitude can be attributed to an increase in charge-carrier mobility to more than 10(-1) cm(2) V-1 s(-1). Surprisingly, in contrast to charge transport in undoped P3HT, we find that the molecular weight of the polymer does not strongly influence the electrical conductivity, which highlights the need for studies that elucidate structure property relationships of strongly doped conjugated polymers.

  • 25.
    Håkansson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Han, Shaobo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wang, Suhao
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effect of (3-Glycidyloxypropyl)Trimethoxysilane (GOPS) on the Electrical Properties of PEDOT:PSS Films2017Ingår i: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 55, nr 10, s. 814-820Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been reported as a successful functional material in a broad variety of applications. One of the most important advantages of PEDOT:PSS is its water-solubility, which enables simple and environmental friendly manufacturing processes. Unfortunately, this also implies that pristine PEDOT:PSS films are unsuitable for applications in aqueous environments. To reach stability in polar solvents, (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GOPS) is typically used to cross-link PEDOT:PSS. Although this strategy is widely used, its mechanism and effect on PEDOT:PSS performance have not been articulated yet. Here, we present a broad study that provides a better understanding of the effect of GOPS on the electrical and electronic properties of PEDOT:PSS. We show that the GOPS reacts with the sulfonic acid group of the excess PSS, causing a change in the PEDOT:PSS film morphology, while the oxidation level of PEDOT remains unaffected. This is at the origin of the observed conductivity changes. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 26.
    Jiang, Haiying
    et al.
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Zhen
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Lianjie
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Zhong, Anxing
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xuncheng
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Pan, Feilong
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Wanzhu, Cai
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Yi
    Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, CA 94720 USA.
    Chen, Junwu
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Cao, Yong
    South China University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    A Highly Crystalline Wide-Band-Gap Conjugated Polymer toward High-Performance As-Cast Nonfullerene Polymer Solar Cells2017Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, nr 41, s. 36061-36069Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new wide-band-gap conjugated polymer PBODT was successfully synthesized that showed high crystallinity and was utilized as, the active material in nonfullerene bulk-heterojunction, polymer solar cells (PSCs). The photovoltaic devices based on the as-cast blend films of PBODT with ITIC and IDIC acceptors showed notable power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 7.06% and 9:09%, with high open-circuit voltages of 1.00 and 0.93 V that correspond to low energy losses of 0.59 and 0.69 eV, respectively. In the case of PBODT:ITIC, lower exciton quenching efficiency and monomolecular recombination are found for devices with small driving force. On the other hand, the relatively higher driving force and suppressed monomolecular recombination for PBODT:IDIC devices are identified to be the reason for their higher short-circuit current density (J(sc)) and higher PCEs. In addition, when processed with the nonchlorinated solvent 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, a good, PCE of 8.19% was still, achieved for the IDIC-based device. Our work shows that such wide-band-gap polymers have great potential for the environmentally friendly fabrication of highly efficient PSCs.

  • 27.
    Kiefer, David
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Giovannitti, Alexander
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Sun, Hengda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Biskup, Till
    Albert Ludwigs Univ Freiburg, Germany.
    Hofmann, Anna
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Koopmans, Marten
    Zernike Inst Adv Mat, Netherlands.
    Cendra, Camila
    Stanford Univ, CA 94304 USA.
    Weber, Stefan
    Albert Ludwigs Univ Freiburg, Germany.
    Koster, L. Jan Anton
    Zernike Inst Adv Mat, Netherlands.
    Olsson, Eva
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Rivnay, Jonathan
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60035 USA.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    McCulloch, Iain
    Imperial Coll London, England; Imperial Coll London, England; King Abdullah Univ Sci and Technol, Saudi Arabia.
    Muller, Christian
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Enhanced n-Doping Efficiency of a Naphthalenediimide-Based Copolymer through Polar Side Chains for Organic Thermoelectrics2018Ingår i: ACS ENERGY LETTERS, ISSN 2380-8195, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 278-285Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    N-doping of conjugated polymers either requires a high dopant fraction or yields a low electrical conductivity because of their poor compatibility with molecular dopants. We explore n doping of the polar naphthalenediimide-bithiophene copolymer p(gNDI-gT2) that carries oligoethylene glycol-based side chains and show that the polymer displays superior miscibility with the benzimidazole-dimethylbenzenamine-based n-dopant N-DMBI. The good compatibility of p(gNDI-gT2) and N-DMBI results in a relatively high doping efficiency of 13% for n-dopants, which leads to a high electrical conductivity of more than 10(-1) S cm(-1) for a dopant concentration of only 10 mol % when measured in an inert atmosphere. We find that the doped polymer is able to maintain its electrical conductivity for about 20 min when exposed to air and recovers rapidly when returned to a nitrogen atmosphere. Overall, solution coprocessing of p(gNDI-gT2) and N-DMBI results in a larger thermoelectric power factor of up to 0.4 mu W K-2 m(-1) compared to other NDI-based polymers.

  • 28.
    Li, Liyuan
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Lu, Feixue
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Chao
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liang, Weihua
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Kuga, Shigenori
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Dong, Zhichao
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Yang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Yong
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Min
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Flexible double-cross-linked cellulose-based hydrogel and aerogel membrane for supercapacitor separator2018Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, nr 47, s. 24468-24478Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A cellulose-based flexible double-cross-linked hydrogel with hierarchical porosity (max. 80%) was obtained by a facile solution-phase method by using polydopamine (PDA) as a crosslinker between cellulose and polyacrylamide (PAM). The investigation on the ratio of dopamine/acrylamide (DA/AM) reveals that the - stacking of the catechol groups in PDA and the abundant hydrogen bonds distributed in the gel network exert key effects on the hydrogels mechanical properties. At the premium ratio of 0.4 (C-4-DM-40), the mechanical and self-healing properties of the hydrogel are superior to those of other hydrogels. Fe3+-functionalizing endows the hydrogel with enhanced conductivity and sensitivity, as evidenced by the 3-fold increase in resistance variation (R/R-0) in a finger-bending monitoring test. An electric double layer supercapacitor using the KOH-saturated C-4-DM-40 aerogel membrane as a polymer electrolyte presents high capacitance of 172 F g(-1) at 1.0 A g(-1) and long cycling life of 10000 cycles with 84.7% capacitance retention due to electrolyte retention of 548.6%. Remarkably, an integrated micro-supercapacitor is fabricated by directly depositing activated carbon materials onto the C-4-DM-40 hydrogel membrane. The device shows areal capacitance of 275.8 mF cm(-2) and volumetric capacitance of 394.1 F cm(-3) at 10 mV s(-1). These findings suggest that the multi-functional cellulose-based hydrogels reported in this study display various potentials for practical applications not only in human health monitoring but also in portable and energy-storage devices.

  • 29.
    Li, Zhaojun
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Xu, Xiaofeng
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Zhang, Wei
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Meng, Xiangyi
    Xi An Jiao Tong University, Peoples R China.
    Ma, Wei
    Xi An Jiao Tong University, Peoples R China.
    Yartsev, Arkady
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Mats. R.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Janssen, Rene A. J.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    High Performance All-Polymer Solar Cells by Synergistic Effects of Fine-Tuned Crystallinity and Solvent Annealing2016Ingår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 138, nr 34, s. 10935-10944Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing interests have been devoted to the design of polymer acceptors as potential replacement for fullerene derivatives for high-performance all polymer solar cells (all-PSCs). One key factor that is limiting the efficiency of all-PSCs is the low fill factor (FF) (normally amp;lt;0.65), which is strongly correlated with the mobility and film morphology of polymer:polymer blends. In this work, we find a facile method to modulate the crystallinity of the well-known naphthalene diimide (NDI) based polymer N2200, by replacing a certain amount of bithiophene (2T) units in the N2200 backbone by single thiophene (T) units and synthesizing a series of random polymers PNDI-Tx, where x is the percentage of the single T. The acceptor PNDI-T10 is properly miscible with the low band gap donor polymer PTB7-Th, and the nanostructured blend promotes efficient exciton dissociation and charge transport. Solvent annealing (SA) enables higher hole and electron mobilities, and further suppresses the bimolecular recombination. As expected, the PTB7-Th:PNDI-T10 solar cells attain a high PCE of 7.6%, which is a 2-fold increase compared to that of PTB7-Th:N2200 solar cells. The FF of 0.71 reaches the highest value among all-PSCs to date. Our work demonstrates a rational design for fine-tuned crystallinity of polymer acceptors, and reveals the high potential of all-PSCs through structure and morphology engineering of semicrystalline polymer:polymer blends.

  • 30.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Richter, Klaus
    ITP GmbH Gesellschaft für Intelligente Produkte (ITP), Weimar, Germany.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Smart Textiles, Swedish School of Textiles (THS) , University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Investigation of electrically conducting yarns for use in textile actuators2018Ingår i: Smart materials and structures (Print), ISSN 0964-1726, E-ISSN 1361-665X, Vol. 27, nr 7, artikel-id 074004Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile actuators are an emerging technology to develop biomimetic actuators with synergetic actuation. They are composed of a passive fabric coated with an electroactive polymer providing with mechanical motion. Here we used different conducting yarns (polyamide + carbon, silicon + carbon, polyamide + silver coated, cellulose + carbon, polyester + 2 x INOX 50µm, polyester + 2 x Cu/Sn and polyester + gold coated) to develop such textile actuators. It was possible to coat them through direct electrochemical methods, which should provide with an easier and more cost-effective fabrication process. The conductivity and the electrochemical properties of the yarns were sufficient to allow the electropolymerization of the conducting polymer polypyrrole on the yarns. The electropolymerization was carried out and both the linear and angular the actuation of the yarns was investigated. These yarns may be incorporated into textile actuators for assistive prosthetic devices easier and cheaper to get and at the same time with good mechanical performance are envisaged.

  • 31.
    Melling, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Conjugated Polymer Actuators and Devices: Progress and Opportunities2019Ingår i: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 31, nr 22, artikel-id 1808210Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers (CPs), as exemplified by polypyrrole, are intrinsically conducting polymers with potential for development as soft actuators or artificial muscles for numerous applications. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of these materials and the actuation mechanisms, aided by the development of physical and electrochemical models. Current research is focused on developing applications utilizing the advantages that CP actuators have (e.g., low driving potential and easy to miniaturize) over other actuating materials and on developing ways of overcoming their inherent limitations. CP actuators are available as films, filaments/yarns, and textiles, operating in liquids as well as in air, ready for use by engineers. Here, the milestones made in understanding these unique materials and their development as actuators are highlighted. The primary focus is on the recent progress, developments, applications, and future opportunities for improvement and exploitation of these materials, which possess a wealth of multifunctional properties.

  • 32.
    Melling, Daniel
    et al.
    Cranfield University.
    Stephen, Wilson
    Cranfield University.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik.
    The influence of polypyrrole structure on electromechanical performance2011Ingår i: EuroEAP 2011 - First International conference on Electromechanically Active Polymer (EAP) transducers & artificial muscles, 2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Polypyrrole is electromechanically active and actuates due to ion and solvent movements during redox switching, causing both reversible and irreversible swelling. The swelling of polymers is known to be highly dependent on the degree of cross-linking. Despite this, little research has been undertaken to date on the affect that cross-linking has on the actuation of conjugated polymers. It is likely that there exists a level of cross-linking, that results in optimum actuation performance. An understanding of this relationship, would allow actuators to be designed that are capable of greater movement, operating speeds and force generation. Here we present novel synthetic strategies aimed at altering the cross-linking density of electrosynthesised polypyrrole. The actuating performance of these materials has been assessed using new apparatus capable of making non-contact dynamic measurements. Our synthetic strategies, measurement setup and results will be presented.

  • 33.
    Melling, Daniel
    et al.
    Cranfield University, USA.
    Wilson, Stephen
    Cranfield University, USA.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Altering the structure of polypyrrole and the influence on electrodynamic performance2011Ingår i: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering - Volume 7976: Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD), 2011, s. 79760Z-1-79760Z-13Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A synthetic chemical strategy aimed at altering the cross-linking density of the electropolymerized conjugated polymer polypyrrole has been devised and implemented. The actuation performance of the synthesized material was assessed using a new type of apparatus capable of making rapid, non-contact dynamic measurements. The affect of cross-linking on the actuation performance of polypyrroles, was investigated.

  • 34.
    Melling, Daniel
    et al.
    Cranfield University.
    Wilson, Stephen
    Cranfield University.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The Influence of Polypyrrole Structure on Electromechanical Perfomance2011Ingår i: 6th World Conference on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nanobiology, 2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Polypyrrole is electromechanically active and actuates due to ion and solvent movements during redox switching, causing both reversible and irreversible swelling. The swelling of polymers is known to be highly dependent on the degree of cross-linking. Despite this, little research has been undertaken to date on the affect that cross-linking has on the actuation of conjugated polymers. It is likely that there exists a level of cross-linking, that results in optimum actuation performance. An understanding of this relationship, would allow actuators to be designed that are capable of greater movement, operating speeds and force generation. We have implemented novel synthetic strategies aimed at altering the degree of cross-linking of electrosynthesised polypyrrole. The actuating performance of these materials has been assessed using new apparatus capable of making non-contact dynamic measurements. After highlighting a number of applications that use the anisotropic strain of PPy(DBS) e.g. the mechanostimulation of cells, we will describe our synthetic strategies, measurement setup and results.

  • 35.
    Meng, Xiao
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Gorbunov, Andrey V.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Christian Roelofs, W. S.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Meskers, Stefan C. J.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Janssen, Rene A. J.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Komplexa material och system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Sijbesma, Rint P.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Ferroelectric Switching and Electrochemistry of Pyrrole Substituted Trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-Tricarboxamides2017Ingår i: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 55, nr 8, s. 673-683Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore a new approach to organic ferroelectric diodes using a benzene-tricarboxamide (BTA) core connected with C10 alkyl chains to pyrrole groups, which can be polymerized to provide a semiconducting ferroelectric material. The compound possesses a columnar hexagonal liquid crystalline (LC) phase and exhibits ferroelectric switching. At low switching frequencies, an additional process occurs, which leads to a high hysteretic charge density of up to similar to 1000 mC/m(2). Based on its slow rate, the formation of gas bubbles, and the emergence of characteristic polypyrrole absorption bands in the UV-Vis-NIR, the additional process is identified as the oxidative polymerization of pyrrole groups, enabled by the presence of amide groups. Polymerization of the pyrrole groups, which is essential to obtain semiconductivity, is limited to thin layers at the electrodes, amounting to similar to 17 nm after cycling for 21 h. (C) 2017 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 36.
    Nagy, Szabolcs
    et al.
    Univ Pannonia, Hungary.
    Tamminen, Tuire
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Ejaculated boar spermatozoa displaying a rare multivesicular defect2018Ingår i: ACTA VETERINARIA SCANDINAVICA, ISSN 0044-605X, Vol. 60, artikel-id 21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two cases of a previously unreported sperm defect appearing in boar studs in Finland are presented. Spermatozoa showed small particles scattered on their surface with a prevalence decreasing with boar age. Semen samples, either stained with eosin-nigrosin or examined with phase contrast optics on formaldehyde-fixed spermatozoa, revealed the presence of multiple particles attached to the surface of spermatozoa counted as dead cells at fixation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed these were multivesicular and multilamellar vesicles, built up by phospholipid membranes. The case is classified as a post-epididymal multivesicular sperm defect with a favorable prognosis.

  • 37.
    Nilsson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Optical sensors based on conjugated polymers2007Ingår i: Handbook of conducting polymers (Third Edition) / [ed] Terje A. Skotheim,John Reynolds, CRC Press, 2007, 3, s. -1680Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Learn how recent advances are fueling new possibilities in textiles, optics, electronics, and biomedicine!

    As the field of conjugated, electrically conducting, and electroactive polymers has grown, the Handbook of Conducting Polymershas been there to document and celebrate these changes along the way. Now split into two volumes, this new edition continues to provide the expertise of world-renowned contributors while maintaining the clear format of previous editions as it incorporates the latest developments in both the fundamental science and practical applications of polymers.

    The first volume in the set focuses on the concepts and basic physical aspects needed to understand the behavior and performance of conjugated polymers. The book describes the theories behind π-conjugated materials and electron–lattice dynamics in organic systems. It also details synthesis methods and electrical and physical properties of the entire family of conducting polymers.

    Picking up where the first volume left off, the second volume concentrates on the numerous processing methods for conducting polymers and their integration into various devices and applications. It first examines coating, printing, and spinning methods for complex patterned films and fibers. The book then shows how conducting and semiconducting polymers are applied in many devices, such as light-emitting displays, solar cells, field effect transistors, electrochromic panels, charge storage devices, biosensors, and actuators.

    As the science of conjugated and conducting polymers progresses, further applications will be realized, fueling greater possibilities in textiles, optics, electronics, and biomedicine. This handbook will be there to provide essential information on polymers as well as the most up-to-date developments.

  • 38.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wanzhu, Cai
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ever Aguirre, Luis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wang, Chuan Fei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The contraction of PEDOT films formed on a macromolecular liquid-like surface2018Ingår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 654-660Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vapour phase polymerized (VPP) PEDOT obtained using triblock copolymer PEG-PPG-PEG: Fe(III) tosylate polymeric oxidative layers has shown record-high conductivity and unique thermoelectric properties. These properties are related to the molecular weight, morphology and doping of PEDOT. Here we show that in its unwashed condition, the PEDOT chain adopts a neutral benzenoid conformation. The polymer chain converts into the charged quinoid structure after the removal of oxidizers with solvent washing. X-ray diffraction results suggest that the dopant is also incorporated into the packed polymer after the washing process. The changes in the chain structure and doping lead to the characteristic polaron and bipolaron absorption in the 800 and 1200 nm range. We observed a large contraction of the film after washing that is likely due to these changes, along with the removal of excessive polymer: oxidizer trapped in the PEDOT matrix. The contraction of films can be completely suppressed by mechanical clamping. PEDOT films without contraction show both a higher conductivity and higher optical transparency.

  • 39.
    Palma, Carlos-Andres
    et al.
    Technishe Universität München, Garching, Germany.
    Diller, Katharina
    Technishe Universität München, Garching, Germany.
    Berger, Reinhard
    Max-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung, Mainz, Germany.
    Welle, Alexander
    Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.
    Björk, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Beräkningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cabellos, Jose Luis Cabellos
    Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, San Sebastián, Spain.
    Mowbray, Duncan John
    Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, San Sebastián, Spain.
    Papageorgiou, Anthoula C.
    Technishe Universität München, Garching, Germany.
    Ivleva, Natalia P.
    Technische Universität München, München, Germany.
    Matich, Sonja
    Walter Schottky Institut, Garching, Germany.
    Margapoti, Emanuela
    Walter Schottky Institut, Garching, Germany.
    Niesser, Reinhard
    Technische Universität München, Germany.
    Menges, Bernhard
    Max-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung, Mainz, Germany.
    Reichert, Joachim
    Technishe Universität München, Garching, Germany.
    Feng, Xinliang
    Max-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung, Mainz, Germany.
    Räder, Hans Joachim
    Max-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung, Mainz, Germany.
    Klappenberger, Florian
    Technishe Universität München, Garching, Germany.
    Rubio, Angel
    Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, San Sebastián, Spain.
    Müllen, Klaus
    Max-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung, Mainz, Germany.
    Barth, Johannes V.
    Technishe Universität München, Garching, Germany.
    Photo-induced C-C reactions on insulators towards photolithography of graphene nanoarchitectures2014Ingår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 136, s. 4651-4658Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    On-surface chemistry for atomically precise sp2 macromolecules requires top-down lithographic methods on insulating surfaces in order to pattern the long-range complex architectures needed by the semiconductor industry. Here, we fabricate sp2-carbon nm-thin films on insulators and under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions from photo-coupled brominated precursors. We reveal that covalent coupling is initiated by C-Br bond cleavage through photon energies exceeding 4.4 eV, as monitored by laser desorption ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry (MS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Density functional theory (DFT) gives insight into the mechanisms of C-Br scission and C-C coupling processes. Further, unreacted material can be sublimed and the coupled sp2-carbon precursors can be graphitized by e-beam treatment at 500°C, demonstrating promising applications in photolithography of graphene nanoarchitectures. Our results present UV-induced reactions on insulators for the formation of all sp2-carbon architectures, thereby converging top-down lithography and bottom-up on-surface chemistry into technology.

  • 40.
    Persson, Kristin M
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    Department of Printed Electronics, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    Department of Printed Electronics, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Konradsson, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Electronic control over detachment of a self-doped water-soluble conjugated polyelectrolyte2014Ingår i: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, nr 21, s. 6257-6266Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Water-soluble conducting polymers are of interest to enable more versatile processing in aqueous media as well as to facilitate interactions with biomolecules. Here, we report a substituted poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) derivative (PEDOT-S:H) that is fully water-soluble and selfdoped. When electrochemically oxidizing a PEDOT-S:H thin film, the film detaches from the under-laying electrode. The oxidation of PEDOT-S:H starts with an initial phase of swelling followed by cracking before it finally disrupts and detaches from the electrode. We investigated the detachment mechanism and found that parameters such as the size, charge and concentration of ions in the electrolyte, the temperature and also the pH influence the characteristics of detachment. When oxidizing PEDOT-S:H, the positively charged polymer backbone is balanced by anions from the electrolyte solution and also by the sulphonate groups on the side chains (more self-doping). From our experiments, we conclude that detachment of the PEDOT-S:H film upon oxidation occurs in part due to swelling caused by an inflow of solvated anions and associated water, and in part due to rearrangements and strain within the film, caused by more self-doping. We believe that PEDOT-S:H detachment can be of interest in a number of different applications, including addressed and active control of the release of materials such as biomolecules and cell cultures.

  • 41.
    Persson, Kristin M
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svennersten, Karl
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Löffler, Susanne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jager, Edwin W H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Konradsson, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Electronic control of cell detachment using a self-doped conducting polymer2011Ingår i: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 23, nr 38, s. 4403-4408Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An electronic detachment technology based on thin films of a poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene) derivative is evaluated for controlled release of human epithelial cells. When applying a potential of 1 V, the redox-responsive polymer films detach and disintegrate and at the same time release cells cultured on top in the absence of any enzymatic treatment with excellent preservation of membrane proteins and cell viability.

  • 42.
    Persson, Kristin M
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lönnqvist, Susanna Lönnqvist
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nilsson, David
    Department of Printed Electronics, Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Kratz, Gunnar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Hand- och plastikkirurgiska kliniken US.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Selective Detachment of Human Primary Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts Using an Addressable Conjugated Polymer Matrix2014Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers have been used in several applications for electronic control of cell cultures over the last years. We have shown detachment of human endothelial cells using a thin film of a self-doped water-soluble conjugated polymer. Upon electrochemical oxidation, the film swells, cracks and finally detaches taking cells cultured on top along with it. The polymer can be patterned using standard photolithography. The detachment only occurs above a threshold potential of +0.7 V and this fact has been used to create a simple actively addressed matrix, based on a resistor network placed in an encapsulated back plane. The matrix has individually detachable pixels. In this paper we have evaluated detachment of human primary keratinocytes and fibroblasts using PEDOT-S:H. In addition, we have studied effects of serum proteins, added as nutrients to the cell culture medium, on the detachment properties. It was found that at prolonged incubation times protein adhesion effectively stopped the detachment. Using shorter incubation times before detachment, both keratinocytes and fibroblasts can be detached using a regular planar device as well as the matrix device for selective detachment. Spatial control of detachment could be of use when selecting cells for clonal expansion and in order to obtain a homogeneous starting population of cells aimed for tissue engineering purposes.

  • 43.
    Puckert, C.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gelmi, A.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kozak Ljunggren, Monika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Biomedicinsk instrumentteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Optimisation of conductive polymer biomaterials for cardiac progenitor cells2016Ingår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 6, nr 67, s. 62270-62277Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The characterisation of biomaterials for cardiac tissue engineering applications is vital for the development of effective treatments for the repair of cardiac function. New smart materials developed from conductive polymers can provide dynamic benefits in supporting and stimulating stem cells via controlled surface properties, electrical and electromechanical stimulation. In this study we investigate the control of surface properties of conductive polymers through a systematic approach to variable synthesis parameters, and how the resulting surface properties influence the viability of cardiac progenitor cells. A thorough analysis investigating the effect of electropolymerisation parameters, such as current density and growth, and reagent variation on physical properties provides a fundamental understanding of how to optimise conductive polymer biomaterials for cardiac progenitor cells.

  • 44.
    Pupkaite, Justina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Ahumada, Manuel
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Mclaughlin, Sarah
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Temkit, Moho
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Alaziz, Sura
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Seymour, Richard
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Ruel, Marc
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Kochevar, Irene
    Harvard Medical Sch, MA USA.
    Griffith, May
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Suuronen, Erik J.
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Alarcon, Emilio I.
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Collagen-Based Photoactive Agent for Tissue Bonding2017Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, nr 11, s. 9265-9270Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a combination of methacrylated, collagen and the photosensitizer rose Bengal, a new light-activated biomimetic material for tissue sutureless bonding was developed. This formulation was cross-linked using green light. In vivo tests in mice demonstrate the suitability of the material for sutureless wound closure.

  • 45.
    Riera-Galindo, Sergi
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Laboratoriet för organisk elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Leonardi, Francesca
    Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain.
    Pfattner, Raphael
    Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain.
    Mas-Torrent, Marta
    Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain.
    Organic Semiconductor/Polymer Blend Films for Organic Field-Effect Transistors2019Ingår i: ADVANCED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES, ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 4, nr 9, artikel-id 1900104Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of low-cost printed organic electronics entails the processing of active organic semiconductors (OSCs) through solution-based techniques. However, the preparation of large-area uniform and reproducible films based on OSC inks can be very challenging due to the low viscosity of their solutions, which causes dewetting problems, the low stability of OSC polymer solutions, or the difficulty in achieving appropriate crystal order. To circumvent this, a promising route is the use of blends of OSCs and insulating binding polymers. This approach typically gives rise to films with an enhanced crystallinity and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with significantly improved device performance. Recent progress in the fabrication of OFETs based on OSC/binding polymer inks is reviewed, highlighting the main morphological and structural features that play a major role in determining the final electrical properties and some future perspectives. Undoubtedly, the use of these types of blends results in more reliable and reproducible devices that can be fabricated on large areas and at low cost and, thus, this methodology brings great expectations for the implementation of OSCs in real-world applications.

  • 46.
    Rolland, Nicolas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Franco Gonzalez, Juan Felipe
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Volpi, Riccardo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Bioinformatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. RIST, Romania.
    Linares, Mathieu
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Understanding morphology-mobility dependence in PEDOT:Tos2018Ingår i: PHYSICAL REVIEW MATERIALS, ISSN 2475-9953, Vol. 2, nr 4, artikel-id 045605Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of conjugated polymers to compete with inorganic materials in the field of semiconductor is conditional on fine-tuning of the charge carriers mobility. The latter is closely related to the material morphology, and various studies have shown that the bottleneck for charge transport is the connectivity between well-ordered crystallites, with a high degree of pi-pi stacking, dispersed into a disordered matrix. However, at this time there is a lack of theoretical descriptions accounting for this link between morphology and mobility, hindering the development of systematic material designs. Here we propose a computational model to predict charge carriers mobility in conducting polymer PEDOT depending on the physicochemical properties of the system. We start by calculating the morphology using molecular dynamics simulations. Based on the calculated morphology we perform quantum mechanical calculation of the transfer integrals between states in polymer chains and calculate corresponding hopping rates using the Miller-Abrahams formalism. We then construct a transport resistive network, calculate the mobility using a mean-field approach, and analyze the calculated mobility in terms of transfer integrals distributions and percolation thresholds. Our results provide theoretical support for the recent study [Noriega et al., Nat Mater 12, 1038 (2013)] explaining why the mobility in polymers rapidly increases as the chain length is increased and then saturates for sufficiently long chains. Our study also provides the answer to the long-standing question whether the enhancement of the crystallinity is the key to designing high-mobility polymers. We demonstrate, that it is the effective pi-pi stacking, not the long-range order that is essential for the material design for the enhanced electrical performance. This generic model can compare the mobility of a polymer thin film with different solvent contents, solvent additives, dopant species or polymer characteristics, providing a general framework to design new high mobility conjugated polymer materials.

  • 47.
    Rudd, Sam
    et al.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Franco Gonzalez, Felipe
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Singh, Sandeep Kumar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andreasen, Jens W.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Evans, Drew
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Charge transport and structure in semimetallic polymers2018Ingår i: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 56, nr 1, s. 97-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Owing to changes in their chemistry and structure, polymers can be fabricated to demonstrate vastly different electrical conductivities over many orders of magnitude. At the high end of conductivity is the class of conducting polymers, which are ideal candidates for many applications in low-cost electronics. Here, we report the influence of the nature of the doping anion at high doping levels within the semi-metallic conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) on its electronic transport properties. Hall effect measurements on a variety of PEDOT samples show that the choice of doping anion can lead to an order of magnitude enhancement in the charge carrier mobilityamp;gt;3 cm(2)/Vs at conductivities approaching 3000 S/cm under ambient conditions. Grazing Incidence Wide Angle X-ray Scattering, Density Functional Theory calculations, and Molecular Dynamics simulations indicate that the chosen doping anion modifies the way PEDOT chains stack together. This link between structure and specific anion doping at high doping levels has ramifications for the fabrication of conducting polymer-based devices. (c) 2017 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2018, 56, 97-104

  • 48.
    Salaneck, William R.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Stafström, Sven
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Beräkningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brédas, Jean-Luc
    Universíté de Mons-Hainault, Belgium.
    Conjugated polymer surfaces and interfaces: electronic and chemical structure of interfaces for polymer light emitting devices1996Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this book, we attempt to bring together in one place the results of a relatively large number of basic studies of conjugated polymer surfaces, as well as the 'early stages of metal-polymer interface formation', in an attempt to produce a simple and coherent picture of some of the unique features of these surfaces and interfaces; features which are important in understanding and controling the performance of polymer-based LEDs.

  • 49.
    Sanchez-Grande, Ana
    et al.
    IMDEA Nanociencia, Spain.
    de la Torre, Bruno
    Palacky Univ Olomouc, Czech Republic; Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Santos, Jose
    IMDEA Nanociencia, Spain.
    Cirera, Borja
    IMDEA Nanociencia, Spain.
    Lauwaet, Koen
    IMDEA Nanociencia, Spain.
    Chutora, Taras
    Palacky Univ Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Edalatmanesh, Shayan
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Mutombo, Pingo
    Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zboril, Radek
    Palacky Univ Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Miranda, Rodolfo
    IMDEA Nanociencia, Spain; Univ Autonoma Madrid, Spain.
    Björk, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jelinek, Pavel
    Palacky Univ Olomouc, Czech Republic; Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Martin, Nazario
    IMDEA Nanociencia, Spain; Univ Complutense, Spain.
    Ecija, David
    IMDEA Nanociencia, Spain.
    On-Surface Synthesis of Ethynylene-Bridged Anthracene Polymers2019Ingår i: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 58, nr 20, s. 6559-6563Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering low-band-gap -conjugated polymers is a growing area in basic and applied research. The main synthetic challenge lies in the solubility of the starting materials, which precludes advancements in the field. Here, we report an on-surface synthesis protocol to overcome such difficulties and produce poly(p-anthracene ethynylene) molecular wires on Au(111). To this aim, a quinoid anthracene precursor with =CBr2 moieties is deposited and annealed to 400K, resulting in anthracene-based polymers. High-resolution nc-AFM measurements confirm the nature of the ethynylene-bridge bond between the anthracene moieties. Theoretical simulations illustrate the mechanism of the chemical reaction, highlighting three major steps: dehalogenation, diffusion of surface-stabilized carbenes, and homocoupling, which enables the formation of an ethynylene bridge. Our results introduce a novel chemical protocol to design -conjugated polymers based on oligoacene precursors and pave new avenues for advancing the emerging field of on-surface synthesis.

  • 50.
    Sani, Negar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Addressability and GHz Operation in Flexible Electronics2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The discovery of conductive polymers in 1977 opened up a whole new path for flexible electronics. Conducting polymers and organic semiconductors are carbon rich compounds that are able to conduct charges while flexed and are compatible with low-cost and large-scale processes including printing and coating techniques. The conducting polymer has aided the rapidly expanding field of flexible electronics, leading to many new applications such as electronic skin, RFID tags, smart labels, flexible displays, implantable medical devices, and flexible sensors.

    However, there are several remaining challenges in the production and implementation of flexible electronic materials and devices. The  conductivity of organic conductors and semiconductors is still orders of magnitude lower compared to their inorganic counterparts. In addition, non-flexible inorganic semiconductors still remain the materials of choice for high frequency applications; since the charge carrier mobility and thus operational speed of the organic materials are limited. Therefore, there remains a high demand to combine the high frequency operation of inorganic semiconductors with the flexible fabrication methods of organic systems for future electronics.

    In addition to the challenges in the choice of materials in flexible electronics, the upscaling of the flexible devices and implementing them in circuits can also be complicated. Lack of non-linearity is an issue that arises when flexible devices with linear behavior need to be incorporated in an array or matrix form. Non-linearity is important for applications such as displays and memory arrays, where the devices are arranged as matrix cells addressed by their row and column number. If the behavior of cells in the matrix is linear, addressing each cell affects the adjacent cells. Therefore, inducing non-linearity and, consequently, addressability in such linear devices is the first step before scaling up into matrix schemes.

    In this work, non-linear organic/inorganic hybrid devices are produced to overcome the limitations mentioned above and leverage the advantages of both organic and inorganic materials. Two novel methods are developed to incorporate non-flexible inorganic semiconductors into ultra-high frequency (UHF) flexible devices. In the first method, Si is ground into a powder with micrometer-sized particles and printed through standard screen printing. For the first time, allprinted flexible diodes operating in the GHz range are produced. The energy harvesting application of the printed diodes is demonstrated in a flexible circuit coupling an antenna and the display to the diode.

    A second and simpler room-temperature method based on lamination was later developed, which further improves device performance and operational frequency. For the first time, a flexible semiconducting composite film consisting of Si micro-particles, glycerol, and nano-fibrillated cellulose is produced and used as the semiconducting layer of the UHF diode.

    The diodes fabricated through both mentioned processes are demonstrated in energy harvesting applications in the GHz range; however, they can also serve as rectifiers or non-linear elements in any other flexible and UHF circuit.

    Furthermore, a new approach is developed to induce non-linearity and hence addressability in linear devices in order to make their implementation in flexible matrix form feasible. This is accomplished by depositing a ferroelectric layer on a device electrode and thus controlling charge transfer through the electrode. The electrode current becomes limited to the charge displacement current established in the ferroelectric layer during polarization. Thus, the current does not follow the voltage linearly and non-linearity is induced in the device. The polarization voltage is dictated by the thickness of the ferroelectric layer. Therefore, the switching voltage of the device can be tuned by adjusting the ferroelectric layer thickness. In this work, the organic ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) is used due to its distinctive properties such as stability, high polarizability and simple processability. The polarization of P(VDF-TrFE) through an electrolyte and an electrophoretic liquid is investigated. In addition, a simple model is presented in order to understand the field and potential distribution, and the ferroelectric polarization, in the P(VDF-TrFE)-electrolyte contact. The induction of non-linearity through P(VDF-TrFE) is successfully demonstrated in novel addressable and bistable devices and memory elements such as non-linear electrophoretic display cells, organic ferroelectrochromic displays (FeOECDs), and ferroelectrochemical organic transistors (FeOECTs).

    Delarbeten
    1. All-printed diode operating at 1.6 GHz
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>All-printed diode operating at 1.6 GHz
    Visa övriga...
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, nr 33, s. 11943-11948Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Printed electronics are considered for wireless electronic tags and sensors within the future Internet-of-things (IoT) concept. As a consequence of the low charge carrier mobility of present printable organic and inorganic semiconductors, the operational frequency of printed rectifiers is not high enough to enable direct communication and powering between mobile phones and printed e-tags. Here, we report an all-printed diode operating up to 1.6 GHz. The device, based on two stacked layers of Si and NbSi2 particles, is manufactured on a flexible substrate at low temperature and in ambient atmosphere. The high charge carrier mobility of the Si microparticles allows device operation to occur in the charge injection-limited regime. The asymmetry of the oxide layers in the resulting device stack leads to rectification of tunneling current. Printed diodes were combined with antennas and electrochromic displays to form an all-printed e-tag. The harvested signal from a Global System for Mobile Communications mobile phone was used to update the display. Our findings demonstrate a new communication pathway for printed electronics within IoT applications.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    National Academy of Sciences, 2014
    Nyckelord
    UHF; silicon particle
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Elektroteknik och elektronik Fysik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110476 (URN)10.1073/pnas.1401676111 (DOI)000340438800027 ()25002504 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (Power Paper Project) [KAW 2011.0050]; Onnesjo Foundation; Swedish Research Council Linnaeus Grant LiLi-NFM; European Regional Development Fund through Tillvaxtverket (Project PEA-PPP)

    Tillgänglig från: 2014-09-15 Skapad: 2014-09-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-05Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Polarization of ferroelectric films through electrolyte
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Polarization of ferroelectric films through electrolyte
    Visa övriga...
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 28, nr 10, artikel-id 105901Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A simplified model is developed to understand the field and potential distribution through devices based on a ferroelectric film in direct contact with an electrolyte. Devices based on the ferroelectric polymer polyvinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) were produced – in metalferroelectric-metal, metal-ferroelectric-dielectric-metal, and metal-ferroelectric-electrolyte-metal architectures – and used to test the model, and simulations based on the model and these fabricated devices were performed. From these simulations we find indication of progressive polarization of the films. Furthermore, the model implies that there is a relation between the separation of charge within the devices and the observed open circuit voltage. This relation is confirmed experimentally. The ability to polarize ferroelectric polymer films through aqueous electrolytes, combined with the strong correlation between the properties of the electrolyte double layer and the device potential, opens the door to a variety of new applications for ferroelectric technologies, e.g., regulation of cell culture growth and release, steering molecular self-assembly, or other large area applications requiring aqueous environments.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Institute of Physics (IOP), 2016
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Fysik Elektroteknik och elektronik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121802 (URN)10.1088/0953-8984/28/10/105901 (DOI)000371007800015 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies:  Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA) [2010-00507]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Advanced Functional Materials Center at Linkoping University; Onnesjo Foundation

    Tillgänglig från: 2015-10-07 Skapad: 2015-10-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-01Bibliografiskt granskad
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