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  • 1.
    Ail, Ujwala
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Backe, Jakob
    Ligna Energy AB, Kallvindsgatan 5, S-60240 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Phopase, Jaywant
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lignin Functionalized with Catechol for Large-Scale Organic Electrodes in Bio-Based Batteries2023In: ADVANCED ENERGY AND SUSTAINABILITY RESEARCH, ISSN 2699-9412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin, obtained as a waste product in huge quantities from the large-scale cellulose processing industries, holds a great potential to be used as sustainable electrode material for large-scale electroactive energy storage systems. The fixed number of redox-active phenolic groups present within the lignin structure limits the electrochemical performance and the total energy storage capacity of the lignin-based electrodes. Herein, the way to enhance the charge storage capacity of lignin by incorporating additional small catechol molecules into the lignin structure is demonstrated. The catechol derivatives are covalently attached to the lignin via aromatic electrophilic substitution reaction. The increased phenolic groups in all functionalized lignin derivatives notably increase the values of capacitance compared to pristine lignin. Further, solvent fractionation of lignin followed by functionalization using catechol boosts three times the charge capacity of lignin electrode. Herein, a scalable, cost-effective method to enhance the electrochemical performance of lignin electrodes via incorporation of small redox active moieties into the lignin structure is demonstrated. Solvent fractionation of lignin followed by functionalization using catechol increases the charge storage capacity of the lignin-carbon composite electrode by a factor of 3 reaching record high charge capacity above 100 mAh g-1.

  • 2.
    Ail, Ujwala
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Phopase, Jaywant
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Jakob
    Ligna Energy AB, Sweden.
    Khan, Zia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of Sulfonation Level on Lignin/Carbon Composite Electrodes for Large-Scale Organic Batteries2020In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 8, no 49, p. 17933-17944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The key figure-of-merit for materials in stationary energy storage applications, such as large-scale energy storage for buildings and grids, is the cost per kilo per electrochemical cycle, rather than the energy density. In this regard, forest-based biopolymers such as lignin, are attractive, as they are abundant on Earth. Here, we explored lignin as an electroactive battery material, able to store two electrons per hydroquinone aromatic ring, with the targeted operation in aqueous electrolytes. The impact of the sulfonation level of lignin on the performance of its composite electrode with carbon was investigated by considering three lignin derivatives: lignosulfonate (LS), partially desulfonated lignosulfonate (DSLS), and fully desulfonated lignin (KL, lignin produced by the kraft process). Partial desulfonation helped in better stability of the composite in aqueous media, simultaneously favoring its water processability. In this way, a route to promote ionic conductivity within the lignin/carbon composite electrodes was developed, facilitating the access to the entire bulk of the volumetric electrodes. Electrochemical performance of DSLS/C showed highly dominant Faradaic contribution (66%) towards the total capacity, indicating an efficient mixed ionic-electronic transport within the lignin-carbon phase, displaying a capacity of 38 mAh/g at 0.25 A/g and 69% of capacity retention after 2200 cycles at a rate of 1 A/g.

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  • 3.
    Angizi, Shayan
    et al.
    McMaster Univ, Canada.
    Khalaj, Maryam
    Imam Khomeini Int Univ, Iran.
    Alem, Sayed Ali Ahmad
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Pakdel, Amir
    Trinity Coll Dublin, Ireland.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hatamie, Amir
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sharif Univ Technol, Iran.
    Simchi, Abdolreza
    Sharif Univ Technol, Iran.
    Review-Towards the Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Boron Nitride (2D h-BN) Electrochemical Sensing Platforms2020In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 167, no 12, article id 126513Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical sensing performance of two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride (2D h-BN) has traditionally been suppressed by their intrinsic electrical insulation and deficient electron transportation mechanism. However, the excellent electrocatalytic activity, high specific surface area, N- and B-active edges, structural defects, adjustable band gap through interaction with other nanomaterials, and chemical functionalization, makes 2D h-BN ideal for many sensing applications. Therefore, finding a pathway to modulate the electronic properties of 2D h-BN while the intrinsic characteristics are well preserved, will evolve a new generation of highly sensitive and selective electrochemical (bio)sensors. That is why extensive research has recently focused on the challenge to functionalize 2D h-BN by controlling the surface chemical reactions with external species, particularly metal nanoparticles. This review summarizes the most recent progress in the application of 2D h-BN nanosheets in electrochemical (bio)sensing. We will explore the fabrication techniques of 2D h-BN for electrochemical applications followed by thorough discussion on their advantages, shortcomings, and promising possibilities as (bio)sensing platforms in near future.

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  • 4.
    Apaydin, Dogukan H.
    et al.
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Gora, Monika
    University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Portenkirchner, Engelbert
    University of Innsbruck, Austria.
    Oppelt, Kerstin T.
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Neugebauer, Helmut
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Jakesoya, Marie
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Glowacki, Eric D.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kunze-Liebhaeuser, Julia
    University of Innsbruck, Austria.
    Zagorska, Malgorzata
    Warsaw University of Technology, Poland.
    Mieczkowski, Jozef
    University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Serdar Sariciftci, Niyazi
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Electrochemical Capture and Release of CO2 in Aqueous Electrolytes Using an Organic Semiconductor Electrode2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 15, p. 12919-12923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing efficient methods for capture and controlled release of carbon dioxide is crucial to any carbon. capture and utilization technology. Herein we present an approach using an organic. semiconductor electrode to electrochemically capture dissolved CO2 in aqueous electrolytes. The process relies on electrochemical reduction of a thin film of a naphthalene bisimide derivative, 2,7,bis (4-(2- (2-ethylhexyl)thiazol-4-yl)phenyObenzo [lmn][3,8] phenanthroline-1,3,6,8(2H,7H)-tetraone (NBIT). This molecule is specifically tailored to afford one-electron reversible and one-electron quasi-reversible reduction in aqueous conditions while, not dissolving or degrading. The reduced NBIT reacts with CO2 to form a stable aemicarbonate salt, which can be subsequently oxidized electrochemically to release CO2. The semicarbonate structure is confirmed by in situ IR spectroelectrochemistry. This process of capturing and releasing carbon dioxide can be realized in an oxygen-free environment under ambient pressure and temperature, with uptake efficiency for CO2 capture of similar to 2.3 mmol g(-1). This is on par with the best solution-phase amine chemical capture technologies available today.

  • 5.
    Arja, Katriann
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Selegård, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biophysics and bioengineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Paloncyova, Marketa
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden; Palacky Univ Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Linares, Mathieu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindgren, Mikael
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    Norman, Patrick
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Aili, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biophysics and bioengineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Self-Assembly of Chiro-Optical Materials from Nonchiral Oligothiophene-Porphyrin Derivatives and Random Coil Synthetic Peptides2023In: ChemPlusChem, E-ISSN 2192-6506, Vol. 88, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomimetic chiral optoelectronic materials can be utilized in electronic devices, biosensors and artificial enzymes. Herein, this work reports the chiro-optical properties and architectural arrangement of optoelectronic materials generated from self-assembly of initially nonchiral oligothiophene-porphyrin derivatives and random coil synthetic peptides. The photo-physical- and structural properties of the materials were assessed by absorption-, fluorescence- and circular dichroism spectroscopy, as well as dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy and theoretical calculations. The materials display a three-dimensional ordered helical structure and optical activity that are observed due to an induced chirality of the optoelectronic element upon interaction with the peptide. Both these properties are influenced by the chemical composition of the oligothiophene-porphyrin derivative, as well as the peptide sequence. We foresee that our findings will aid in developing self-assembled optoelectronic materials with dynamic architectonical accuracies, as well as offer the possibility to generate the next generation of materials for a variety of bioelectronic applications.

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  • 6.
    Azharuddin, Mohammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Zhu, Geyunjian H.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Das, Debapratim
    Indian Inst Technol Guwahati, India.
    Ozgur, Erdogan
    Hacettepe Univ, Turkey.
    Uzun, Lokman
    Hacettepe Univ, Turkey.
    Turner, Anthony P. F.
    Cranfield Univ, England.
    Patra, Hirak Kumar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Univ Cambridge, England.
    A repertoire of biomedical applications of noble metal nanoparticles2019In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 55, no 49, p. 6964-6996Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noble metals comprise any of several metallic chemical elements that are outstandingly resistant to corrosion and oxidation, even at elevated temperatures. This group is not strictly defined, but the tentative list includes ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, silver, osmium, iridium, platinum and gold, in order of atomic number. The emerging properties of noble metal nanoparticles are attracting huge interest from the translational scientific community and have led to an unprecedented expansion of research and exploration of applications in biotechnology and biomedicine. Noble metal nanomaterials can be synthesised both by top-down and bottom up approaches, as well as via organism-assisted routes, and subsequently modified appropriately for the field of use. Nanoscale analogues of gold, silver, platinum, and palladium in particular, have gained primary importance owing to their excellent intrinsic properties and diversity of applications; they offer unique functional attributes, which are quite unlike the bulk material. Modulation of noble metal nanoparticles in terms of size, shape and surface functionalisation has endowed them with unusual capabilities and manipulation at the chemical level, which can lead to changes in their electrical, chemical, optical, spectral and other intrinsic properties. Such flexibility in multi-functionalisation delivers Ockhams razor to applied biomedical science. In this feature article, we highlight recent advances in the adaptation of noble metal nanomaterials and their biomedical applications in therapeutics, diagnostics and sensing.

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  • 7.
    Bai, Sai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Oxford, England.
    Da, Peimei
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Li, Cheng
    Univ Bayreuth, Germany; Xiamen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Zhiping
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Yuan, Zhongcheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fu, Fan
    Empa-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Duebendorf, Switzerland.
    Kawecki, Maciej
    Empa, Switzerland; Univ Basel, Switzerland.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakai, Nobuya
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Wang, Jacob Tse-Wei
    CSIRO Energy, Australia.
    Huettner, Sven
    Univ Bayreuth, Germany.
    Buecheler, Stephan
    Empa Swiss Fed Labs Mat Sci and Technol, Switzerland.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Oxford, England.
    Snaith, Henry J.
    Univ Oxford, England.
    Planar perovskite solar cells with long-term stability using ionic liquid additives2019In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 571, no 7764, p. 245-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar cells based on metal halide perovskites are one of the most promising photovoltaic technologies(1-4). Over the past few years, the long-term operational stability of such devices has been greatly improved by tuning the composition of the perovskites(5-9), optimizing the interfaces within the device structures(10-13), and using new encapsulation techniques(14,15). However, further improvements are required in order to deliver a longer-lasting technology. Ion migration in the perovskite active layer-especially under illumination and heat-is arguably the most difficult aspect to mitigate(16-18). Here we incorporate ionic liquids into the perovskite film and thence into positive-intrinsic-negative photovoltaic devices, increasing the device efficiency and markedly improving the long-term device stability. Specifically, we observe a degradation in performance of only around five per cent for the most stable encapsulated device under continuous simulated full-spectrum sunlight for more than 1,800 hours at 70 to 75 degrees Celsius, and estimate that the time required for the device to drop to eighty per cent of its peak performance is about 5,200 hours. Our demonstration of long-term operational, stable solar cells under intense conditions is a key step towards a reliable perovskite photovoltaic technology.

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  • 8.
    Bamgbopa, Musbaudeen O.
    et al.
    Dubai Elect & Water Author DEWA, U Arab Emirates.
    Fetyan, Abdulmonem
    Dubai Elect & Water Author DEWA, U Arab Emirates.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Adelodun, Adedeji A.
    Fed Univ Technol Akure, Nigeria.
    Towards eco-friendly redox flow batteries with all bio-sourced cell components2022In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 50, article id 104352Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research and few pilot deployments have demonstrated promising aqueous organic redox flow battery (RFB) systems. However, the claim that these organic RFB systems are eco-friendlier energy storage than Lithium-ion batteries and aqueous inorganic metallic RFB counterparts needs reinforcement, primarily if cell components other than redox-active species are still based on unsustainable materials. This thesis of the present work presents the prospects of achieving future eco-friendly RFBs with higher consideration for sustainability by adopting significant amounts of abundant bio-sourced/based materials for all main cell components. As we highlight the promising sources of the energy materials from a review of previous studies, we infer that plant derived quinones and other organic polymers may continue to dominate the organic redox-active species space. Furthermore, a candidate methodology to accomplish porous electrodes and membranes/separators of the eco-friendly RFBs is to apply stand-alone bio-based/sourced fibrils derived from cellulose, lignin, chitin, among other materials. These materials can be combined with (un)carbonised biomass or food wastes & residues to impart conductivity, catalytic activity, and ion selectivity. We explore symmetric chemistry as an ideal system for the eco-friendly RFBs of the discourse, given interplay between the electrolyte, electrode material and membrane dictates energy efficiency and cycling stability. These strategies also need to be coupled with further improvements to achieve reliability.

    The full text will be freely available from 2024-03-03 16:15
  • 9.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Jianming
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Yanqing
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Tang, Jianxin
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Duan, Chungang
    East China Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Effect of Oxygen Uptake on Charge Injection Barriers in Conjugated Polymer Films2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 6491-6497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy offset between the electrode Fermi level and organic semiconductor transport levels is a key parameter controlling the charge injection barrier and hence efficiency of organic electronic devices. Here, we systematically explore the effect of in situ oxygen exposure on energetics in n-type conjugated polymer P(NDI2OD-T2) films. The analysis reveals that an interfacial potential step is introduced for a series of P(NDI2OD-T2) electrode contacts, causing a nearly constant downshift of the vacuum level, while the ionization energies versus vacuum level remain constant. These findings are attributed to the establishment of a so-called double-dipole step via motion of charged molecules and will modify the charge injection barriers at electrode contact. We further demonstrate that the same behavior occurs when oxygen interacts with p-type polymer TQ1 films, indicating it is possible to be a universal effect for organic semiconductOrs.

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  • 10.
    Barragan, Ana
    et al.
    IMDEA Nanosci Inst, Spain.
    Nicolas-Garcia, Tomas
    IMDEA Nanosci Inst, Spain.
    Lauwaet, Koen
    IMDEA Nanosci Inst, Spain.
    Sanchez-Grande, Ana
    IMDEA Nanosci Inst, Spain; Czech Acad Sci, Czech Republic.
    Urgel, Jose I
    IMDEA Nanosci Inst, Spain.
    Björk, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Perez, Emilio M.
    IMDEA Nanosci Inst, Spain.
    Ecija, David
    IMDEA Nanosci Inst, Spain.
    Design and Manipulation of a Minimalistic Hydrocarbon Nanocar on Au(111)2023In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 62, no 6, article id e202212395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocars are carbon-based single-molecules with a precise design that facilitates their atomic-scale control on a surface. The rational design of these molecules is important in atomic and molecular-scale manipulation to advance the development of molecular machines, as well as for a better understanding of self-assembly, diffusion and desorption processes. Here, we introduce the molecular design and construction of a collection of minimalistic nanocars. They feature an anthracene chassis and four benzene derivatives as wheels. After sublimation and adsorption on an Au(111) surface, we show controlled and fast manipulation of the nanocars along the surface using the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The mechanism behind the successful displacement is the induced dipole created over the nanocar by the STM tip. We utilized carbon monoxide functionalized tips both to avoid decomposition and accidentally picking the nanocars up during the manipulation. This strategy allowed thousands of maneuvers to successfully win the Nanocar Race II championship.

  • 11.
    Ben Dkhil, Sadok
    et al.
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Gaceur, Meriem
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Karim Diallo, Abdou
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Didane, Yahia
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Margeat, Olivier
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Ackermann, Jorg
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Videlot-Ackermann, Christine
    Aix Marseille University, France.
    Reduction of Charge-Carrier Recombination at ZnO Polymer Blend Interfaces in PTB7-Based Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Using Regular Device Structure: Impact of ZnO Nanoparticle Size and Surfactant2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 20, p. 17257-17265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cathode interfacial layers, also called electron extraction layers (EELs), based on zinc oxide (ZnO) have been studied in polymer-blend solar cells toward optimization of the opto-electric properties. Bulk heterojunction solar cells based on poly( {4, 8-bis [(2- ethylhexyl) oxy]b enzo [1,2- b :4,5-b dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]- thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediy1}) (PTB7) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) were realized in regular structure with all-solution-processed interlayers. A pair of commercially available surfactants, ethanolamine (EA) and ethylene glycol (EG), were used to modify the surface of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in alcohol-based dispersion. The influence of ZnO particle size was also studied by preparing dispersions of two NP diameters (6 versus 11 nm). Here, we show that performance improvement can be obtained in polymer solar cells via the use of solution-processed ZnO EELs based on surface-modified nanoparticles. By the optimizing of the ZnO dispersion, surfactant ratio, and the resulting morphology of EELs, PTB7/PC70BM solar cells with a power-conversion efficiency of 8.2% could be obtained using small sized EG-modified ZnO NPs that allow the clear enhancement of the performance of solution processed photovoltaic devices compared to state-of-the-art ZnO-based cathode layers.

  • 12. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Bengtsson, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrokinetic devices from polymeric materials2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are multiple applications for polymers: our bodies are built of them, plastic bags and boxes used for storage are composed of them, as are the shells for electronics, TVs, computers, clothes etc. Many polymers are cheap, and easy to manufacture and process which make them suitable for disposable systems. The choice of polymer to construct an object will therefore highly influence the properties of the object itself. The focus of this thesis is the application of commonly used polymers to solve some challenges regarding integration of electrodes in electrokinetic devices and 3D printing.

    The first part of this thesis regards electrokinetic systems and the electrodes’ impact on the system. Electrokinetic systems require Faradaic (electrochemical) reactions at the electrodes to maintain an electric field in an electrolyte. The electrochemical reactions at the electrodes allow electron-to-ion transduction at the electrode-electrolyte interface, necessary to drive a current at the applied potential through the system, which thereby either cause flow (electroosmosis) or separation (electrophoresis). These electrochemical reactions at the electrodes, such as water electrolysis, are usually problematic in analytical systems and systems applied in biology. One solution to reduce the impact of water electrolysis is by replacing metal electrodes with electrochemically active polymers, e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Paper 1 demonstrates that PEDOT electrodes can replace platinum electrodes in a gel electrophoretic setup. Paper 2 reports an all-plastic, planar, flexible electroosmotic pump which continuously transports water from one side to the other using potentials as low as 0.3 V. This electroosmotic pump was further developed in paper 3, where it was made into a compact and modular setup, compatible with commercial microfluidic devices. We demonstrated that the pump could maintain an alternating flow for at least 96 h, with a sufficient flow of cell medium to keep cells alive for the same period of time.

    The second part of the thesis describes the use of 3D printers for manufacturing prototypes and the material requirements for 3D printing. Protruding and over-hanging structures are more challenging to print using a 3D printer and usually require supporting material during the printing process. In paper 4, we showed that polyethylene glycol (PEG), in combination with a carbonate-based plasticizer, functions well as a 3D printable sacrificial template material. PEG2000 with between 20 and 30 wt% dimethyl carbonate or propylene carbonate have good shear-thinning rheology, mechanical and chemical stability, and water solubility, which are advantageous for a supporting material used in 3D printing.

    The advances presented in this thesis have solved some of the challenges regarding electrokinetic systems and prototype manufacturing. Hopefully this will contribute to the development of robust, disposable, low-cost, and autonomous electrokinetic devices.

    List of papers
    1. Conducting Polymer Electrodes for Gel Electrophoresis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conducting Polymer Electrodes for Gel Electrophoresis
    2014 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 0089416-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that p-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis) systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel electrophoresis, and show that electrodes containing PEDOT can be used with a commercial polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system with minimal impact to the resulting gel image or the ionic transport measured during a separation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Public Library of Science, 2014
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105901 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0089416 (DOI)000331711900141 ()
    Available from: 2014-04-14 Created: 2014-04-12 Last updated: 2021-06-14Bibliographically approved
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  • 13.
    Bergner, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Nilsson, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Screening of volatile compounds in washing water and cloths from the sponge cloth process2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Freudenberg Household Products AB in Norrköping are manufacturer of sponge cloths with the well-known brand names of Wettex® and Vileda®. The production is based on the viscose fiber process and involves a high chemical demand. Recent customer complaints involve a diffuse smell from the cloths that is like a “garage odor” and occurs after a few uses. The company’s theory is that the smell derives from a chemical used in the process called Exxal 9.

    The aim was to screen the washing water from two sections and the cloth before and after wash for the presence of Exxal 9 and other prominent components. The washing water samples consisted of a salt solution from one section and a water condensate from another section. A method to qualitatively and quantitatively examine the production samples was developed. To evaluate the variation over a short period of time, twelve samples were taken during four weeks. The focus for the analysis lay on production line Wx4, but comparisons with two other production lines, Wx7 and SL1, were also made. The method of choice was gas chromatography in combination with two different detectors; mass spectrometer for identification and flame ionization detector for quantification.

    Exxal 9 could be identified in both of the washing water sections but in very various concentrations. At the production line Wx4, the mean concentration in the mother lye was 61.96 µl/l whereas the mean concentration in the condensate was 0.24 µl/l. The comparison between the different production lines showed significant variations, where Wx4 had the highest concentration. In the cloths, Exxal 9 could only be found before it had been washed. The concentration in the cloths was not high enough for quantification. In both the washing waters and cloths, additional unknown peaks were found. Attempts to identify all the unknowns were made but only two compounds were included in the commercial library; 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)-ethanol.

  • 14.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Österberg, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Melianas, Armantas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ever Aguirre, Luis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tang, Zheng
    Dresden Integrated Center for Applied Physics and Photonic Materials (IAPP) and Institute for Applied Physics, Technische Universität Dresden, Nöthnitzer Str. 61, Dresden, 01187, Germany.
    Cai, Wanzhu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ma, Zaifei
    Dresden Integrated Center for Applied Physics and Photonic Materials (IAPP) and Institute for Applied Physics, Technische Universität Dresden, Nöthnitzer Str. 61, Dresden, 01187, Germany.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gedefaw, Desta
    Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide, 5042, Australia.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide, Australia; Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Polymer Technology, Chalmers, University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Asymmetric photocurrent extraction in semitransparent laminated flexible organic solar cells2018In: npj Flexible Electronics, ISSN 2397-4621, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scalable production methods and low-cost materials with low embodied energy are key to success for organic solar cells. PEDOT(PSS) electrodes meet these criteria and allow for low-cost and all solution-processed solar cells. However, such devices are prone to shunting. In this work we introduce a roll-to-roll lamination method to construct semitransparent solar cells with a PEDOT(PSS) anode and an polyethyleneimine (PEI) modified PEDOT(PSS) cathode. We use the polymer:PCBM active layer coated on the electrodes as the lamination adhesive. Our lamination method efficiently eliminates any shunting. Extended exposure to ambient degrades the laminated devices, which manifests in a significantly reduced photocurrent extraction when the device is illuminated through the anode, despite the fact that the PEDOT(PSS) electrodes are optically equivalent. We show that degradation-induced electron traps lead to increased trap-assisted recombination at the anode side of the device. By limiting the exposure time to ambient during production, degradation is significantly reduced. We show that lamination using the active layer as the adhesive can result in device performance equal to that of conventional sequential coating.

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  • 15.
    Bidleman, Terry
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Kurt-Karakus, Perihan
    Bahcesehir University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Armitage, James
    University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Brown, Tanya
    University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
    Danon Schaffer, Monica
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Helm, Paul
    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, Canada.
    Hung, Haley
    Meteorological Services Canada .
    Jantunen, Liisa
    Environment Canada.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Li, Yi-Fan
    Environment, Canada.
    Loock, Daniela
    Royal Military College of Canada.
    Luttmer, Carol
    Royal Military College of Canada.
    Ma, Jianmin
    Lanzhou University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Macdonald, Robie
    Fisheries and Oceans, Canada.
    Mackay, Don
    Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada.
    Reid, Liisa
    Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada.
    Reimer, Ken
    Royal Military College of Canada.
    Chapter 2: Properties, sources, global fate and transport2013In: Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report III 2013: Persistent Organic Pollutants in Canada’ s North / [ed] Derek Muir, Perihan Kurt-Karakus and Peter Stow, Ottawa: Northern Contaminants Program, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada , 2013, p. 19-146Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Part II of the second Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report (CACAR-II) began with a section on “Physicochemical Properties of Persistent Organic Pollutants”, which identified key physicochemical (pchem) properties, provided the rationale for their measurement or prediction and tabulated literature citations for chemicals that are of concern to the NCP (Bidleman et al. 2003). The section also discussed temperature dependence of pchem properties and their applications to describing partitioning in the physical environment.

    There is, and will continue to be, emphasis on predictive approaches to screening chemicals for persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic (PB&T)properties, as well as long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) potential (Brown and Wania 2008, Czub et al. 2008, Fenner et al. 2005, Gouin andWania 2007, Howard and Muir 2010, Klasmeier et al. 2006, Matthies et al. 2009, Muir and Howard 2006). This has created the need for determining pchem properties of new and emerging chemicals of concern.

    Predicting gas exchange cycles of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and new and emerging chemicals of concern places a high demand on the accuracy of pchem properties, particularly the air/water partition coefficient, KAW. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in Arctic Ocean surface waters are close to air-water equilibrium, with excursions toward net volatilization or deposition that vary with location and season (Hargrave et al. 1993, Jantunen et al. 2008a, Lohmann et al. 2009, Su et al. 2006, Wong et al. 2011) while hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (Lohmann et al. 2009, Su et al. 2006, Wong et al. 2011) and some current use pesticides (CUPs) (Wong et al. 2011) are undergoing net deposition. The predicted Arctic Contamination Potential (ACP) for persistent organic chemicals is strongly influenced by ice cover due to its effect on air-water gas exchange (Meyer and Wania 2007).

    Many advances have taken place and numerous papers have been published since CACAR-II, which present new measurements and predictions of pchem properties. This section does not attempt to provide a comprehensive review of the field, or to compile pchem properties from the many studies. The approach taken is to highlight the reports which are most relevant to polar science, particularly in areas of improving reliability of pchem properties for POPs, improving experimental techniques and comparing predictive methods. The section ends with a discussion of polyparameter linear free energy relationships (pp-LFERs), which goes beyond partitioning descriptions based on single pchem properties by taking into account specific chemical interactions that can take place in airsurface and water-surface exchange processes. A detailed list of chemical names and nomenclature are provided in the Glossary.

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  • 16.
    Björk, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Functionalizing MXenes by Tailoring Surface Terminations in Different Chemical Environments2021In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 33, no 23, p. 9108-9118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-dimensional metal carbides and nitrides-MXenes-represent a group of materials which have attained growing attention over the last decade due to their chemical versatility, making them highly promising in areas such as energy storage, superconductivity, and heterogenous catalysis. Surface terminations are a natural consequence of the MXene synthesis, conventionally consisting of O, OH, and F. However, recent studies have extended the chemical domain of the surface terminations to other elements, and they should be considered as an additional parameter governing the MXene properties. There is a shortfall in the understanding of how various chemical species could act as terminations on different MXenes. In particular, there is limited comprehension in which chemical environments different terminations are stable. Here, we present an extensive theoretical study of the surface terminations of MXenes in different atmospheres by considering in total six experimentally achieved MXenes (Ti2C, Nb2C, V2C, Mo2C, Ti3C2, and Nb4C3) and twelve surface terminations (O, OH, N, NH, NH2, S, SH, H, F, Cl, Br, and I). We consider fully terminated (single termination) MXenes and also the impact of substituting individual terminations. Our study provides insights into what terminations are stable on which MXenes in different chemical environments, with predictions of how to obtain single-termination MXenes and which MXenes are resilient under ambient conditions. In addition, we propose synthesis protocols of MXenes which have not yet been realized in experiments. It is anticipated that alongside the development of new synthesis routes, our study will provide design rules for how to tailor the surface terminations of MXenes.

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  • 17.
    Björklund, Sam
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Characterization of Inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase, an important protein involved in purine metabolism2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The enzyme inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPase) is responsible for controlling the levels of the by-products guanosine monophosphate (GMP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) through their precursor inosine monophosphate (IMP). ). Human ITPase consists of a 194-amino acid homodimer which relies upon either an Mg2+ ion or a Mn2+ ion for catalytic activity, and orthologs of this protein have been found in many different organisms.

    The purpose of this project was to try out methods learned throughout the education and to use this knowledge to gather new data about the human protein inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPase). The protein was expressed in BL21/DE3 cells from a pre-made vector. Experiments performed during this project include secondary- and tertiary stability measurements, tryptophan fluorescence spectra, binding curve and thermic stability to ITPase with ANS and methotrexate.

    The Tm-value of human ITPase was examined with Trp-Fluorescence, ANS-fluorescence and Near-UV and Far-UV circular dichroism (CD). The stability of ITPase monitored by Near-UV as well as Far-UV coincides, indicating that secondary- and tertiary-unfolding occur simultaneously without any intermediates.

    The results of Trp-fluorescence showed that the tryptophans were already exposed and thus it did not yield a reliable result. The binding properties of ANS and MTX to ITPase were also examined.

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  • 18.
    Bouwman, Henk
    et al.
    Nort-West University, South Africa.
    Krátká, M
    Masaryk University, Czech Republic.
    Choong Kwet Yive, Nee Sun
    University of Mauritius, Mauritius.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Klanova, Jana
    Masaryk University, Czech Republic.
    Do POPs Transfer from Plastic Marine Debris to Coral on Tropical Islands?2014In: Organohalogen Compounds, ISSN 1026-4892, Vol. 76, p. 1352-1355Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 19.
    Bouwman, Hindrik
    et al.
    North-West Uniersity, South AFrica.
    Evans, Steven
    University of Venda, South Africa.
    Cole, Nik
    Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Jersey, Channel Isles, UK.
    Choong Kwer Yive, Nee Sun
    University of Mauritius, Mauritius.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The flip-or-flop boutique: Marine debris on the shores of St Brandon’s Rock, an isolated tropical atoll in the Indian Ocean2016In: Marine Environmental Research, ISSN 0141-1136, E-ISSN 1879-0291, Vol. 114, p. 58-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Isolated coral atolls are not immune from marine debris accumulation. We identified Southeast Asia, the Indian sub-continent, and the countries on the Arabian Sea as most probable source areas of 50 000 items on the shores of St. Brandon’s Rock (SBR), Indian Ocean. 79% of the debris was plastics. Flip-flops, energy drink bottles, and compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) were notable item types. The density of debris (0.74 m-1 shore length) is comparable to similar islands but less than mainland sites. Intact CFLs suggests product-facilitated long-range transport of mercury. We suspect that aggregated marine debris, scavenged by the islands from currents and gyres, could re-concentrate pollutants. SBR islets accumulated debris types in different proportions suggesting that many factors act variably on different debris types. Regular cleaning of selected islets will take care of most of the accumulated debris and may improve the ecology and tourism potential. However, arrangements and logistics require more study.

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  • 20.
    Boyd, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Söderlind, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pilch, Iris
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Complex 3D nanocoral like structures formed by copper nanoparticle aggregation on nanostructured zinc oxide rods2016In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 184, p. 127-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a new strategy for nanoparticle surface assembly so that they form anisotropic fibril like features, consisting of particles directly attached to each other, which can extend 500 nm from the surface. The particles are both formed and deposited in a single step process enabled via the use of a pulsed plasma based technique. Using this approach, we have successfully modified zinc oxide rods, up to several hundred nanometers in diameter, with 25 nm diameter copper nanoparticles for catalytic applications. The resulting structure could be modelled using a diffusion limited aggregation based approach. This gives the material the appearance of marine coral, hence the term nanocoral. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • 21.
    Bunnfors, Kalle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Imaging and Spectroscopic Mapping of Blood Cell Activity: Nanoparticles and Neutrophil Extracellular Traps2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Imaging and visualization of cell activity when exposed to nanomaterial are of main importance, when investigating biological response to a wide range of biomaterials from medical implants to smart nanoprobes. The ability to provide molecular and chemical information with spatial resolution in the region of sub-µm leads to increased insight and understanding of these biological challenges. Interdisciplinary collaborative effort may contribute and help solving urgent matters related to the challenges that we globally share. It is necessary to develop powerful tools such as analytical imaging techniques for addressing these urgent issues. This will increase our knowledge from the visualization on the cellular and subcellular level and help designing sustainable, personalized medical nanoprobes. In this thesis, the focus is to investigate the possibilities using the fluorescence microscopy, combined with surface analytical techniques delivering element specific information. 

    Neutrophils are the most abundant immune cell in our bodies. They scavenge the body for threats and are usually among the first ones to find intruders and start the inflammation process. They have several ways of handling a threat, the main three being degranulation, phagocytosis, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In short, degranulation where granules are released into the extracellular matrix, phagocytosis is the process when for example the bacteria in engulfed by the neutrophil and neutralized. The NETs are when the neutrophil decondense their DNA and throw it out as a net to physically trap the invader and together with reactive oxygen species, proteases, and other antimicrobial molecules. It has been observed that nanoparticles (NP) can trigger NETs and there have been some comparisons between different parameters such as size, geometry, and functionalization. 

    In this thesis we have explored how to measure neutrophil activity by a novel label free and noninvasive method (Paper 1). The NanoEsca, a combined XPS and PEEM instrument, is used to chemically map the neutrophils and NETs. We could clearly observe the NETs in PEEM and XPS mode. Quantum Dots (QDots, CdSe based) was used to trigger NETs. We track down the Quantum Dots with the element specific mapping. In the next paper we further explored how to extract new information with this advanced instrument that is traditionally is used for material- and surface science, and just recently deliver results in imaging and visualization within life sciences. Ultrathin slices of neutrophils where made special focus was given to the research work developing strategies to obtain and extract additional information from inside the neutrophils. These are pilot studies and show great potential to get chemical information in a label free way and is a good complement to fluorescence, SEM and TEM. We then made an in-depth investigation on the mechanisms how nanoparticles interact with neutrophils, with special focus on processes triggering NETs formation. Using QDots as a model system we could show that the NETs release is strongly dependent on the uptake of the nanoparticles. We used fluorescence and TEM to investigate where the QDots uptake and to identify the pattern where they finally end up. We clearly observed them inside vesicles in the inner part of the cell and even within the NETs structure giving proof that the uptake of QDots play an important role of the NETs formation. In the last paper we expanded the study and exposed the cells to Iron Oxide NPs (FeNP) Here we developed a strategy how to alternate the magnetic field control the direction of the NETs. We could manipulate live NETs with a magnetic field and made observations that parts of the NETs are static and some clearly mobile, still with an internal memory to find its initial structure just after release. TEM studies revealed that, like the QDots, the FeNP end up inside the NETs. In conclusion in this thesis work, detailed processes are explored on neutrophils and their NETs formation with new unconventional methods and how neutrophils and nanoparticles interact with respect to NETs. 

    List of papers
    1. New Tools for Imaging Neutrophils: Work Function Mapping and Element-Specific, Label-Free Imaging of Cellular Structures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>New Tools for Imaging Neutrophils: Work Function Mapping and Element-Specific, Label-Free Imaging of Cellular Structures
    2021 (English)In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 222-229Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Photoemission electron microscopy and imaging X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are today frequently used to obtain chemical and electronic states, chemical shifts, work function profiles within the fields of surface- and material sciences. Lately, because of recent technological advances, these tools have also been valuable within life sciences. In this study, we have investigated the power of photoemission electron microscopy and imaging X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for visualization of human neutrophil granulocytes. These cells, commonly called neutrophils, are essential for our innate immune system. We hereby investigate the structure and morphology of neutrophils when adhered to gold and silicon surfaces. Energy-filtered imaging of single cells are acquired. The characteristic polymorphonuclear cellular nuclei divided into 2-S lobes is visualized. Element-specific imaging is achieved based on O 1s, P 2p, C 1s, Si 2p, and N is core level spectra, delivering elemental distribution with submicrometer resolution, illustrating the strength of this type of cellular morphological studies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Chemical Society (ACS), 2021
    Keywords
    PEEM; imaging XPS; work function mapping; elemental imaging; neutrophils
    National Category
    Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-174157 (URN)10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c03554 (DOI)000611082000031 ()33263404 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [SFO-Mat-LiU 2009-00971]; Swedish Research Council VRSwedish Research Council [2019-02409]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation KAWKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation [2014.0276]; CTS [CTS 18:399 19:379]; Centre in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology at LiTH (CeNano) at Linkoping University

    Available from: 2021-03-15 Created: 2021-03-15 Last updated: 2022-02-07
    2. Neutrophils Activated by Nanoparticles and Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps: Work Function Mapping and Element Specific Imaging
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neutrophils Activated by Nanoparticles and Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps: Work Function Mapping and Element Specific Imaging
    2019 (English)In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 91, no 21, p. 13514-13520Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) and imaging X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have over the years been powerful tools in classical surface physics and material sciences, and due to recent technological advances, their uses within other fields/disciplines are rapidly growing. Lately, the XPS/PEEM based elemental analysis and characterization in imaging mode, with exquisite spatial resolution and high sensitivity, has shown the potential to deliver new mechanistic insights in cell-biology/medicine. In this work, the aim was to visualize biological processes on the cellular level, with the additional dimension of topographical morphology and element specific information, mapping chemical composition and chemical states. This is hereby demonstrated by combined PEEM and imaging XPS investigation of neutrophils and their activation processes, where fluorescence microscopy commonly used in biology is used for benchmarking. Neutrophils are phagocytic cells and are vital components in the human immune system, with the fundamental role of fighting invading pathogens. They are capable of ingesting microorganisms or particles, and in order to capture and trap foreign objects, one of their strategies is to release nuclear DNA by the formation of extracellular web-like traps (NETs). Here, we report how neutrophils are triggered by controlled nanoparticle (NP) exposure. The neutrophils and NETs formation are imaged in the presence of NPs, and we report the elemental composition of single cells and the structure of NETs. Cellular uptake of nanoparticles is proven and the states just before and after NETs release are imaged, as well as visualization of the extraordinary capability for mass transport at distances 10 times or more than the size of the cell itself. This method paves the way for element specific imaging of biorelated cells on surfaces as well as nanoparticle tracking in the submicro- and nanoregions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2019
    National Category
    Cell and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-162325 (URN)10.1021/acs.analchem.9b02579 (DOI)000495469100028 ()31553180 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]; Swedish Research Council VRSwedish Research Council [621-2013-5357]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation KAWKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation [2014.0276]; Centre in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology at LiTH (CeNano) at Linkoping University; CTS [17:478, CTS 18:399]

    Available from: 2019-11-28 Created: 2019-11-28 Last updated: 2022-02-07
    3. Nanoparticle activated neutrophils-on-a-chip: A label-free capacitive sensor to monitor cells at work
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanoparticle activated neutrophils-on-a-chip: A label-free capacitive sensor to monitor cells at work
    Show others...
    2020 (English)In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL, Vol. 313, article id 128020Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Neutrophil granulocytes are the most abundant white blood cells in mammals and vital components of the immune system. They are involved in the early phase of inflammation and in generation of reactive oxygen species. These rapid cell-signaling communicative processes are performed in the time frame of minutes. In this work, the activity and the response of neutrophil granulocytes are monitored when triggered by cerium-oxide based nanoparticles, using capacitive sensors based on Lab-on-a-chip technology. The chip is designed to monitor activation processes of cells during nanoparticle exposure, which is for the first time recorded on-line as alteration of the capacitance. The complementary metal oxide semiconductor engineering chip design is combined with low temperature co-fired ceramic, LTCC, packaging technology. The method is label free and gently measures cells on top of an insulating surface in a weak electromagnetic field, as compared to commonly used four-point probes and impedance spectroscopy electric measurements where electrodes are in direct contact with the cells. In summary, this label free method is used to measure oxidative stress of neutrophil granulocytes in real time, minute by minute and visualize the difference in moderate and high cellular workload during exposure of external triggers. It clearly shows the capability of this method to detect cell response during exposure of external triggers. In this way, an informationally dense non-invasive method is obtained, to monitor cells at work.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2020
    Keywords
    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS); Low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) packaging; Lab-on-a-chip; Neutrophil granulocytes; Capacitive sensor; Cerium oxide nanoparticles
    National Category
    Immunology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-165522 (URN)10.1016/j.snb.2020.128020 (DOI)000526287200022 ()2-s2.0-85082944740 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council [621-2013-5357, 2019-02409]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Mat erials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation [2012.0083CTS 18: 399]; Centre in Nano Science and Nano technology at LiTH (CeNano) at Linkoping University; COST Action EuNetAir "European Network on New Sensing Technologies for Air-Pollution Control and Environmental Sustainability" [TD1105]; Academy of Finland (ClintoxNP project)Academy of Finland [268944]; TEKES (Chempack project) [1427/31/2010]

    Available from: 2020-05-06 Created: 2020-05-06 Last updated: 2022-02-16Bibliographically approved
  • 22.
    Cai, Wanzhu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Musumeci, Chiara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ajjan, Fátima
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bao, Qinye
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.
    Zaifei, Zaifei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tang, Zheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Self-doped conjugated polyelectrolyte with tuneable work function for effective hole transport in polymer solar cells2016In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 4, no 40, p. 15670-15675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A water-soluble conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE), PEDOT-S (poly(4-(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-2-yl-methoxy)-1-butanesulfonic acid)), is demonstrated to be an excellent hole transport material in several polymer solar cells with different donor's HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital). With a P3TI:PC71BM (poly[6,6′-bis(5′-bromo-3,4′-dioctyl-[2,2′-bithiophen]-5-yl)-1,1′-bis(2-hexyldecyl)-[3,3′-biindolinylidene]-2,2′-dione]:[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester) active layer, the device using PEDOT-S as a hole transport layer (HTL) outperforms the PEDOT:PSS-based devices due to an increased FF (fill factor). The devices' current density–voltage characteristics (JV) show that a PEDOT-S layer can operate well with a wide range of thicknesses as well, helped by its high conductivity and decent transparency. With UV-ozone treatment, the work function of the PEDOT-S can increase from 4.9 eV to 5.2 eV. In TQ1:PC71BM (poly[[2,3-bis(3-octyloxyphenyl)-5,8-quinoxalinediyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl]:PC71BM) devices, which have a deeper donor HOMO than P3TI, Voc is improved from 0.81 V to 0.92 V by 7 min UV-ozone treatment, along with a suppressed reverse injection current and increased Jsc (short-circuit current density) and FF. Topography study shows the excellent coating ability of PEDOT-S. Conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) shows the out-of-plane current in PEDOT-S film is one thousand times higher than that in PEDOT:PSS PH 4083 film under the same electric field and has much more uniformly distributed current pathways.

  • 23.
    Chen, Xuehan
    et al.
    Nanjing Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Jing
    Nanjing Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xu, Bo
    Nanjing Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Perspective Phosphine oxide additives for perovskite diodes and solar cells2023In: Chem, ISSN 2451-9308, E-ISSN 2451-9294, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 562-575Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead halide perovskites have been considered promising semicon-ducting materials for next-generation optoelectronic devices due to their solution processability and excellent optoelectronic proper-ties. Device performance of perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) and perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has been rapidly devel-oped during the past decade. Very recently, organic molecules containing phosphine oxide groups have emerged as promising ad-ditives and passivators to improve the device performance and sta-bility of both PeLEDs and PSCs. In this perspective, we summarize recent progress in the development of new phosphine-oxide-based additives for PeLEDs and PSCs. The passivation mechanism, molecule design principle, and structure-property relationship of phosphine oxide molecules for PeLEDs and PSCs are systematically discussed and analyzed. Finally, we provide an outlook on the mo-lecular design of novel phosphine oxide compounds for efficient and stable PeLEDs and PSCs in the future.

  • 24.
    Chen, Yingying
    et al.
    East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Tang, Yunyu
    Chinese Acad Fishery Sci, Peoples R China.
    Zou, Jiazhi
    East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Zeng, Kaiwen
    East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Baryshnikov, Glib
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Chengjie
    East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Xie, Yongshu
    East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; East China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Fluorenyl Indoline as an Efficient Electron Donor for Concerted Companion Dyes: Enhanced Light-Harvesting and Photocurrent2021In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 13, no 42, p. 49828-49839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerted companion dyes (CC dyes) like XW61 have been demonstrated to be an effective platform for developing efficient DSSCs. However, the moderated phenothiazine-based electron donor in XW61 results in unsatisfactory J(sc). To address this problem, a stronger fluorenyl indoline-based electron donor has been used to construct porphyrin dye XW68 and organic dyes Y1-Y2. The stronger electron-donating character of the fluorenyl indoline unit leads to an enhanced J(sc) value (20.48 mA.cm(-2)) for the individual dye XW68. On this basis, CC dyes XW69-XW70-C8 have been designed and synthesized by combining the frameworks of Y1 and Y2 with XW68. The complementary absorption characters of the porphyrin and the organic dye moieties lead to panchromatic absorption with a strong light-harvesting capability from 350 to 700 nm and the onset wavelength extended to ca. 840 nm in the IPCE curves. As a result, excellent J(sc) values have been achieved (>22 mA.cm(-2)). In addition to the advantages of high J(sc), bulky octyl groups have been introduced into the donor of XW70-C8 to reduce dye aggregation and suppress charge recombination. Finally, a highest PCE of 11.1% with a satisfactory J(sc) (22.25 mA.cm(-2)) and an enhanced V-oc (750 mV) has been achieved upon coadsorption of XW70-C8 with CDCA. In addition, the CC dye XW70-C8-based solar cells exhibit excellent long-term photostability. These results provide an effective method for rationally improving the photovoltaic behavior, especially the J(sc) of CC dyes, by introducing strong electron donor moieties with suitable substituents.

  • 25.
    Choong, Ferdinand X.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Lantz, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shirani, Hamid
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schulz, Anette
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Edlund, Ulrica
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Stereochemical identification of glucans by a donor-acceptor-donor conjugated pentamer enables multi-carbohydrate anatomical mapping in plant tissues2019In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 4253-4264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optotracing is a novel method for analytical imaging of carbohydrates in plant and microbial tissues. This optical method applies structure-responsive oligothiophenes as molecular fluorophores emitting unique optical signatures when bound to polysaccharides. Herein, we apply Carbotrace680, a short length anionic oligothiophene with a central heterocyclic benzodithiazole (BTD) motif, to probe for different glucans. The donor-acceptor-donor type electronic structure of Carbotrace680 provides improved spectral properties compared to oligothiophenes due to the possibility of intramolecular charge-transfer transition to the BTD motif. This enables differentiation of glucans based on the glycosidic linkage stereochemistry. Thus -configured starch is readily differentiated from -configured cellulose. The versatility of optotracing is demonstrated by dynamic monitoring of thermo-induced starch remodelling, shown in parallel by spectrophotometry and microscopy of starch granules. Imaging of Carbotrace680 bound to multiple glucans in plant tissues provided direct identification of their physical locations, revealing the spatial relationship between structural (cellulose) and storage (starch) glucans at sub-cellular scale. Our work forms the basis for the development of superior optotracers for sensitive detection of polysaccharides. Our non-destructive method for anatomical mapping of glucans in biomass will serve as an enabling technology for developments towards efficient use of plant-derived materials and biomass. [GRAPHICS] .

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  • 26.
    Cirera, Borja
    et al.
    IMDEA Nanosci, Spain.
    Trukhina, Olga
    University of Autonoma Madrid, Spain.
    Björk, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bottari, Giovanni
    IMDEA Nanosci, Spain; University of Autonoma Madrid, Spain; University of Autonoma Madrid, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Jonathan
    University of Autonoma Madrid, Spain.
    Martin-Jimenez, Alberto
    IMDEA Nanosci, Spain.
    Islyaikin, Mikhail K.
    Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology, Russia.
    Otero, Roberto
    IMDEA Nanosci, Spain; University of Autonoma Madrid, Spain.
    Gallego, Jose M.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Miranda, Rodolfo
    IMDEA Nanosci, Spain; University of Autonoma Madrid, Spain.
    Torres, Tomas
    IMDEA Nanosci, Spain; University of Autonoma Madrid, Spain; University of Autonoma Madrid, Spain.
    Ecija, David
    IMDEA Nanosci, Spain.
    Long-Range Orientational Self-Assembly, Spatially Controlled Deprotonation, and Off-Centered Metalation of an Expanded Porphyrin2017In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 139, no 40, p. 14129-14136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expanded porphyrins are large-cavity macro cycles with enormous potential in coordination chemistry, anion sensing, photodynamic therapy, and optoelectronics. In the last two decades, the surface science community has assessed the physicochemical properties of tetrapyrrolic-like macrocydes. However, to date, the sublimation, self-assembly and atomistic insights of expanded porphyrins on surfaces have remained elusive. Here, we show the self-assembly on Au(111) of an expanded aza-porphyrin, namely, an "expanded hemi-spatially-controlled porphyrazine", through a unique growth mechanism based on deprotonation long-range orientational self-assembly. Furthermore, a spatially controlled "writing" protocol on such self-assembled architecture is presented based on the STM tip-induced deprotonation of the inner protons of individual macrocydes. Finally, the capability of these surface-confined macrocydes to host lanthanide elements is assessed, introducing a novel off-centered coordination motif. The presented findings represent a milestone in the fields of porphyrinoid chemistry and surface science, revealing a great potential for novel surface patterning, opening new avenues for molecular level information storage, and boosting the emerging field of surface-confined coordination chemistry involving f-block elements.

  • 27.
    Dai, Junxi
    et al.
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Zhongyi
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Hongguo
    Guangzhou Univ, Guangzhou Univ Linkoping Univ Res Ctr Urban Sustai, Guangzhou 510006, Peoples R China; Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Shi, Huihui
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Arulmani, Samuel Raj Babu
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huang, Lei
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jia
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xiao, Tangfu
    Guangzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Promoted Sb removal with hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cell by ZIF-67-derived modified sulfate-reducing bacteria bio-cathode2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 856, article id 158839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio-cathode Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) has been widely discovered for heavy metals removal and hydrogen production. However, low electron transfer efficiency and heavy metal toxicity limit MEC treatment efficiency. In this study, ZIF-67 was introduced to modify Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bio-cathode to enhance the bioreduction of sulfate and Antimony (Sb) with hydrogen production in the MEC. ZIF-67 modified bio-cathode was developed from a bio-anode microbial fuel cell (MFC) by operating with an applied voltage of 0.8 V to reverse the polarity. Cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and electrochemical impedance were done to confirm the performance of the ZIF67 modified SRB bio-cathode. The synergy reduction of sulfate and Sb was accomplished by sulfide metal precipitation reaction from SRB itself. Maximum sulfate reduction rate approached 93.37 % and Sb removal efficiency could reach 92 %, which relies on the amount of sulfide concentration generated by sulfate reduction reaction, with 0.923 +/- 0.04 m(3) H-2/m(3) of hydrogen before adding Sb and 0.857 m(3) H-2/m(3) of hydrogen after adding Sb. The hydrogen was mainly produced in this system and the result of gas chromatography (GC) indicated that 73.27 % of hydrogen was produced. Meanwhile the precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to confirm Sb2S3 was generated from Sb (V).

  • 28.
    Danyliv, Iryna
    et al.
    Lviv Polytech Natl Univ, Ukraine.
    Ivaniuk, Khrystyna
    Lviv Polytech Natl Univ, Ukraine.
    Danyliv, Yan
    Lviv Polytech Natl Univ, Ukraine.
    Helzhynskyy, Igor
    Lviv Polytech Natl Univ, Ukraine.
    Andruleviciene, Viktorija
    Kaunas Univ Technol, Lithuania.
    Volyniuk, Dmytro
    Kaunas Univ Technol, Lithuania.
    Stakhira, Pavlo
    Lviv Polytech Natl Univ, Ukraine.
    Baryshnikov, Glib
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Bohdan Khmelnytsky Natl Univ, Ukraine.
    Grazulevicius, Juozas V.
    Kaunas Univ Technol, Lithuania.
    Derivatives of 2-Pyridone Exhibiting Hot-Exciton TADF for Sky-Blue and White OLEDs2023In: ACS APPLIED ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, ISSN 2637-6113, Vol. 5, no 8, p. 4174-4186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of emissivematerials for utilization inorganic light-emittingdiodes (OLEDs) remains a highly relevant research field. One of themost important aspects in the development of efficient emitters forOLEDs is the efficiency of triplet-to-singlet exciton conversion.There are many concepts proposed for the transformation of tripletexcitons to singlet excitons, among which thermally activated delayedfluorescence (TADF) is the most efficient and widespread. One of thevariations of the TADF concept is the hot exciton approach accordingto which the process of exciton relaxation into the lowest energyelectronic state (internal conversion as usual) is slower than intersystemcrossing between high-lying singlets and triplets. In this paper,we present the donor-acceptor materials based on 2-pyridoneacceptor coupled to the different donor moieties through the phenyllinker demonstrating good performance as components of sky-blue, green-yellow,and white OLEDs. Despite relatively low photoluminescence quantumyields, the compound containing 9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridinedonor demonstrated very good efficiency in sky-blue OLED with thesingle emissive layer, which showed an external quantum efficiency(EQE) of 3.7%. It also forms a green-yellow-emitting exciplex with4,4 & PRIME;,4 & DPRIME;-tris[phenyl(m-tolyl)amino]triphenylamine.The corresponding OLED showed an EQE of 6.9%. The white OLED combiningboth exciplex and single emitter layers demonstrated an EQE of 9.8%together with excellent current and power efficiencies of 16.1 cdA(-1) and 6.9 lm W-1, respectively.Quantum-chemical calculations together with the analysis of photoluminescencedecay curves confirm the ability of all of the studied compounds toexhibit TADF through the hot exciton pathway, but the limiting factorreducing the efficiency of OLEDs is the low photoluminescence quantumyields caused mainly by nonradiative intersystem crossing dominatingover the radiative fluorescence pathway.

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  • 29.
    Dickhut, Rebecca
    et al.
    Virginia Institute for Marine Science, USA.
    Cincinelli, Alessandra
    Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italien.
    Cochran, Michel
    Virginia Institute for Marine Science, USA.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aerosol-Mediated Transport and Deposition of Brominated Diphenyl Ethers to Antarctica2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 3135-3140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated diphenyl ethers (BDE47, 99, 100, and 209) were measured in air, snow and sea ice throughout western Antarctica between 2001 and 2007. BDEs in Antarctic air were predominantly associated with aerosols and were low compared to those in remote regions of the northern hemisphere, except in Marguerite Bay following the fire at Rothera research station in Sept 2001, indicating that this event was a local source of BDE209 to the Antarctic environment. Aerosol BDE47/100 reflects a mixture of commercial pentaBDE products; however, BDE99/100 is suggestive of photodegradation of BDE99 during long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) in the austral summer. BDEs in snow were lower than predicted based on snow scavenging of aerosols indicating that atmospheric deposition events may be episodic. BDE47, -99, and -100 significantly declined in Antarctic sea ice between 2001 and 2007; however, BDE209 did not decline in Antarctic sea ice over the same time period. Significant losses of BDE99 and -100 from sea ice were recorded over a 19 day period in spring 2001 demonstrating that seasonal ice processes result in the preferential loss of some BDEs. BDE47/100 and BDE99/100 in sea ice samples reflect commercial pentaBDE products, suggesting that photodegradation of BDE99 is minimal during LRAT in the austral winter.

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  • 30.
    Ejaz, Syeda Abida
    et al.
    Islamia Univ Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
    Aziz, Mubashir
    Islamia Univ Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
    Ahmed, Aftab
    Islamia Univ Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
    Alotaibi, Saqer S. S.
    Taif Univ, Saudi Arabia.
    Albogami, Sarah M. M.
    Taif Univ, Saudi Arabia.
    Siddique, Farhan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Bahauddian Zakariya Univ, Pakistan.
    Batiha, Gaber El-Saber
    Damanhour Univ, Egypt.
    New Insight into the Pharmacological Importance of Atropine as the Potential Inhibitor of AKR1B1 via Detailed Computational Investigations: DFTs, ADMET, Molecular Docking, and Molecular Dynamics Studies2023In: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, ISSN 0273-2289, E-ISSN 1559-0291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to investigate the quantum geometric properties and chemical reactivity of atropine, a pharmaceutically active tropane alkaloid. Using density functional theory (DFT) computations with the B3LYP/SVP functional theory basis set, the most stable geometry of atropine was determined. Additionally, a variety of energetic molecular parameters were calculated, such as the optimized energy, atomic charges, dipole moment, frontier molecular orbital energies, HOMO-LUMO energy gap, molecular electrostatic potential, chemical reactivity descriptors, and molecular polarizability. To determine atropines inhibitory potential, molecular docking was used to analyze ligand interactions within the active pockets of aldo-keto reductase (AKR1B1 and AKR1B10). The results of these studies showed that atropine has greater inhibitory action against AKR1B1 than AKR1B10, which was further validated through molecular dynamic simulations by analyzing root mean square deviation (RMSD) and root mean square fluctuations (RMSF). The results of the molecular docking simulation were supplemented with simulation data, and the ADMET characteristics were also determined to predict the drug likeness of a potential compound. In conclusion, the research suggests that atropine has potential as an inhibitor of AKR1B1 and could be used as a parent compound for the synthesis of more potent leads for the treatment of colon cancer associated with the sudden expression of AKR1B1.

  • 31.
    Elsamadony, Mohamed
    et al.
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Japan; Tanta Univ, Egypt.
    Elreedy, Ahmed
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Germany; Alexandria Univ, Egypt.
    Mostafa, Alsayed
    Inha Univ, South Korea.
    Fujii, Manabu
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Japan.
    Gescher, Johannes
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Germany; Karlsruhe Inst Technol KIT, Germany.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Schnurer, Anna
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Gaillard, Jean-Francois
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60208 USA; Tokyo Inst Technol, Japan.
    Pant, Deepak
    Flemish Inst Technol Res VITO, Belgium.
    Perspectives on Potential Applications of Nanometal Derivatives in Gaseous Bioenergy Pathways: Mechanisms, Life Cycle, and Toxicity2021In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 9, no 29, p. 9563-9589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanosized metal derivatives (NMDs), referring to metals and their oxides, are extensively utilized as additives for anaerobic digestion (AD) and dark fermentation (DF) processes, for enhancing the production of methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H-2), respectively. NMDs-derived positive impacts were widely confirmed in many previous studies; however, no consensus exists about how these have been acquired. Undoubtedly, NMDs affect extracellular electron transfer (EET). Consequently, we explore how biotic-biotic interactions, referring to direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) among AD partners, and biotic-abiotic exchanges, which are mediated by redox reactions with metals, are affected. In this perspective, the mechanisms behind all those effects are reviewed and explained in detail, considering the specific properties of each NMD, e.g., size and type. We discuss previous studies that offer contradicting interpretations about which process dominates metal oxidation, metal reduction, or DIET. In addition, the fate of NMDs residues in the digestate after the treatment process is discussed, focusing on NMDs toxicity. From previous literature, the environmental impacts are evaluated for the production process of NMDs that are utilized in AD and DF processes via life-cycle assessment. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of NMDs-microbes interactions, which are mandatory for (i) building clear scientific knowledge about processes in play and (ii) engineering favorable conditions to achieve optimum yields in AD and DF processes.

  • 32.
    Eskandari, Vahid
    et al.
    Univ Kashan, Iran.
    Sadeghi, Mohammadreza
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hadi, Amin
    Yasuj Univ Med Sci, Iran.
    Physical and chemical properties of nano-liposome, application in nano medicine2021In: JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL APPLIED MECHANICS, ISSN 2423-6713, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 751-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The liposome is derived from two Greek roots: Lipo meaning fat and Some meaning structure. Liposomes can be made from natural phospholipids and cholesterol and, if necessary, other additives. Liposomes were first discovered by Bangham in 1961 due to their simple, self-fulfilling structure and low cost. Liposomes are spherical vesicles with a membrane composed of bilayer phospholipids that are used to release drugs or genetic material into the cell. Current research is focused on liposome technology based on the preparation and development of long-circulating liposomes, lipid components changing, and vesicles charge amount. Liposomes, in addition to pharmaceutical carriers, are used in cutaneous, respiratory, food industries, injectable, and in genetic engineering and diagnostic applications. This paper reviews the physical and chemical characteristics, structure, construction methods, and applications of nanoliposomes in various uses as drug carriers, including the treatment of specific diseases.

  • 33.
    Etman, Ahmed S.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Alexandria Univ, Egypt.
    Wang, Zhaohui
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    El Ghazaly, Ahmed
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Junliang
    Peking Univ, Peoples R China.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Flexible Freestanding MoO3-x-Carbon Nanotubes-Nanocellulose Paper Electrodes for Charge-Storage Applications2019In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 12, no 23, p. 5157-5163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, a one-step synthesis protocol was developed for synthesizing freestanding/flexible paper electrodes composed of nanostructured molybdenum oxide (MoO3-x) embedded in a carbon nanotube (CNT) and Cladophora cellulose (CC) matrix. The preparation method involved sonication of the precursors, nanostructured MoO3-x, CNTs, and CC with weight ratios of 7:2:1, in a water/ethanol mixture, followed by vacuum filtration. The electrodes were straightforward to handle and possessed a thickness of approximately 12 mu m and a mass loading of MoO3-x-CNTs of approximately 0.9 mg cm(-2). The elemental mapping showed that the nanostructured MoO3-x was uniformly embedded inside the CNTs-CC matrix. The MoO3-x-CNTs-CC paper electrodes featured a capacity of 30 C g(-1), normalized to the mass of MoO3-x-CNTs, at a current density of 78 A g(-1) (corresponding to a rate of approximately 210 C based on the MoO3 content, assuming a theoretical capacity of 1339 C g(-1)), and exhibited a capacity retention of 91 % over 30 000 cycles. This study paves the way for the manufacturing of flexible/freestanding nanostructured MoO3-x-based electrodes for use in charge-storage devices at high charge/discharge rates.

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  • 34.
    Fan, Qunping
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Ma, Ruijie
    Hong Kong Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; Hong Kong Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Tao
    Hong Kong Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; Hong Kong Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Yu, Jianwei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xiao, Yiqun
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Su, Wenyan
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden; Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Cai, Guilong
    Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, 999077, Hong Kong, China.
    Li, Yuxiang
    Xian Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Peng, Wenhong
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Guo, Tao
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Luo, Zhenghui
    Hong Kong Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; Hong Kong Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Huiliang
    Hong Kong Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; Hong Kong Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Hou, Lintao
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhu, Weiguo
    Changzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Lu, Xinhui
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Yu, Donghong
    Aalborg Univ, Denmark; Sino Danish Ctr Educ & Res, Denmark.
    Yan, He
    Hong Kong Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China; Hong Kong Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden; Zhengzhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    High-performance all-polymer solar cells enabled by a novel low bandgap non-fully conjugated polymer acceptor2021In: Science in China Series B: Chemistry, ISSN 1674-7291, E-ISSN 1869-1870, Vol. 64, no 8, p. 1380-1388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anon-fully conjugated polymer as a new class of acceptor materials has shown some advantages over its small molecular counterpart when used in photoactive layers for all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs), despite a low power conversion efficiency (PCE) caused by its narrow absorption spectra. Herein, a novel non-fully conjugated polymer acceptor PFY-2TS with a low bandgap of similar to 1.40 eV was developed, via polymerizing a large pi-fused small molecule acceptor (SMA) building block (namely YBO) with a non-conjugated thioalkyl linkage. Compared with its precursor YBO, PFY-2TS retains a similar low bandgap but a higher LUMO level. Moreover, compared with the structural analog of YBO-based fully conjugated polymer acceptor PFY-DTC, PFY-2TS shows similar absorption spectrum and electron mobility, but significantly different molecular crystallinity and aggregation properties, which results in optimal blend morphology with a polymer donor PBDB-T and better device physical processes in all-PSCs. As a result, PFY-2TS-based all-PSCs achieved a PCE of 12.31% with a small energy loss of 0.56 eV enabled by the reduced non-radiative energy loss (0.24 eV), which is better than that of 11.08% for the PFY-DTC-based ones. Our work clearly demonstrated that non-fully conjugated polymers as a new class of acceptor materials are very promising for the development of high-performance all-PSCs.

  • 35.
    Fröberg, Henric
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A metaproteomics-based method for environmental assessment: A pilot study2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Metaproteomics, as a proteomic approach to analyse environmental samples, is a new and expanding field of research. The field promises new ways of determining the status of the organisms present in a sample, and could provide additional information compared to metagenomics. Being a novel field of research, robust methods and protocols have not yet been established. In this thesis, we examine several methods for a reliable extraction of protein from soil and periphyton samples. The extraction should preferably be fast, compatible with downstream analysis by mass spectrometry and extract proteins in proportion to their presence in the original sample. A variety of methods and buffers were used to extract proteins from soil and periphyton samples. Concentration determinations showed that all of these methods extracted enough protein for further analysis. For purification and digestion of the samples, several methods were used. The purified samples were analysed on three different mass spectrometers, with the Orbitrap Velos Pro delivering the best results. The results were matched against four genomic and metagenomic databases for identification of proteins, of which the UniProt/SwissProt database gave the best result. A maximum of 52 proteins were identified from periphyton samples when searching against UniProt/SwissProt with strict settings, of which the majority were highly conserved proteins. The main limitation for this type of work is currently the lack of proper metagenomic databases.

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    A metaproteomics-based method for environmental assessment
  • 36.
    Gao, Zhi-Wen
    et al.
    Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Yong
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Choy, Wallace C. H.
    Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Buried Interface Modification in Perovskite Solar Cells: A Materials Perspective2022In: Advanced Energy Materials, ISSN 1614-6832, E-ISSN 1614-6840, Vol. 12, no 20, article id 2104030Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are promising third-generation solar cells. They exhibit high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and, in theory, can be manufactured with less energy than several more established photovoltaic technologies, particularly solution-processed PSCs. Various materials have been widely utilized to modify the buried bottom interface to improve the performance and long-term stability of PSCs. Here, the latest progress in modifying the buried interface to enhance the performance and stability of PSCs is examined from a materials standpoint, which is classified into inorganic salts, the organic molecular and polymer, carbon materials, perovskite-related materials, and 2D materials. This material perspective is useful in determining the tactics for achieving the theoretical PCE value of PSCs. It also serves as a solid reference of interface adjustment for other layered structure heterojunction devices.

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  • 37.
    Girgis, Adel S.
    et al.
    Natl Res Ctr, Egypt.
    D´Arcy, Padraig
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Aboshouk, Dalia R.
    Natl Res Ctr, Egypt.
    Bekheit, Mohamed S.
    Natl Res Ctr, Egypt.
    Synthesis and bio-properties of 4-piperidone containing compounds as curcumin mimics2022In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 12, no 48, p. 31102-31123Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The broad spectrum of curcumins beneficial properties has encouraged medicinal researchers to investigate its therapeutic efficacy against diverse diseases. The clinical potential of curcumin is, however limited due to its poor pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic properties (such as low solubility, pH instability, poor absorption in circulation, rapid elimination from the body and photochemical degradation). 3,5-Bis(ylidene)-4-piperidone scaffolds are considered a curcumin mimic that exhibit diverse bio-properties. The current review provides a brief overview of these mimics and highlights biological activities relevant to drug development.

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  • 38.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics.
    Padiolleau, Laurence
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Cranfield University, England.
    Chen, Xi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Dundee, Scotland.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sheikhzadeh, Elham
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Doping Polypyrrole Films with 4-N-Pentylphenylboronic Acid to Enhance Affinity towards Bacteria and Dopamine2016In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 11, article id e0166548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we demonstrate the use of a functional dopant as a fast and simple way to tune the chemical affinity and selectivity of polypyrrole films. More specifically, a boronic-functionalised dopant, 4-N-Pentylphenylboronic Acid (PBA), was used to provide to polypyrrole films with enhanced affinity towards diols. In order to prove the proposed concept, two model systems were explored: (i) the capture and the electrochemical detection of dopamine and (ii) the adhesion of bacteria onto surfaces. The chemisensor, based on overoxidised polypyrrole boronic doped film, was shown to have the ability to capture and retain dopamine, thus improving its detection; furthermore the chemisensor showed better sensitivity in comparison with overoxidised perchlorate doped films. The adhesion of bacteria, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae, onto the boric doped polypyrrole film was also tested. The presence of the boronic group in the polypyrrole film was shown to favour the adhesion of sugar-rich bacterial cells when compared with a control film (Dodecyl benzenesulfonate (DBS) doped film) with similar morphological and physical properties. The presented single step synthesis approach is simple and fast, does not require the development and synthesis of functional monomers, and can be easily expanded to the electrochemical, and possibly chemical, fabrication of novel functional surfaces and interfaces with inherent pre-defined sensing and chemical properties.

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  • 39.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Self-consistent modelling of X-ray photoelectron spectra from air-exposed polycrystalline TiN thin films2016In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 387, p. 294-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present first self-consistent modelling of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) Ti 2p, N ls, 0 ls, and C ls core level spectra with a cross-peak quantitative agreement for a series of TiN thin films grown by dc magnetron sputtering and oxidized to different extent by varying the venting temperature Tv of the vacuum chamber before removing the deposited samples. So-obtained film series constitute a model case for XPS application studies, where certain degree of atmosphere exposure during sample transfer to the XPS instrument is unavoidable. The challenge is to extract information about surface chemistry without invoking destructive pre-cleaning with noble gas ions. All TiN surfaces are thus analyzed in the as-received state by XPS using monochromatic Al K alpha. radiation (hv = 1486.6 eV). Details of line shapes and relative peak areas obtained from deconvolution of the reference Ti 2p and N 1 s spectra representative of a native TiN surface serve as an input to model complex core level signals from air-exposed surfaces, where contributions from oxides and oxynitrides make the task very challenging considering the influence of the whole deposition process at hand. The essential part of the presented approach is that the deconvolution process is not only guided by the comparison to the reference binding energy values that often show large spread, but in order to increase reliability of the extracted chemical information the requirement for both qualitative and quantitative self-consistency between component peaks belonging to the same chemical species is imposed across all core-level spectra (including often neglected 0 is and C is signals). The relative ratios between contributions from different chemical species vary as a function of T-v presenting a self-consistency check for our model. We propose that the cross-peak self-consistency should be a prerequisite for reliable XPS peak modelling as it enhances credibility of obtained chemical information, while relying entirely on reference binding energy values introduces large ambiguity. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • 40.
    Gryszel, Maciej
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Warsaw Univ Technol, Poland.
    Schlossarek, Tim
    Univ Wurzburg, Germany; Univ Wurzburg, Germany.
    Wuerthner, Frank
    Univ Wurzburg, Germany; Univ Wurzburg, Germany.
    Natali, Mirco
    Univ Ferrara, Italy.
    Glowacki, Eric Daniel
    Warsaw Univ Technol, Poland; Brno Univ Technol, Czech Republic.
    Water-Soluble Cationic Perylene Diimide Dyes as Stable Photocatalysts for H2O2 Evolution2023In: ChemPhotoChem, E-ISSN 2367-0932, Vol. 7, no 9, article id e202300070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photocatalytic generation of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, has gained increasing attention in recent years, with applications ranging from solar energy conversion to biophysical research. While semiconducting solid-state materials are normally regarded as the workhorse for photogeneration of H2O2, an intriguing alternative for on-demand H2O2 is the use of photocatalytic organic dyes. Herein we report the use of water-soluble dyes based on perylene diimide molecules which behave as true molecular catalysts for the light-induced conversion of dissolved oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. In particular, we address how to obtain visible-light photocatalysts which are stable with respect to aggregation and photochemical degradation. We report on the factors affecting efficiency and stability, including variable electron donors, oxygen partial pressure, pH, and molecular catalyst structure. The result is a perylene diimide derivative with unprecedented peroxide evolution performance using a broad range of organic donor molecules and operating in a wide pH range.

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  • 41.
    Guanais Branchini, C.
    et al.
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Dini, F.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundstrom, I.
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Paolesse, R.
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Di Natale, C.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Detection of toxic compounds in water with an array of optical reporters2015In: EUROSENSORS 2015, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2015, Vol. 120, p. 146-149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An opto-electronic tongue, prepared using porphyrins, pH indicators, and their mixtures, has been tested for the analysis of toxic compounds in potable water. The color changes of sensitive dyes immersed in a water solution containing the target analytes were measured with an optical platform made by four LEDs (as light sources) and a digital camera (detector). We demonstrate that blends of dyes might be endowed with sensing properties wider than those of the single constituents, enabling the identification of a range of toxic compounds at concentrations smaller than 10(-6) mol/L. Furthermore, the use of the reporters in a sensor array configuration allows for the identification of the compounds disregarding their concentration. (C) Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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  • 42.
    Halim, Joseph
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Cook, Kevin M.
    Naval Air Syst Command, MD 20670 USA.
    Naguib, Michael
    Oak Ridge National Lab, TN 37831 USA.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gogotsi, Yury
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barsoum, Michel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of select multi-layered transition metal carbides (MXenes)2016In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 362, p. 406-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a detailed high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis is presented for select MXenes a recently discovered family of two-dimensional (2D) carbides and carbonitrides. Given their 2D nature, understanding their surface chemistry is paramount. Herein we identify and quantify the surface groups present before, and after, sputter-cleaning as well as freshly prepared vs. aged multi layered cold pressed discs. The nominal compositions of the MXenes studied here are Ti-3 C2Tx,Ti3CNTx, Nb2CTx and Nb4C3Tx where T represents surface groups that this work attempts to quantify. In all the cases, the presence of three surface terminations, O, OH and F, in addition to OH-terminations relatively strongly bonded to H2O molecules, was confirmed. From XPS peak fits, it was possible to establish the average sum of the negative charges of the terminations for the aforementioned MXenes. Based on this work, it is now possible to quantify the nature of the surface terminations. This information can, in turn, be used to better design and tailor these novel 2D materials for various applications. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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  • 43.
    Hao, Zhengming
    et al.
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Junjie
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xie, Miao
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Xuechao
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Lina
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Ye
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Niu, Kaifeng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Junbo
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Song, Luying
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Cheng, Tao
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Haiming
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    Chi, Lifeng
    Soochow Univ, Peoples R China; Soochow Univ, Peoples R China.
    From n-alkane to polyacetylene on Cu (110): Linkage modulation in chain growth2022In: Science in China Series B: Chemistry, ISSN 1674-7291, E-ISSN 1869-1870, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 733-739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct coupling or transformation of inert alkanes based on the selective C-H activation is of great importance for both chemistry and chemical engineering. Here, we report the coupling of polyenes that are transformed from n-dotriacontane (n-C32H66) through on-surface cascade dehydrogenation on Cu (110) surface, leading to the formation of polyacetylene (PA). Three distinct linkages have been resolved by scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and noncontact atomic force microscope (nc-AFM). Apart from the alpha-type linkage which is the stemless coupling of the terminal C-C double bond in trans-configuration, beta- and gamma-type linkages appear as knots or defects which are, in fact, the C-C couplings in cis-configurations. Interestingly, the "defects" can be effectively suppressed by adjusting the surface coverage, thus making it of general interest for uniform structure modulation.

  • 44.
    Harillo-Banos, Albert
    et al.
    Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain.
    Fan, Qunping
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Riera-Galindo, Sergi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Campoy-Quiles, Mariano
    Inst Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain.
    High-Throughput Screening of Blade-Coated Polymer:Polymer Solar Cells: Solvent Determines Achievable Performance2022In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 15, no 4, article id e202101888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimization of a new system for organic solar cells is a multiparametric analysis problem that requires substantial efforts in terms of time and resources. The strong microstructure-dependent performance of polymer:polymer cells makes them particularly difficult to optimize, or to translate previous knowledge from spin coating into more scalable techniques. In this work, the photovoltaic performance of blade-coated devices was studied based on the promising polymer:polymer system PBDB-T and PF5-Y5 as donor and acceptor, respectively. Using the recently developed high-throughput methodology, the system was optimized for multiple variables, including solvent system, active layer composition, ratio, and thickness, among others, by fabricating more than 500 devices with less than 24 mg of each component. As a result, the power conversion efficiency of the blade-coated devices varied from 0.08 to 6.43 % in the best device. The performed statistical analysis of the large experimental data obtained showed that solvent selection had the major impact on the final device performance due to its influence on the active layer microstructure. As a conclusion, the use of the plot of the device efficiency in the Hansen space was proposed as a powerful tool to guide solvent selection in organic photovoltaics.

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  • 45.
    Hatamie, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Khan, Azam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. NED University of Engn and Technology, Pakistan.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sadollah Khani, Azar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zargar, Behrooz
    Shahid Chamran University, Iran.
    Bano, Sumaira
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zinc Oxide Nanostructure-Modified Textile and Its Application to Biosensing, Photocatalysis, and as Antibacterial Material2015In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 31, no 39, p. 10913-10921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, one-dimensional nanostructures with different morphologies (such as nanowires, nanorods (NRs), and nanotubes) have become the focus of intensive research, because of their unique properties with potential applications. Among them, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials has been found to be highly attractive, because of the remarkable potential for applications in many different areas such as solar cells, sensors, piezoelectric devices, photodiode devices, sun screens, antireflection coatings, and photocatalysis. Here, we present an innovative approach to create a new modified textile by direct in situ growth of vertically aligned one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NRs onto textile surfaces, which can serve with potential for biosensing, photocatalysis, and antibacterial applications. ZnO NRs were grown by using a simple aqueous chemical growth method. Results from analyses such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the ZnO NRs were dispersed over the entire surface of the textile. We have demonstrated the following applications of these multifunctional textiles: (1) as a flexible working electrode for the detection of aldicarb (ALD) pesticide, (2) as a photo catalyst for the degradation of organic molecules (i.e., Methylene Blue and Congo Red), and (3) as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli. The ZnO-based textile exhibited excellent photocatalytic and antibacterial activities, and it showed a promising sensing response. The combination of sensing, photo catalysis, and antibacterial properties provided by the ZnO NRs brings us closer to the concept of smart textiles for wearable sensing without a deodorant and antibacterial control. Perhaps the best known of the products that is available in markets for such purposes are textiles with silver nanoparticles. Our modified textile is thus providing acceptable antibacterial properties, compared to available commercial modified textiles.

  • 46.
    He, Qiannan
    et al.
    Nanchang Univ, Peoples R China; Jiangxi Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Sheng, Wangping
    Nanchang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Ming
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Guodong
    Jiangxi Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhu, Peipei
    Jiangxi Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Huotian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yao, Zhaoyang
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Feng
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liao, Xunfan
    Jiangxi Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Yiwang
    Nanchang Univ, Peoples R China; Jiangxi Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Revealing Morphology Evolution in Highly Efficient Bulk Heterojunction and Pseudo-Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells by Additives Treatment2021In: Advanced Energy Materials, ISSN 1614-6832, E-ISSN 1614-6840, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 2003390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additives treatment is as a very effective strategy to optimize bulk heterojunction (BHJ) morphology. However, the inherent working mechanism of this strategy still lacks systematical investigations in non-fullerene-acceptors-based organic solar cells (OSCs). Herein, a series of BHJ and pseudo-planar heterojunction (PPHJ) OSCs using PM6 and IT-4F as the electron donor/acceptor pair, are developed to unveil the promoting effect of solvent additive 1, 8-diiodooctane (DIO) on active layer morphologies and device performance. The study clearly demonstrates that DIO can increase the crystallinity of IT-4F significantly, while it has less impact on PM6. It is notable that a new efficiency-determining crystalline balanced factor (CCLpolymer/CCLacceptor) is put forward, indicating that the more balanced CCLpolymer/CCLacceptor results in more balanced charge mobility and much better short-circuit current densities (J(sc)) and fill factors (FF) of OSCs. The PPHJ blend film of PM6/IT-4F(DIO) exhibits enhanced crystallinity with more balanced CCL and favorable hierarchical distribution morphology, contributing to a champion efficiency of 13.70% with a record J(sc) of 20.98 mA cm(-2) and a remarkable FF of 75.9%. This work not only reveals the underlying mechanism of DIO caused morphology evolution, but also achieves highly efficient PPHJ OSCs with superior thermal stability by elaborately controlling the morphology of PPHJ film.

  • 47.
    Heasman, Patrick
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mehandzhiyski, Alexandar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ghosh, Sarbani
    Birla Inst Technol & Sci, India.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A computational study of cellulose regeneration: All-atom molecular dynamics simulations2023In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 311, article id 120768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Processing natural cellulose requires its dissolution and regeneration. It is known that the crystallinity of re-generated cellulose does not match that of native cellulose, and the physical and mechanical properties of re-generated cellulose can vary dependent on the technique applied. In this paper, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics simulations attempting to simulate the regeneration of order in cellulose. Cellulose chains display an affinity to align with one another on the nanosecond scale; single chains quickly form clusters, and clusters then interact to form a larger unit, but the end results still lack that abundance of order. Where aggregation of cel-lulose chains occurs, there is some resemblance of the 1-10 surfaces found in Cellulose II, with certain indication of 110 surface formation. Concentration and simulation temperature show an increase of aggregation, yet it appears that time is the major factor in reclaiming the order of "crystalline" cellulose.

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  • 48.
    Hezam, F. A.
    et al.
    Taiz Univ, Yemen; Univ Khartoum, Sudan.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mustafa, M. A.
    Univ Khartoum, Sudan.
    Synthesis, structural, optical and magnetic properties of NiFe2O4/MWCNTs/ZnO hybrid nanocomposite for solar radiation driven photocatalytic degradation and magnetic separation2020In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 592, article id 124586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel multifunctional NiFe2O4/MWCNTs/ZnO hybrid nanocomposite has been successfully synthesized via the hydrothermal and the co-precipitation methods at 210 degrees C and 90 degrees C, respectively, to be used as a solar radiation driven photocatalytic material. The hybrid nanocomposite exhibits enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to NiFe2O4 and ZnO for decolorization of Methylene Blue (MB) dye -as a model pollutant - from aqueous solutions under solar radiation. Different complementary analytical tools were used to investigate the structural, optical and magnetic properties of the photocatalyst which possess good light response ability, photocatalytic stability, magnetic separation performance and reproducibility. The results from optical degradation confirmed the synergistic effect between the NiFe2O4, the ZnO and the MWCNTs. Suppressed recombination of electron-hole pairs mean more efficient charge separation and enhanced photocatalytic activity. The apparent rate constant (k(app)) of the MB decolorization for a duration of 300 min using NiFe2O4/MWCNTs/ZnO, NiFe2O4 and ZnO photocatalysts were found to be 0.00438 min(-1), 4.12857E(-4) min(-1) and 0.002 min(-1) respectively. The removal efficiency was also investigated for different pH values. Due to the magnetic properties of the nanocomposite, it was possible to separate it after degradation experiments and hence re-usability is possible. In view of the enhanced solar radiation driven photodegradation, the present composite can present a robust alternative as a solar radiation driven photocatalyst.

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  • 49.
    Hu, Jiwen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Tingting
    Tongji Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Hong-Wen
    Tongji Univ, Peoples R China.
    Lu, Senlin
    Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Ratiometric fluorogenic determination of endogenous hypochlorous acid in living cells2019In: Spectrochimica Acta Part A - Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, ISSN 1386-1425, E-ISSN 1873-3557, Vol. 219, p. 232-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypochlorous acid (HClO) is one of the most important ROS (reactive oxygen species) and common pollutant in tap-water. However, the determination of HClO with fast response and high sensitivity/selectivity is still an urgent demanding. Here we fabricated a ratiometric fluorescent probe RC based on TBET (through-bond energy transfer) on the platform of coumarin and rhodamine with the thiosemicarbazide group as the linker. This probe could display the characteristic fluorescence emission of coumarin. Upon addition of HClO, the linker was reacted into an oxadiazole, resulting in the opening of spiro-ring of rhodamine. The resultant then gives ratiometric fluorogenic changes. The probe exhibits fast response and high selectivity and sensitivity towards HClO with a low limit of detection (similar to 140 nM). Eventually, RC is successfully applicated for determining spiked HClO in water samples and imaging endogenous HClO in living cells. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 50.
    Huang, Ruting
    et al.
    Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Chenghao
    Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, Shoushuang
    Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Dayong
    Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China; Chizhou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Qian
    Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Qing
    Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Jiang, Yong
    Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Bing
    Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Zhiwen
    Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Construction of SnS2-SnO2 heterojunctions decorated on graphene nanosheets with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance2019In: ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA SECTION C-STRUCTURAL CHEMISTRY, ISSN 2053-2296, Vol. 75, p. 812-821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterostructures formed by the growth of one kind of nanomaterial in/on another have attracted increasing attention due to their microstructural characteristics and potential applications. In this work, SnS2-SnO2 heterostructures were successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. Due to the enhanced visible-light absorption and efficient separation of photogenerated holes and electrons, the SnS2-SnO2 heterostructures display excellent photocatalytic performance for the degradation of rhodamine (RhB) under visible-light irradiation. Additionally, it is found that the introduction of graphene into the heterostructures further improved photocatalytic activity and stability. In particular, the optimized SnS2-SnO2/graphene photocatalyst can degrade 97.1% of RhB within 60 min, which is about 1.38 times greater than that of SnS2-SnO2 heterostructures. This enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the high surface area and the excellent electron accepting and transporting properties of graphene, which served as an acceptor of the generated electrons to suppress charge recombination. These results provide a new insight for the design and development of hybrid photocatalysts.

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