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  • 1.
    Abongo, D. A.
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, S. O.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Jumba, I. O.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Van den Brink, P. J.
    University of Wageningen and Research Centre, Netherlands.
    Naziriwo, B. B.
    Makerere University, Uganda.
    Madadi, V. O.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wafula, G. A.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Nkedi-Kizza, P.
    University of Florida, FL USA.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. North West University, South Africa.
    Occurrence, abundance and distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in the Nyando River catchment, Kenya2015In: African Journal of Aquatic Science, ISSN 1608-5914, E-ISSN 1727-9364, Vol. 40, no 4, 373-392 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A baseline study was conducted of the occurrence of macroinvertebrates at 26 sites in the Nyando River catchment in 2005-2006. A total of 13 orders and 16 families of Arthropoda, Mollusca, Platyhelminthes and Annelida were collected, with the order Ephemeroptera being most abundant in the up- and mid-stream reaches, followed by Hemiptera and Plecoptera respectively. The downstream sections of the river were dominated by Hirudinea and tubificids, as the water quality deteriorated mainly due to local land use, raw sewage effluent discharge and annual floods. Insects and annelids were the main invertebrates found and the extent of pollution increased from mid-section (Site 15) downwards as the river flowed into the Winam Gulf. Stringent management measures are required to safeguard the environment and ecosystems of Lake Victoria.

  • 2.
    Abong'o, Deborah
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, Shem
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Jumba, Isaac
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Madadi, Vincent
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Impacts of pesticides on human health and environment in the River Nyando catchment, Kenya2014In: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences, ISSN 2348-0521, Vol. 2, no 3, 1-14 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The population of the River Nyando catchment largely relies on rain fed agriculture for their subsistence.

    Important crops grown include cereals, cash crops fruits and vegetables. Farming is one of the contributors of pollution to Lake Victoria. Organophosphates and other banned organochlorine pesticides such as lindane, aldrin and dieldrin were used by farmers. The pesticides transport was by storm water run-off and air drift into the lake. Environmental risk assessment background information was collected through questionnaire and interviews of farmers to determine knowledge and safe use of pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were identified as commonly used of which four are toxic to bees and five to birds. The farmers identified declines in the number of pollinating insects, the disappearance of Red-billed Oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorthynchus) and wild bird’s fatalities. The general knowledge among farmers about chemicals risks, safety, and chronic illnesses was low. Activities that increases environmental awareness and safety of pesticides should be initiated by the agrochemical firms and government.

  • 3.
    Abong'o, Deborah
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, Shem
    University of Nairobi. Kenya.
    Jumba, Isac
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    van den Brink, Paul
    Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
    Nazariwo, Betty
    Makerere University, Uganda.
    Madadi, Vincent
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wafula, Godfrey
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nkedi-Kizza, Peter
    University of Florida, USA.
    Organochlorine pesticide residue levels in soil from the Nyando River catchment, Kenya2015In: Africa Journal of Physical Sciences, ISSN 2313-3317, Vol. 2, no 1, 18-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil samples were collected from six locations representative of the Nyando River catchment area of the Lake Victoria over a period of two years. Sampling was done four times in the year in February, May, September and December 2005 and 2006 in farms where maize, tea, sugar cane, coffee, rice and vegetables have been grown over the years. This coincided with the effects of different seasons and farming activities on residue levels of the pesticides in use. The objective was to investigate levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides that have either been banned or are restricted for use in Kenya. Organochlorine pesticides investigated were DDT, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, endrin, endosulfan (both α- and β- isomers and endosulfan sulphate), the sum is called “total” or Σendosulfan and methoxychlor. Prior to the ban or restriction in use, these pesticides had found wide applications in public health for control of disease vectors and in agriculture for control of crop pests. The analysis revealed presence of all the targeted pesticides with the highest mean concentrations for methoxychlor 140 ± 1.5 μg/kg, Σendosulfan (30 ± 2.1 μg/kg), aldrin (18 ± 0.28 μg/kg), respectively. The results show the presence of these pesticides in soils in the basin and this could be impacting negatively on the ecosystem health of the area.

  • 4.
    Ackerfors, Linnea
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hederén, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Climate Transition in Municipalities: Identifying ways to assess transition processes through indicators2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has been recognised as one of the biggest challenges of our time. To prevent further climate change impacts, nations at COP21 further stressed the need to mitigate their greenhouse gas emissions enough to prevent dangerous temperature rise and to adapt societies to become more resilient. Municipals have been found important actors in this transition due to their power to inflict change on a local level. However, there is a lack of methods to assess how transition is made due to the fact that transition is a fairly new approach to managing climate change combined with a lack of completed transitions in municipalities. The purpose of this study is to explore the use of indicators as a method to assess municipal transition processes. Focusing on two Swedish municipalities that have been deemed vulnerable but at the same time apt to combat climate change, this study uses a triangulation of methods that are divided into two phases. The first phase uses a literature review in order to create a scientifically based list of transition indicators. The second phase uses document analyses and interviews in order to test the indicators and analyse transition process on a local level. The study revealed that there are multiple barriers and triggers for transition such as conflicting interests, economic factors, political steering, knowledge building- and awareness and long term perspectives, but that there also exist important tools for municipal transition in the form of networks through multi-level collaborations and plans/objectives. The findings in this study also suggests that the use of indicators as a method to assess transition could be viable, but that it is limited due to its contextual nature and lack of successful transitions to compare with.

  • 5.
    Acosta Navarro, J. C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Smolander, S.
    University of Helsinki, Finland .
    Struthers, Hamish
    Linköping University, National Supercomputer Centre (NSC).
    Zorita, E.
    Institute for Coastal Research, Geesthacht, Germany.
    Ekman, A. M. L.
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Kaplan, J. O.
    Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Guenther, A.
    PNNL, Richland, WA USA .
    Arneth, A.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.
    Riipinen, I.
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Global emissions of terpenoid VOCs from terrestrial vegetation in the last millennium2014In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 119, no 11, 6867-6885 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the millennial variability (1000 A.D.-2000 A.D.) of global biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene, and sesquiterpene, and Lund-Potsdam-Jena-General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends of global isoprene emissions to be mostly affected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission trends were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have significant short-term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr-1 (13% and 19% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively), and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr-1(15% and 20% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr-1(10% and 6% higher than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr-1 (2% higher and 5% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr-1(10% and 4% higher than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation.

  • 6.
    Acosta Navarro, J. C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Varma, V.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Riipinen, I.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Seland, O.
    Norwegian Meteorol Institute, Norway.
    Kirkevag, A.
    Norwegian Meteorol Institute, Norway.
    Struthers, Hamish
    Linköping University, National Supercomputer Centre (NSC). Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Iversen, T.
    Norwegian Meteorol Institute, Norway.
    Hansson, H. -C.
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ekman, A. M. L.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Amplification of Arctic warming by past air pollution reductions in Europe2016In: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 9, no 4, 277-281 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic region is warming considerably faster than the rest of the globe(1), with important consequences for the ecosystems(2) and human exploration of the region(3). However, the reasons behind this Arctic amplification are not entirely clear(4). As a result of measures to enhance air quality, anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter and its precursors have drastically decreased in parts of the Northern Hemisphere over the past three decades(5). Here we present simulations with an Earth system model with comprehensive aerosol physics and chemistry that show that the sulfate aerosol reductions in Europe since 1980 can potentially explain a significant fraction of Arctic warming over that period. Specifically, the Arctic region receives an additional 0.3Wm(-2) of energy, and warms by 0.5 degrees C on annual average in simulations with declining European sulfur emissions in line with historical observations, compared with a model simulation with fixed European emissions at 1980 levels. Arctic warming is amplified mainly in fall and winter, but the warming is initiated in summer by an increase in incoming solar radiation as well as an enhanced poleward oceanic and atmospheric heat transport. The simulated summertime energy surplus reduces sea-ice cover, which leads to a transfer of heat from the Arctic Ocean to the atmosphere. We conclude that air quality regulations in the Northern Hemisphere, the ocean and atmospheric circulation, and Arctic climate are inherently linked.

  • 7.
    Aeppli, Christoph
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Per
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Sweden .
    Gustafsson, Orjan
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Chlorine Isotope Effects and Composition of Naturally Produced Organochlorines from Chloroperoxidases, Flavin-Dependent Halogenases, and in Forest Soil2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 13, 6864-6871 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of stable chlorine isotopic signatures (delta Cl-37) of organochlorine compounds has been suggested as a tool to determine both their origins and transformations in the environment. Here we investigated the delta Cl-37 fractionation of two important pathways for enzymatic natural halogenation: chlorination by chloroperoxidase (CPO) and flavin-dependent halogenases (FDH). Phenolic products of CPO were highly Cl-37 depleted (delta Cl-37 = -12.6 +/- 0.9 parts per thousand); significantly more depleted than all known industrially produced organochlorine compounds (delta Cl-37 = -7 to +6 parts per thousand). In contrast, four FDH products did not exhibit any observable isotopic shifts (delta Cl-37 = -0.3 +/- 0.6 parts per thousand). We attributed the different isotopic effect to the distinctly different chlorination mechanisms employed by the two enzymes. Furthermore, the delta Cl-37 in bulk organochlorines extracted from boreal forest soils were only slightly depleted in Cl-37 relative to inorganic Cl. In contrast to previous suggestions that CPO plays a key role in production of soil organochlorines, this observation points to the additional involvement of either other chlorination pathways, or that dechlorination of naturally produced organochlorines can neutralize delta Cl-37 shifts caused by CPO chlorination. Overall, this study demonstrates that chlorine isotopic signatures are highly useful to understand sources and cycling of organochlorines in nature. Furthermore, this study presents delta Cl-37 values of FDH products as well of bulk organochlorines extracted from pristine forest soil for the first time.

  • 8.
    Aftab, A.
    et al.
    Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Department, Mehran UETSZAB Sindh, Pakistan; Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Ismail, A. R.
    Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Khokhar, S.
    Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science and Technology, Sindh Pakistan.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Sindh Pakistan.
    Novel zinc oxide nanoparticles deposited acrylamide composite used for enhancing the performance of water-based drilling fluids at elevated temperature conditions2016In: Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, ISSN 0920-4105, E-ISSN 1873-4715, Vol. 146, 1142-1157 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multifunctional nano-micron composite compared to single nano-sphere materials revealed wide applications to enhance the physical and chemical stability of base fluids. Therefore, it can be a possible solution for the improvement of the rheological properties and shale inhibition characteristics of conventional water-based drilling fluid (WBDF). The primary goal of the study was to investigate the effects zinc oxide nanoparticles-acrylamide composite termed as ZnO-Am composite over rheological and shale swelling behavior of conventional WBDF. Herein, ZnO-Am composite was synthesized and successfully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermalgravimeteric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and field emission electron microscope (FESEM). Results revealed that the rheological properties such as 10-min gel strength (10-min GS), apparent viscosity (AV), and plastic vicscocity (PV) were slightly increased and obtained within operating range at 150 degrees F by adding the synthesized composite in conventional WBDF. Lubricity was improved by 25% at 150 degrees F. API filtrate loss volume was reduced by 14%. Elevated temperature and pressure (ETP) filtrate loss volume (500 psi, 250 degrees F) was slightly minimized. Shale swelling was merely reduced from 16% to 9%. These findings will contribute to enhance the oil and gas well drilling operations.

  • 9.
    Ahlsén, Carl
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Felczak, Michael
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hinder & möjligheter med dagvattenhantering: Fallstudier över Linköping och Norrköping kommuns arbete med alternativ dagvattenhantering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More frequent and intensified rainfalls are expected to occur due to climate change in the nearfuture. This together with a higher proportion of paved areas increases the pressure on today’sstorm water systems (Risinger, 2014; Boverket, 2013; Stahre, 2006). Traditional storm watersystems (i.e. underground pipe systems) have during last decades started to be questioned(Olshammar & Baresel, 2012). The precipitation over Sweden is expected to increase 10-20% over the next century (SMHI, 2009). Increased precipitation may cause temporary capacityloss in pipe-based storm water system with flooding in sensitive areas as a result (Östlund &Lagerblad, 2011). To decrease the potential stress on traditional storm water systems,sustainable urban drainage systems have started to be developed (Viklander & Bäckström,2008). The era of traditional storm water systems has reached a breaking point and moresustainable storm water systems has become more desired as a complement to today’ssystems (Cettner et al, 2014; Semadeni-Davies et al., 2007). In order to build an increaseunderstanding sustainable storm water management it is decisive to investigate what obstaclesthat municipalities has to tackle, regarding storm water management. This study aims toanalyze problems that may occur concerning storm water management including whatchallenges and possibilities that municipalities have to face. The study is based on qualitativeinterviews with informants in the municipalities of Linköping and Norrköping to see how theyare working with storm water and sustainable storm water management. The conclusions ofthe study is mainly, the need for a more pronounced governance, a more explicit demandconcerning laws and regulations, in particular the Swedish planning and building act, acommon vision about how storm water management practices should be handled and finallyquestions concerning how storm water should be handled in an early stage in the planningprocess. This is the main factors to facilitate the work with sustainable urban drainage system.

  • 10.
    Ahmed, Rafiq
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Seasonal Variation of Inorganic Nutrients (DSi, DIN and DIP) Concentration in Swedish River2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rivers have been playing most important role as fresh water source and medium of nutrient transportation from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystem. Inorganic form of nutrients (DSi, DIN and DIP) are plant available mostly control the productivity of aquatic ecosystem. Transfer of these nutrients in higher concentrations cause harmful eutrophication in receiving water body.

    Study of dissolved inorganic nutrients concentrations in 12 Swedish rivers of different basin characteristics demonstrated both similar and varying behaviour from river to river and from season to season depending on catchment hydrology; land use and geology. Highest concentration did not coincide with the highest runoff. High DSi concentration observed in the unperturbed rivers however, high DIN and DIP concentration observed in agriculture dominated river followed by river basin dominated by industrial and urban activities. DSi and DIN concentration observed high in winter and decreased through spring to reach lowest in summer. DIP concentration although found low in summer but high concentration observed in early spring and early autumn. Rivers with low average runoff positively correlated with DSi and DIN concentration however, DIP demonstrated weak correlation.

  • 11.
    Aid, Graham
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Operationalizing Industrial Ecology in the Waste Sector: Roles and tactics for circular value innovation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The take-make-waste approach to resource management in human production and consumption systems is contributing to a variety of environmental and social problems worldwide. Additionally, as the world’s population and affluence increase, so do the negative impacts of poor resource management. Lifting the waste management (WM) sector into a new phase of development, which takes its lead from the ideals of Industrial Ecology and circular economy, is seen by many scholars and practitioners as one potential to assist in alleviating these impacts. While there are many studies on how more efficient inter-organizational resource management is (or could be) constructed, there are relatively few business development studies which have explored novel approaches (from roles to tactics) that WM organizations might operationalize toward more efficient resource management.

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the development of knowledge and understanding of how the waste management sector can operationalize more effective and efficient resource management. In approaching this aim, two research questions guided the exploration of: 1) novel roles for WM and 2) support tactics for such roles. Grounded in the broader context of Industrial Ecology (IE) and Business Development, five studies were performed. Two studies, focused on the novel roles of inter-organizational resource management and high value secondary resource extraction, were performed through literature review and interviews, and market driver analysis respectively. In exploring support tactics, two design and proof of concept studies were carried out to investigate data analysis tools for inter-organizational resource management, and one long-term action research engagement project was coordinated to study hands-on inter-organizational collaboration tactics.

    The studies highlighted that the Swedish WM sector holds some key capacities for operationalizing (and in some cases, is already developing) the novel resource management roles identified: industrial symbiosis facilitator, eco-industrial park manager, holistic facility management, and high value resource extractor. However, depending on the portfolio of services to be performed in such roles, several capacities may need to be developed or strengthened. Main opportunities seen for these roles were – staying ahead of market developments, and aligning activities with organizational goals. The main general risk related to these roles was insufficient returns on investment. Looking forward, the main enablers identified were policy leadership for more balanced market mechanisms, increasing use of external knowledge, developing long term partnerships, lobbying, stockpiling resources, and carefully crafting new business models.

    The tools developed for strategically applying external information toward the identification of opportunities within new roles showed tactical potential. However, their implementation in broader development processes has yet to be fully validated. The hands-on exploration of change oriented collaboration, highlighted collective system framing and goal setting and face-to-face interaction as key activities for inter-organizational approaches within roles such as industrial symbiosis facilitator.

    Throughout the studies, several novel roles were investigated. Each of these roles will need to be individually evaluated by directing bodies of WM organizations, and evaluated from the organization’s vision and strategy. If certain roles are chosen to be explored in more detail, they will need to be developed within full business models - addressing issues such as income structure, internal processes and capacities to be developed, and key customers. Through applying IE and business development concepts and findings, WM organizations have possibilities to translate ambitious visions into novel offerings.

    List of papers
    1. Expanding roles for the Swedish waste management sector in interorganizational resource management
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expanding roles for the Swedish waste management sector in interorganizational resource management
    2017 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 124, 85-97 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Several waste management (WM) professionals see an ongoing shift in the focus of the industry, from that of atransport and treatment sector to that of a more integrated sustainable service provision and material productionsector. To further develop such transitional ambitions, WM organizations are increasingly looking toward interorganizationalresource network concepts (such as the circular economy and industrial symbiosis) as models ofhow they would like to create new value together with their customers and partners.This article aims to take a step in addressing uncertainties behind such transitions by analyzing barriers forinter-organizational resource management and in turn uncovering some potential opportunities and risks ofnovel offerings from the WM sector. Obstacles for developing innovative inter-organizational resource networkshave been identified based on studies of implementing industrial symbiosis networks. Subsequently, managingexecutives from Swedish private and public WM organizations were interviewed regarding the sector’s capacityto overcome such barriers – opportunities and risks of providing new resource management services – and howtheir organizations might approach the role of actively facilitating more resource efficient regions.Eco-Industrial park management and contracting out holistic resource management are some areas in whichthe respondents see WM organizations offering new services. In relation to such approaches, various risks (e.g.being cut out of investment benefits, or unstable supply) and opportunities (e.g. new markets and enhancedsustainability profiles) were identified. Additionally, it was seen that WM companies would need to makesubstantial changes to their business approach, becoming less dependent on flows of mixed materials forexample, if they are to become even more central value chain actors. To strengthen such approaches, it was seenthat the sector will need to find methods to strategically build strong, long term partnerships, expand upon andtake advantage of available knowledge resources (i.e. best practice technologies and regional material flows),and explore new business models (i.e. stockpiling, park management, or waste minimization). Additionally,working with sector representatives to argue for a more balanced market conditions next to primary productionshould assist the viability of new offerings in the wider market.

    Keyword
    Circular economy, Industrial symbiosis, Recycling, Business development, Green innovation
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137456 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.04.007 (DOI)000403860200009 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Ragnar Sellbergs Foundation

    Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-08-07
    2. Driving Forces and Inhibitors of Secondary Stock Extraction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driving Forces and Inhibitors of Secondary Stock Extraction
    2016 (English)In: The Open Waste Management Journal, ISSN 1876-4002, E-ISSN 1876-4002, Vol. 9, 11-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Even though it’s well known that our common resources are limited and that recycling is key for a sustainable future; inreality we see few examples of true recycling where virgin raw material is substituted by waste. There are endless numbers ofexamples where waste is utilized to some extent without solving the core issue: reducing the need of extracting virgin raw materials.This article analyses some of the driving forces and inhibitors of secondary stock extraction to explore why it’s so difficult establishlarge scale secondary stock extraction although suitable technologies are available. The authors discuss and suggest possible ways forreducing some of the main barriers presented.

    Keyword
    Circular economy, Economy, Recycling, Resources, Sustainability
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137459 (URN)10.2174/1876400201609010011 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-11-29
    3. Looplocal - a heuristic visualization tool to support the strategic facilitation of industrial symbiosis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Looplocal - a heuristic visualization tool to support the strategic facilitation of industrial symbiosis
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, 328-335 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) developments have been differentiated as self-organized, facilitated, and planned. This article introduces a tool, Looplocal, which has been built with objectives to support the strategic facilitation of IS. Looplocal is a visualization tool built to assist in 1) Simplifying the identification of regions susceptible to new industrial symbiosis facilitation activities 2) Enabling proactive and targeted marketing of potential exchanges to key actors in specific regions and 3) Assisting facilitators to assess the various strategies and consequential engagement and analysis methodologies suitable for additional IS development in specific regions. The tool compares industrial symbiosis data and estimated regional material and energy flows (on a facility level) to identify potential IS transfer information along with key stakeholder and network data. The authors have performed a proof of concept run of this tool on Sweden. In its early stages of application the method has given results seen as useful for identifying regions susceptible to the investment of symbiosis facilitators' time and resources. The material focus and customization possibilities for the tool show potential for a spectrum of potential facilitators: from waste management companies to national or regional authorities. In conjunction with long term business models, such a tool might be utilized throughout an adaptive chain of facilitation activities and aims.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    National Category
    Civil Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137462 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.08.012 (DOI)000356194300033 ()2-s2.0-84929966422 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    QC 20150713

    Available from: 2015-07-13 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-05-16Bibliographically approved
    4. Secondary Resources in the Bio-Based Economy: A Computer Assisted Survey of Value Pathways in Academic Literature
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Secondary Resources in the Bio-Based Economy: A Computer Assisted Survey of Value Pathways in Academic Literature
    2017 (English)In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265X, Vol. 8, no 7, 2229-2246 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Research on value pathways for organic wastes has been steadily increasing in recent decades. There have been few considerably broad overview studies of such materials and their valuation potential in the bio-based economy in part because of the vast multitude of materials and processes that can be used to produce energy carriers, chemicals, and materials of value. This article explores how automated data analysis approaches can help in analyzing large bodies of text to distill and present potential value pathways for secondary (waste) bio-based materials. The study employed multiple methods (literature collection, topic modelling, and co-occurrence analysis) on a collection of abstracts from 53,292 academic articles covering technologies, applications, and products (TAPs) for bio-based wastes. The results of both the topic modelling and co-occurrence analysis are presented as online interactive web pages. The topic modelling presented an overview of research clusters related to secondary organic resources, processes, and disciplines. The co-occurrence analysis helped to understand which TAPs are researched in relation to a broad spectrum of organic wastes. Co-occurrences were evaluated using the Normalized Pointwise Mutual Information measure to locate terms which co-occur more frequently than would be expected by chance. Through the use of detailed lists of organic wastes and TAPs, the co-occurrence method mapped out 7118 unique intersections between 473 specific wastes and 228 TAPs. This technique enables us to find seemingly non-obvious valorization pathways such as the re-use of oyster shells as catalysts for bio-diesel production and bioplastic production from brewery waste. While a proof-of-concept, this work points the way for using Big Data to suggest novel pathways for implementing the Circular Economy.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2017
    Keyword
    By-product, Waste valorization, Circular economy, Recycling, Industrial symbiosis, Big Data
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences Environmental Biotechnology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-138067 (URN)10.1007/s12649-017-9975-0 (DOI)000411975600001 ()2-s2.0-85020108904 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: Ragnar Sellbergs Foundation

    Available from: 2017-06-08 Created: 2017-06-08 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
    5. Improvement of aggregate cycles in Stockholm and the Baltic Region: Activities and results of the BRA initiative
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvement of aggregate cycles in Stockholm and the Baltic Region: Activities and results of the BRA initiative
    2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the 8th International conference on Sustainable management of waste and recycled materials in construction, Gothenburg, Sweden, 30 May - 1 June 2012 / [ed] M. Arm, C. Vandecasteele, J. Heynen, P. Suer and B. Lind, Swedish Geotechnical Institute , 2012, 1-9 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From 2009 until 2011 project BRA (Bygg-och Rivningsavfall i Stockholms Län) “Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste in Stockholm County” was coordinated from the division of Industrial Ecology, KTH. This project was focused on actively improving (from plural perspectives) the cycles of C&D (specifically non-metallic inert) materials in the region. In response to the normative aim and inter-systems complexity, a highly participative action research procedure was adopted. Through processes of network communication, workshops, a course, and an international symposium - a number of issues (such as market development, recycled product quality, greenhouse gas impacts, collaborative planning, and statistics) were prioritized, researched, and acted upon. Indicators for measuring progress in selected areas were developed and preliminary action plans created. At a final co-organized symposium Swedish delegates laid the groundwork for the establishment of a Swedish C&D recycling b ranch organization. This initiative of continued collaboration between and within sectors is seen as a vehicle for the priorities and action requirements identified in BRA to be further enabled and held in focus. Furthermore, these actors taking ownership of the process is seen as a success in accordance to the original aims and the need for further cycles of evaluation, planning, and action.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, 2012
    Keyword
    by-product, recycling, synergy, industrial ecology, facilitation
    National Category
    Construction Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137463 (URN)
    Conference
    WASCON 2012 – towards effective, durable and sustainable production and use of alternative materials in construction. 8th International conference on sustainable management of waste and recycled materials in construction, Gothenburg, Sweden, 30 May - 1 June 2012
    Note

    QC 20130522

    Available from: 2013-05-20 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2017-05-16Bibliographically approved
  • 12.
    Aigbavbiere, Ernest
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    The effects of heavy metals on denitification in a wetland sediment..2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands water quality is influenced by the anthopogenic activities in the catchments’ areas. Wastewaters from the urban storm, agricultural runoff and sewage treatment often end up in wetlands before flowing to rivers, lakes and the sea. A lot of pollutants are readily transported in these wastewaters, thus subjecting the wetland ecosystem into a continuous resilience. Importantly, heavy metals like Cu, Zn, and Pb etc. are constituents of such pollutants in the wastewaters.

    The study has as a specific objective to investigate the effects of heavy metal Cu, Zn and Pb on denitrification, an important ecosystem process and service. In a wetland situation, denitrification is a permanent nitrogen removal process accounting for about 90% of the total nitrogen removal.

    The research was carried out in the laboratory and sediment samples were taken from a constructed wetland in Linkoping. We employed acetylene inhibition technique in obtaining N2O as a product resulting from nitrate reduction. The treatments (Cu, Zn and Pb) levels were 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg of sediment, in three replicates and a control.

    Samplings of the assay were taken within 24hours. Gas chromatography was used to analyse and quantify N2O in the various samples. A linear regression analysis was carried out with Windows Excel and SPSS to compare the various treatments with the control at 95% confidence level.

    The results show that there were no inhibitions of denitrification at 100 mg/kg sediment treatment level for any of the element. Inhibition of denitrification was observed at treatment levels 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg of sediment. The rate of nitrate reduction was compared from the slope of the regression curve. The rate for Cu at 500 mg and 1000 mg /kg of sediment was moderately related to that of the control, Zn shows a similar trend but a higher rate in some samples, while Pb shows more inhibition.

  • 13.
    Akhter Feroz, Raisin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment for Sustainable Urban Development: A Study on Slum Population of Kota, India2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The urban centres are becoming more vulnerable to climate change because of the rapid urbanization and the inequality of urban development. This study assesses the urban vulnerability in an integrated approach focusing the slum people as the targeted group. The slum people are severely exposed to climate risks in terms of city‟s overall development. The negative indications of the indicators of person‟s vulnerability represent their high sensitivity to the adverse impact of climate change. The determinants of adaptive capacity also confirm that the slum people are more vulnerable to climate change with having lower adaptive capacity; though, the city is possessing high development indexes. In this context, an institutional structure is developed to build multi-level urban climate governance with the involvement of all relevant stakeholders based on the case study and literature review to integrate the vulnerable group in development planning for climate change adaptation.

  • 14.
    Almgren, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Green Business AB.
    Näringslivets insatser på miljöområdet: För Naturvårdsverket2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppdraget för denna rapport har varit att beskriva näringslivets insatser på miljöområdet med avseende på vilka miljöfrågor som näringslivet prioriterar, hur företagen organiserar sina insatser och vilka verktyg de använder för att förbättra sin miljöprestanda, hur de ser på några vanliga statliga styrmedel, vilka som är de viktigaste drivkrafterna och hindren till förbättrad miljöprestanda samt att även blicka utanför Sveriges gränser.

    Generationsperspektivet, ungefär 3-års cykler, på miljöfrågorna innebär att det ofta tar lång tid innan ett miljöproblem uppenbarar sig som ett problem. Likaså tar det ofta lång tid att åtgärda upptäckta problem med hänsyn till att de ofta kräver omställningar med nya tekniska lösningar, som inte alltid finns till hands, och som också behöver inför as brett i näringslivet.

    När det gäller den första frågan om vilka de viktigaste miljöfrågorna är för näringslivets del visar denna studie att det främst gäller klimatfrågan och produkternas miljöaspekter i ett värdekedjeperspektiv. Båda frågorna är globala till sin karaktär. De studerade företagen har hög beredskap och har redan påbörjat arbetet att för svensk del bidra till att minska klimatpåverkan. Innebörden av de antagna målen hos de 50 studerade företagen är att företag som verkar i Sverige enligt denna studie ska kunna medverka till att nå den nivå på insatser som IPCC indikerat för år 2050. Det är den tidpunkt som IPCC siktar på i sina senaste utvärderingar. Flera företag har vardera skisserat en trovärdig färdplan för att göra verksamheten koldioxidsnål eller koldioxidneutral till nämnda tidpunkt. Det är känt från andra liknande studier att det f rån näringslivets perspektiv dock också behövs ett politiskt mål av flera skäl, bl a för att regeringar och näringsliv i alla länder ska dra åt samma håll. Det som emellertid är intressant nu är att näringslivet i Sverige enligt denna studie har påbörjat arbetet med att finna lösningar för att nå ett ev kommande politiskt globalt mål. De studerade företagen i Sverige har även i stor utsträckning upprättat egna mål och genomför åtgärder på de områden som de nationella miljökvalitetsmålen täcker, bl a med inriktning på att begränsa förorening av luft- och vattenområden men även på att värna den biologiska mångfalden i jord- och skogsbruk samt att värna och utveckla naturvärden i den bebyggda miljön. Resultaten i form av utsläppsminskningar på de föroreningsanknutna områdena är goda även om det på flera områden återstår insatser att göra. Miljökvaliteten i Sverige på dessa områden påverkas dock främst av verksamhet i länder utanför Sveriges gränser. Den miljöpåverkan som uppstår som följd av den ökade handeln mellan länder är idag svår av kvantifiera på grund brister i lämplig statistik och mätetal. Inriktningen av handeln pekar emellertid på att Sverige exporterar mer varor med goda miljöprestanda, räknat i hela värdekedjan, än importerar varor med dåliga. Utöver nämnda områden har företagen ofta mål för användning av resurser och utveckling av förnybara energikällor.

    När det gäller den andra frågan om företagens egna insatser visar studien att det i rapporten studerade delen av näringslivet i Sverige i betydande omfattning på frivillig väg har infört egna verktyg för att effektivt kunna hantera sina miljöfrågor. Den viktigaste förändringen är att begreppet hållbar utveckling nu har slagit rot. Det medför att miljöfrågorna nu fått en tydligare plats i företagens ledningar i samverkan med andra frågor inom begreppet hållbarhet. De viktiga förebilderna för innebörden av hållbar utveckling är UN Global Compact, OECDs vägledning för multinationella företag och den internationella standarden ISO 26000 om socialt ansvarstagande. Rapporteringen av studerade företagens insatser på hållbarhetsområdet sker i stor utsträckning enligt den modell som utarbetats av GRI (Global Reporting Initiative). Den egna målstyrda verksamheten baseras väsentligen på miljöledningssystem som upprättats med stöd av den internationella miljöledningsstandarden ISO 14001, inom vilken även lagstyrda insatser hanteras internt . Syftet med sådana miljöledningssystem är att bidra med en effektiv metod att hantera miljöfrågorna i ett företag. Den logik som denna standard har byggt upp, m ed målstyrning som viktigaste komponent, lyser igenom i alla företagens hållbarhetsredovisningar. Det är alltså tydligt att ISO 14001 har fått stort genomslag i den praktiska hanteringen av miljöfrågorna. Vidare är det tydligt att företagen idag fäster sto r vikt vid att värna och utveckla den biologiska mångfalden i skogen. Mer än 70 procent av den produktiva skogsmarken i Sverige är certifierad enligt något av de stora förekommande certifieringssystemen (FSC/PEFC). Det innebär omfattande åtaganden för skog sägarna att värna om den biologiska mångfalden och att sätta av marker för naturvårdsändamål.

    När det gäller den tredje frågan om näringslivets förhållningssätt till statliga styrmedel har näringslivet i Sverige generellt sett en positiv syn på det regel verk som reglerar deras verksamhet. Efterlevnaden synes vara god av gällande regler. Den statliga individuella, integrerade tillståndsprövningen anses av berörda företag vara ett bra styrmedel. Det gäller även den europeiska kemikalielagstiftningen REACH. Däremot framgår det tydligt av studien att den nuvarande utformningen av tillståndsprövningen enligt berörda företag efter hand har blivit alldeles för omständlig och tidsmässigt utdragen. Idag tar tillståndsprocessen över tre år i genomsnitt. Det bör tydliggöras att inget företag har yrkat på att sänka miljökraven i sig utan framförallt att få tillståndsprocessen att gå fortare. Studien visar att det finns flera sådana möjligheter utan att varken göra avkall på kraven i direktiv från EU eller hänsyn till miljön. Avgiften på kväveoxider har mer eller mindre förlorat sin roll som styrmedel och fungerar numera mest som subvention av energisektorn på bekostnad av skogsindustrin. Det är framförallt skogsindustrin som framför kritik på denna punkt. Vidare ans er berörda företag att handeln med utsläppsrätter enligt EU ETS bör utvidgas till ett globalt system för att kunna bli verkningsfullt.

    När det gäller den fjärde frågan om drivkrafter och hinder för förbättrad miljöprestanda var lagstiftningen den stora drivkraften under 1970- och 1980-talen. Olika marknadsbaserade krav har numera fått en betydligt större roll än tidigare. Kraften i dessa krav skiftar från bransch till bransch och från miljöfråga till miljöfråga. En notering som stödjer tesen om att marknad en tagit över är det faktum att även de i denna undersökning utvalda företag, som inte i någon påtaglig utsträckning styrs av lagstiftning, också har ambitiösa program och planer. En annan bild av samma utveckling är relationen till kunder och andra intressenter. Det framkommer av företagen i studien att de knappast idag kan verka på marknaden samtidigt som förtroendet för företaget sviktar hos kunder och andra intressenter. En viss reservation kan dock vara befogad. Bakom olika marknadsrelaterade krav står ofta myndighetskrav eller lagstiftning. Det motsatta gäller naturligtvis också, dvs bakom lagstiftningskrav finns ofta ytterst ett krav på marknaden. Vidare är det tydligt från studien att d en värdegrund som idag omfattar de flesta svenskar, att värna om miljön, gäller också för företag. Sverige är ett relativt homogent land med en i stora delar gemensam värdegrund. En betydande del av alla insatser för miljön görs därför på helt frivillig väg av ren omtanke om miljön. Också detta bekräftas av det faktum att även de företag som inte omfattas av statliga krav på tillstånd, anmälan eller andra ”skarpa krav” också vidtar åtgärder för att skydda miljön med liknande inriktning och omfattning som de med sådana krav.

    Genomgången av olika verktyg och styrmedel får konsekvenser för de statliga och kommunala myndigheterna. Olika statliga regelverk är inte längre är det enda svaret på förbättrad miljöprestanda hos näringslivet. Det innebär att miljöpolitiken för regering och myndigheter snarare bör vara att skaffa sig ett rimligt förhållningssätt till de olika initiativen på marknaden med innebörd att staten underlättar för och stödjer företag, snarare än reglerar. Efter genomgången i denna rapport är svaret entydigt nej på frågan om det behövs kompletterande styrmedel. Det saknas i varje fall miljömotiv för det.

    Informationen för att besvara frågorna i denna undersökning har främst hämtats från en grupp av 50 stora företag med verksamhet i Sverige. Därutöver har information inhämtat s från intervjuer (11 företag, varav 6 från gruppen av 50), andra tillgängliga undersökningar och litteratur. De 55 företagen utgör inte ett representativt urval av näringslivet idag. Däremot vet vi från tidigare undersökningar att den värdegrund och de insatser som de stora företagen gör efter hand verkar som inspiration för de mindre företagen. Många av de mindre företagen är också leverantörer till de stora och har krav fr ån kunden att förhålla sig till. Det de stora företagen gör idag förmodas vara giltiga för en större del av näringslivet om några år.

  • 15.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 12015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas Research Center (BRC) is a center of excellence in biogas research funded by the Swedish Energy Agency, Linköping University and a number of external organizations with one-third each. BRC has a very broad interdisciplinary approach, bringing together biogas-related skills from several areas to create interaction on many levels:

    • between industry, academia and society,
    • between different perspectives, and
    • between different disciplines and areas of expertise.

    BRC’s vision is:

    BRC contributes to the vision by advancing knowledge and technical development, as well as by facilitating development, innovation and business. Resource efficiency is central, improving existing processes and systems as well as establishing biogas solutions in new sectors and enabling use of new substrates.

    For BRC phase 1, the first two year period from 2012-2014, the research projects were organized in accordance with the table below showing important challenges for biogas producers and other stakeholders, and how these challenges were tackled in eight research projects. Five of the projects had an exploratory nature, meaning that they were broader, more future oriented and, for example, evaluated several different technology paths (EP1-5). Three projects focused more on technology and process development (DP6-8).

    This final report briefly presents the background and contains some information about competence centers in general. Thereafter follows more detailed information about BRC, for example, regarding the establishment, relevance, organization, vision, corner stones and development. The participating organizations are presented, both the research groups within Linköping University and the partners and members. Further on, there is a more detailed introduction to and description of the challenges mentioned in the table above and a short presentation from each of the research projects, followed by some sections dealing with fulfillment of objectives and an external assessment of BRC. Detailed, listed information is commonly provided in the appendices.

    Briefly, the fulfillment of objectives is good and it is very positive that so many scientific articles have been published (or are to be published) from the research projects and also within the wider center perspective. Clearly, extensive and relevant activities are ongoing within and around BRC. In phase 2 it essential to increase the share of very satisfied partners and members, where now half of them are satisfied and the other half is very satisfied. For this purpose, improved communication, interaction and project management are central. During 2015, at least two PhD theses are expected, to a large extent based on the research from BRC phase 1.

    In the beginning of 2014 an external assessment of BRC was carried out, with the main purpose to assess how well the center has been established and to review the conditions for a future, successful competence center. Generally, the outcome was very positive and the assessors concluded that BRC within a short period of time had been able to establish a well-functioning organization engaging a large share of the participants within relevant areas, and that most of the involved actors look upon BRC as a justifiable and well working investment that they plan to continue to support. The assessment also contributed with several relevant tips of improvements and to clarify challenges to address.

    This report is written in Swedish, but for each research project there will be reports and/or scientific papers published in English.

    The work presented in this report has been financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and the participating organizations.

  • 16.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    LUCSUS, Lunds universitets centrum för studier av uthållig samhällsplanering, Lunds universitet.
    Bæredygtig brug af energi og råstoffer2013In: GeoScience: en inspirationsbog til fagene geovidenskab og naturgeografi i gymnasiet / [ed] Carsten Broder Hansen, Köpenhamn: Københavns Universitet, GEUS, Århus Universitet , 2013, 64-71 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hamnarna rustas för fartygens avloppsvatten2014In: Sjöfarten kring Sverige och dess påverkan på havsmiljön / [ed] Tina Johansen Lilja och Eva-Lotta Sundblad, Göteborg: Havsmiljöinstitutet , 2014, no 4, 10-11 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    När avloppsvatten från sjöfarten släpps ut i havet påverkar det miljön negativt genom att bakterier sprids och näringsämnen kommer ut i havet. Utsläppen är koncentrerade till farleder och hamnar och där kan effekterna vara tydliga, även om utsläppen är små i förhållande till de totala utsläppen till havet.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change.
    Kronman, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change.
    ”Jag vill ju ha bra luft att andas”: En kvalitativ intervjustudie kring barns miljömedvetenhet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of today's environmental problems are caused by a lack of environmental awareness and behavioral change is essential for reducing human impact. Knowledge of what shapes people's environmental awareness and environmental behavior is therefore necessary.  The aim of this study is to examine children’s environmental awareness and behavior with focus on age and gender. We want to increase the understanding of what affects children’s interest, commitment and understanding of environmental problems and pro-ecological behavior. We have conducted interviews with twenty children in the age groups of nine and twelve years as well as one teacher from each age group. The study highlights the children’s view on the concept of environment, environmental problems, pro-ecological behavior and the future of the environment as well as the children’s interest, commitment and knowledge about the environment. The results show that children’s environmental awareness varies and that there are individual differences which are affected by parents influence and school education. Differences caused by age are observed when it comes to the children’s commitment and interest to the environment as well as their thoughts of the future. Differences caused by gender are not as apparent but is displayed when discussing pro-ecological behavior and the children’s view of the future environment.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bohman, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Van Well, Lisa
    School of Architecture and the Built Environment, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Management & Organisation/Centre for International Business Studies, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Gunn
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Farelius, Johanna
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Underlag till kontrollstation 2015 för anpassning till ett förändrat klimat2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the climate changes, actors on all levels and in all sectors will be affected. Thus it is imperative that authorities, municipalities, businesses and individual property owners all take action.

    Flooding, heat waves, landslides and erosion are only a few examples of the challenges that that society faces and needs to prepare for. Sweden must adapt to the impacts of a changing climate, as well as the indirect effects of climate change impacts in other parts of the world.

    The costs of adaptation can be high, but the European Commission, among others, has deemed that it still pays to adapt in relation to the costs incurred if no action is taken.

    Climate adaptation initiatives in Sweden have advanced significantly in recent years. Notable examples include governmental missions for a national elevation database, landslide risk mapping in the Göta Älv River Valley, the Swedish drinking water investigation, the County Administrative Boards’ regional climate change action plans, and the establishment of the National Knowledge Centre for Climate Adaptation.

    The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute’s mission to survey, analyse and follow-up on climate adaptation work in Sweden has shown that there is still a considerable need for further measures. This report provides proposals for a road map for climate adaptation in Sweden and concludes that climate adaptation is best conducted in a long-term manner, that roles and responsibilities should be made more transparent, and that better coordination among the many actors involved in climate adaptation is necessary.

    The most important conclusions for continued work are:

    • Laws and regulations need to be adapted; roles and responsibilities as well as strategies and goals should be made clearer.
    • Priority and funding should be given to research and development measures that fill an identified knowledge-gap, including long-term monitoring.
    • Knowledge and decision support as well as prognoses and warning systems should be more accessible.
    • There is a need to outline how the costs of adaptation should be distributed among actors and how resources for prioritised measures can be guaranteed.

    This mission has compiled knowledge of the current and future risks and consequences for society of a changing climate, such as effects on vital societal functions and human health. The mission has also surveyed the work that has been done since the publication of the final report of the Swedish Commission on Climate and Vulnerability in 2007. From this background material our goal has been to describe the gaps and challenges and provide suggestions for how adaptation can be approached in various sectors of society. The EU Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change has been an important point of departure. The work has been performed in cooperation with national and regional authorities, municipalities, researchers, sectoral organisations and representatives of the private sector.

    This report is comprised of a main report and 18 annexes. Chapter 3 of the main report is a synthesis of all of the proposals made throughout the document and as such can be seen as a road map to ensure that Sweden adapts to a changing climate.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Hellström, Sara-Sofia
    SMHI.
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI.
    Losjö, Katarina
    SMHI.
    Rummukainen, Marku
    SMHI.
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    SMHI.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Modeling report: Climate change impacts on water resources in the Pungwe drainage basin2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Statens Meteorologiska och Hydrologiska Institut.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Alberth, Johan
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Vulnerability Assessment Concept: A Tool for Prioritization of the Most Relevant Issues for Macro-regional Cooperation2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims at identifying potential issues for collaboration related to climate adaptation through application of a tool for assessing macro-regional risks. The tool is intended to assist decision-makers and other stakeholders in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) in discussions on how climate adaptation related cooperation would benefit most from macro-regional cooperation. It is based on four criteria: 1) confidence, 2) speed (determined by Baltadapt climate modellers), 3) importance of impacts and 4) macro-regional coverage (based on a questionnaires answered by 3-8 stakeholders from each of the nine riparian BSR states). Based on equal weighting of these factors, impacts related to biodiversity/eutrophication of the Baltic Sea, as well and impacts related to agriculture were given the highest rankings, which demonstrates the importance to include these sectors and their interrelationship as an important focus in macro-regional cooperation on climate adaptation in the BSR. Impacts  related to biodiversity and agriculture have in common that they are caused by climate change that will occur or already has occurred with a high degree of certainty (e.g., linked to air and water temperatures and rising sea levels), as well as having a very large macro-regional spatial coverage, and being perceived as of high societal and/or environmental concern.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Graham, Phil
    n/a.
    Warburton, Michele
    n/a.
    Local assessment of vulnerability to climate change impacts on water resources in the Upper Thukela River Basin, South Africa: Recommendations for Adaptation2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report originates from a project entitled Participatory Modelling for Assessment of Local Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Water Resources (PAMO), financed by the Swedish Development Agency and Research Links cooperation (NRF and the Swedish Research Council).

    The project is based on interactions between stakeholders in the Mhlwazini/Bergville area of the Thukela River basin, climate and water researchers from the University of KwaZulu-Natal (Pietermaritzburg Campus) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) during a series of workshops held in 2007-2009. Between the workshops, the researcher’s compiled locally relevant climate change related information, based on requests from the workshop participants, as a basis for this adaptation plan.

    The aim is to provide a local assessment of vulnerability to climate change impacts on water resources and adaptation strategies. The assessment identifies existing climate-water related problems, current adaptation strategies and recommendations for future action based on likelihoods for change and the severity if such changes will occur.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Lotten
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Åkerberg, Frida
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Källsortering, vara eller icke vara?: En fokusgruppstudie kring argument och uppfattningar gällande valet att sortera eller inte sortera.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By examine how six different groups in Katrineholm and Malmö talks and arguments about recycling this study aim to identify arguments and perceptions about recycling in the two municipalities. Three focus groups in the age categories 20-26, 30-45 and 46-65 were performed in each municipality. These six focus groups were compared among each other to identify similarities and differences between the age categories and municipalities. Furthermore, previous science and the results from this study were compared in aim to investigate whether this study reflects arguments and perceptions in previous studies or if new arguments were established. The result in this study show that proximity to recycling stations, maintenance of recycling stations, lack of space in the home, knowledge about recycling processes, knowledge about how to recycle, the environmental mentality and positive feedback are, for the participants in this study, working as motivation factors to recycle more. Factors as legislative demands and rate billing were seen as insignificant or in some cases obstacles when increase the participant’s recycling. The results of this study show no differences between the two municipalities, however, differences in arguments and perceptions between the age categories could be interpreted.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Simon
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Urban Mining potential in local power grids: Hibernating copper and aluminium in Linköping2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Power grids have a high content of metal, mainly copper and aluminium. When old cables reach their end-of-life, or in some way lose their intended purpose, they are usually left lying in their subsurface position. Material no longer used, but not yet discarded as waste, is in a state known as hibernation. Over time there is an accumulation of hibernating cables under ground that potentially could be recovered or “mined”. The aim of this study is to examine the total hibernating metal content of an urban, subsurface power grid, how it is distributed and also what reasons for disconnection are the most common. The focus of the study is the power grid of Linköping. Using a GIS based variant of material flow analysis the hibernating metal stock is examined both in terms of size and spatial distribution. The results of the study show a significant amount of hibernating copper and aluminium; in total 240 tons of metal were identified. By comparing the results with previous studies both similar and differing patterns appear. The main differences lie in the distribution of the stock within the city which is affected by the characteristics of the cities. When examining the reasons for disconnection continuous repair and maintenance work seems to be the most common reason for disconnection of cables. Further studies on how the characteristics of a city affects the formation of hibernating metal stocks in the infrastructure are suggested.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rundström, Robin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Kommunikation av ekologiskt livsmedel: En intervju- och textanalysstudie av hur ekologiskt livsmedel kommuniceras mot konsumenter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the rhetorical rendering of organic foods, within the research area of environmental communication and ecological theories. The aim is to analyse which renderings are connected to the concept organic foods. Further on Swedish authorities and organisations views on organic foods are examined, in comparison to the grocery retailer’s rhetorical rendering of organic foods. The methodology is based on two methods of data collection. Qualitative research interviews have been conducted with the following authorities: the Swedish Food Agency, the Swedish Consumer Agency and the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Interviews were also conducted with the organisations KRAV and the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation. The interviews were conducted with the intention of making visible the underlying rendering of the concept of organic foods. A textual and metaphor analyses of ICA, Coop and Axfood’s combined communication of organic foods were performed. The aim with these analyses is to examine the grocery retailer’s rhetorical rendering of the concept. The study highlights that there are two main attitudes towards the rendering of organic foods among the actors. Additionally this study clarifies that the authorities, organisations and grocery retailer’s use of the concept differ. Partly the authorities rendering of organics are mainly focused around environmental benefits. While the grocery retailers rendering of organic foods is based on metaphors and idyllic nature values. The study also shows that organic labels is part of green consumerism and thereby legitimize consumption as a solution of environmental and social problems. 

  • 26.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Fallsvik, Jan
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Hultén, Carina
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Glaas, Erik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Climate change in Sweden - geotechnical and contaminated land consequences2008In: WSEAS International Conference on Environmental and Geological Science,2008, 2008, 52-57 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

         

  • 27.
    André, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Simonsson, Louise
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Identification of regional stakeholders for adaptation to climate change:  2009In:  , 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve decisions and awareness considering climate change it is argued that stakeholder interaction and dialogue is essential. Engaging stakeholders in research on adaptation thus requires analysis of stakeholder landscape and identification of relevant actors at different levels in society. The term 'stakeholder' is broad and researchers and practitioners might have both interrelated and contrasting views on who is at stake, the need for adaptation and climate risks.

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the stakeholder landscape in a Swedish region, as part of increasing the understanding of the adaptation process. The stakeholder analysis has been initiated by the research teams through stakeholder mapping and complemented by local and regional actors' notions of who is, or should be, involved and active stakeholders in adaptation to climate change. The results indicate the importance of careful stakeholder analysis for sustainable adaptation. The actors' expert knowledge of the regions deepens the picture, show important links and gaps between different actors and illuminate unclear relationships and responsibilities as well as identify those actors who have important roles to play.

  • 28.
    Angirekula, Ravi Kumar
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Low-Cost treatment methods for purification of Phenolic compounds suitable for ASEAN Agro/forest Industrial Wastewater2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid industrialization of South East Asian countries is causing severe industrial wastewater pollution. Large number of agro/forest industries such as agro-chemicals, rubber, oil palm, pulp and paper and wood preserving industries are contributing major role in industrial pollution. These industries discharging huge amounts of organic pollutants like phenolic compounds into the environment. Phenolic compounds showing significant negative impacts on water resources, aquatic life and human health. The growing problems of industrial wastewater pollution are exacerbated for many developing countries which cannot afford to construct or operate conventional wastewater treatment facilities. It has thus become imperative to develop and popularize low-cost and energy-saving technologies for wastewater treatment. Lack of treatment facilities, feeble environmental legislations and less financial resources of agro-forest industries are might be the some of causes for present situation of industrial pollution. This paper analyzed different low cost treatment methods such as stabilization ponds, constructed treatment wetlands, bioadsorbents and adsorption process on activated carbons prepared from low cost agro/forest based waste byproducts to purify the phenolic compounds present in the agro/forest industrial wastewaters. And also it analyzed the suitability of treatment methods for the circumstances and conditions of agro/forest based industries of ASEAN countries. Based on different factors such as suitability of any kind of physical, chemical and biological conditions, low cost, availability of raw material and availability land adsorption process on low cost activated carbons seem to be most promising treatment method for purification of phenols in ASEAN agro/forest industrial wastewaters.

  • 29.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    VTI Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute, MAP Unit, SE-58195 Linkoping, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    VTI Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Storbjörk, Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Negotiating climate change responses: Regional and local perspectives on transport and coastal zone planning in South Sweden2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 52, 297-305 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Putting climate change policy-integration into practice is challenged by problems of institutional misfit, due to, inter alia, deficient vertical administrative interplay. While most focus within the field of climate change research has targeted the national-local interplay, less is known about the interface of regional and local perspectives. Here, the aim is to study that interface with a specific focus on the relation between regional and local spatial planning actors, through a case-study of transport and coastal zone management in a Swedish municipality. The article is based on interviews (focus group and single in-depth) and official planning documents. The material reveals a tricky planning situation, replete with conflict. In practice, various institutional frameworks, claims and ambitions collide. The attempts to steer the local spatial planning initiatives from the regional level led to conflicts, which in turn seems to have hampered the overall work for climate change management through spatial planning. Furthermore, there are few traces of prospects of a smooth vertical institutional interplay able to support the overall aims related to integrating climate change mitigation and adaptation in spatial planning. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 30.
    Arnold, Karin von
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forests and Greenhouse gases. Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from drained forests on organic soils2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the largest environmental threats believed to be facing us today is global warming due to the accumulation of green house gases (GHG). The concentrations of GHG in the atmosphere are a result of the net strength of different sinks and sources. Forests, in this context, are of particular interest because of their dual role as both sinks and sources. Most forests are net sinks for CO2 but others, such as drained forests, may be significant sources of both CO2 and N20. Consequently, it is essential to understand the fluxes of GHG between drained forests and the atmosphere in order to obtain accurate estimates of national GHG budgets.

    The findings reported in this thesis and the accompanying papers are based on dark chamber flux measurements of soil GHG fluxes and modelled annual net primary productions in five drained forest sites and two undrained sites situated on organic soil.

    Temporal variations in forest floor CO2, release could be explained, to a large extent, by differencies in temperature and groundwater level. The within-site spatial variation in soil GHG fluxes could only be explained to a very small extent by distance to tree stems. Much of the among-site variations in soil CO2 and CH4 release could be caused by differences in the mean annual groundwater table, while N20 emissions were strongly correlated to the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of soil organic matter. Most poorly drained forested areas are probably net sinks for GHG as the CO2 uptake by trees more than compensates for the soil GHG emissions. However, the total drained forested area in Sweden was estimated to be a net source of GHG. The CO2 release from decomposition of soil organic matter stored before drainage was estimated to be substantial. Corresponding to 15% of the CO2 release from the consumption of fossil fuels.

    List of papers
    1. Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from drained coniferous forests on organic soils
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from drained coniferous forests on organic soils
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    2005 (English)In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, Vol. 210, no 1-3, 239-254 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were measured during two to three years at four sites, located within an area of 9 km2 in southern Sweden, using dark static chamber techniques. Three of the sites were drained coniferous forests on moist organic soils that differed in forest productivity and tree species. The fourth site was an undrained tall sedge mire. Although the drained sites were all moist, with average groundwater levels between 17 and 27 cm below the soil surface, the mean annual dark forest floor CO2 release rate was significantly higher at the drained sites, (0.9–1.9 kg m−2 y−1) than at the undrained mire site (0.8 to 1.2 kg m−2 y−1). CH4 emissions were significantly lower from the drained sites than from the undrained mire (0.0 to 1.6 g m−2 y−1, compared to 10.6 to 12.2 g m−2 y−1), while N2O emissions were significantly lower from the undrained site than from the drained sites (20 to 30 mg m−2 y−1, compared to 30 to 90 mg m−2 y−1). There were no clear effects of site productivity or tree species on the soil fluxes of any of the gases. The annual net primary production of the forests was modeled. All drained sites were net sinks, while the undrained mire was a net source of greenhouse gases. The estimated net greenhouse gas exchange of the drained sites was correlated with productivity: the most productive site was the largest net sink and the least productive the smallest net sink for greenhouse gases. The results indicate that, to mitigate the increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases, drained forest sites, which have been unsuccessfully drained or rewetted due to subsidence, should be managed in a way that keeps the groundwater level at a steady state.

    Keyword
    Forestry drainage; Forest productivity; CO2 flux; CH4 flux; N2O flux
    National Category
    Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13452 (URN)10.1016/j.foreco.2005.02.031 (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-12-12 Created: 2004-12-12 Last updated: 2009-06-08
    2. Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from drained organic soils in deciduous forests
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from drained organic soils in deciduous forests
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    2005 (English)In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, Vol. 37, no 6, 1059-1071 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We examined net greenhouse gas exchange at the soil surface in deciduous forests on soils with high organic contents. Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were measured using dark static chambers for two consecutive years in three different forest types; (i) a drained and medium productivity site dominated by birch, (ii) a drained and highly productive site dominated by alder and (iii) an undrained and highly productive site dominated by alder. Although the drained sites had shallow mean groundwater tables (15 and 18 cm, respectively) their average annual rates of forest floor CO2 release were almost twice as high compared to the undrained site (1.9±0.4 and 1.7±0.3, compared to 1.0±0.2 kg CO2 m−2 yr−1). The average annual CH4 emission was almost 10 times larger at the undrained site (7.6±3.1 compared to 0.9±0.5 g CH4 m−2 yr−1 for the two drained sites). The average annual N2O emissions at the undrained site (0.1±0.05 g N2O m−2 yr−1) were lower than at the drained sites, and the emissions were almost five times higher at the drained alder site than at the drained birch site (0.9±0.35 compared to 0.2±0.11 g N2O m−2 yr−1). The temporal variation in forest floor CO2 release could be explained to a large extent by differences in groundwater table and air temperature, but little of the variation in the CH4 and N2O fluxes could be explained by these variables. The measured soil variables were only significant to explain for the within-site spatial variation in CH4 and N2O fluxes at the undrained swamp, and dark forest floor CO2 release was not explained by these variables at any site. The between-site spatial variation was attributed to variations in drainage, groundwater level position, productivity and tree species for all three gases. The results indicate that N2O emissions are of greater importance for the net greenhouse gas exchange at deciduous drained forest sites than at coniferous drained forest sites.

    Keyword
    Forest drainage; Greenhouse effect; Methane; Carbon dioxide; Nitrous oxide; Organic soil; Tree species
    National Category
    Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13453 (URN)10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.11.004 (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-12-12 Created: 2004-12-12
    3. Can distribution of trees explain variation in nitrous oxide fluxes?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can distribution of trees explain variation in nitrous oxide fluxes?
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    2005 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 20, no 6, 481-489 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of distance to tree stems on nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes was examined to determine whether it is possible to improve the accuracy of flux estimates from boreal forest soils. Dark static chambers were placed along transects between pairs of trees within a Norway spruce stand and fluxes of N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured during the period 1999-2003. The groundwater table was measured on every sampling occasion along the transects. In addition, radiation transmission, potential diffusion rate and biomass of forest floor vegetation were measured once at each chamber site along one of the transects and soil samples were collected at three depths, from which pH, denitrification enzyme activity, soil moisture, organic matter, and carbon and nitrogen content were determined. There was a high level of variation in the N2O fluxes, both spatially and temporally. However, the spatial variation in the N2O fluxes within the transect could not be explained by differences in any of the measured variables. Sometimes, mainly when no major peaks occurred, N2O fluxes were significantly correlated with CO2 release. It is concluded that distance to stems cannot be used to improve the design of sampling schemes or for extrapolating flux levels to larger scales.

    Keyword
    Denitrification, nitrogen transformation, nitrous oxide emission, root dynamics, spatial variation, spruce (Picea abies)
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13454 (URN)10.1080/02827580500443443 (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-12-12 Created: 2004-12-12 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Soil CN ratio as a scalar parameter to predict nitrous oxide emissions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Soil CN ratio as a scalar parameter to predict nitrous oxide emissions
    2005 (English)In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 11, no 7, 1142-1147 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Forested histosols have been found in some cases to be major, and in other cases minor, sources of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). In order to estimate the total national or global emissions of N2O from histosols, scaling or mapping parameters that can separate low- and high-emitting sites are needed, and should be included in soil databases. Based on interannual measurements of N2O emissions from drained forested histosols in Sweden, we found a strong negative relationship between N2O emissions and soil CN ratios (r2adj=0.96, mean annual N2O emission=ae(−b CN ratio)). The same equation could be used to estimate the N2O emissions from Finnish and German sites based on CN ratios in published data. We envisage that the correlation between N2O emissions and CN ratios could be used to scale N2O emissions from histosols determined at sampled sites to national levels. However, at low CN ratios (i.e. below 15–20) other parameters such as climate, pH and groundwater tables increase in importance as regulating factors affecting N2O emissions.

    Keyword
    CN ratio, drainage, histosol, mapping, nitrous oxide, scaling
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13455 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.00973.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-12-12 Created: 2004-12-12 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    5. Greenhouse gas fluxes from drained organic forestland in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Greenhouse gas fluxes from drained organic forestland in Sweden
    2005 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, Vol. 20, no 5, 400-411 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to estimate the contribution of drained organic forestlands in Sweden to the national greenhouse gas budget. Drained organic forestland in Sweden collectively comprises an estimated net sink for greenhouse gases of -5.0 Mt carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents year-1 (range -12.0 to 1.2) when default emission factors provided by the Good practice guidance for land use, land-use change and forestry are used, and an estimated net source of 0.8 Mt CO2 equivalents year-1 (range -6.7 to 5.1) when available emission data for the climatic zones spanned by Sweden are used. This discrepancy is mainly due to differences in the emission factors for heterotrophic respiration. The main uncertainties in the estimates are related to carbon changes in the litter pool and releases of soil CO2 and nitrous oxide.

    Keyword
    Carbon dioxide; good practice guidance; greenhouse gas budget; methane; nitrous oxide; peat; scaling
    National Category
    Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13456 (URN)10.1080/02827580500281975 (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-12-12 Created: 2004-12-12
  • 31.
    Ask, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibbling, Lita
    Effect of time interval between swallows on esophageal peristalsis.1980In: American Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0002-9513, E-ISSN 2163-5773, Vol. 238, no 6, G485-90 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Esophageal peristaltic pressure amplitude, peristaltic incidence, speed of peristalsis, and wave duration were investigated as a function of swallow interval. In the distal half of the esophagus, the amplitude decreased at swallow intervals of 8 s and shorter. At intervals of 8 and 4 s, dropouts of contractions that were obtained were most frequent in the distal esophagus and for the 4-s interval. At continuous swallows no contractions were obtained below the upper esophageal sphincter until the end of the swallow sequence, after which a peristaltic wave of high amplitude propagated along the esophagus. The peristaltic speed increased toward a level 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter. The peristaltic wave duration was approximately the same in different parts of the esophagus and at different swallow intervals. The findings indicate an impairment of esophageal transport function by short swallow intervals.

  • 32.
    Asplund, Therese
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Climate change frames and frame formation: An analysis of climate change communication in the Swedish agricultural sector2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While previous research into understandings of climate change has usually examined general public perceptions and mainstream media representations, this thesis offers an audience-specific departure point by analysing climate change frames and frame formation in Swedish agriculture. The empirical material consists of Swedish farm magazines’ reporting on climate change, as well as eight focus group discussions among Swedish farmers on the topic of climate change and climate change information. The analysis demonstrates that while Swedish farm magazines frame climate change in terms of conflict, scientific uncertainty, and economic burden, farmers in the focus groups tended to concentrate on whether climate change was a natural or human-induced phenomenon, and viewed climate change communication as an issue of credibility. It was found that farm magazines use metaphorical representations of war and games to form the overall frames of climate change. In contrast, the farmers’  frames of natural versus human-induced climate change were formed primarily using experience-based and non-experience-based arguments, both supported with analogies, distinctions, keywords, metaphors, and prototypical examples. Furthermore, discussions of what constitutes credible climate information centred on conflict-versus consensus-oriented frames of climate change communication along with different views of the extent to which knowledge of climate change is and should be practically or analytically based. This analysis of climate change communication in the Swedish agricultural sector proposes that the sense-making processes of climate change are complex, involving associative thinking and experience-based knowledge that form interpretations of climate change and climate change information.

    List of papers
    1. Framings and coverage of climate change in Swedish specialized farming magazines
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framings and coverage of climate change in Swedish specialized farming magazines
    2013 (English)In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 117, no 1-2, 197-209 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is a fundamental challenge for which agriculture is sensitive and   vulnerable. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has identified relevant information as key to enabling appropriate climate adaptation and mitigation action. Information specifically directed to farmers can be found, for example, in specialized farming magazines.

    While recent studies examine how national news media frame climate change, less —if any —studies have addressed climate framings and coverage in specialized media. Media framings are storylines that provide meaning by communicating how and why an issue should be seen as a problem, how it should be handled, and who is responsible for it. This paper analyses the framings and coverage of climate change in two Swedish specialized farming magazines from 2000 to 2009. It examines the extent of the climate change coverage, the content of the media items, and the dominant framings underlying their climate change coverage. The study identifies: increased coverage of climate change starting in 2007; frequent coverage of agriculture 's contribution to climate change, climate change impacts on agriculture, and consequences of climate politics for agriculture; and four prominent frames: conflict, scientific certainty, economic burden, and action. The paper concludes that climate change communicators addressing farmers and agricultural extension officers should pay attention to how these frames may be interpreted by different target audiences. Research is needed on how specialized media reports on climate-related issues and how science-based climate information is understood  by different groups of farmers and which other factors influence farmers’ engagement in climate mitigation and adaptation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2013
    Keyword
    climate change, media representation, media frames, farming magazines, communication; specialized media
    National Category
    Media Studies Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80851 (URN)10.1007/s10584-012-0535-0 (DOI)000316128700014 ()
    Projects
    Ett konkurrenskraftigt jordbruk-kommunikation kring klimatförändringar och nya möjligheter (SLF)Baltic Challenges and Chances for local and regional development generated by Climate Change (BalticClimate)
    Available from: 2012-08-31 Created: 2012-08-31 Last updated: 2017-12-07
    2. Metaphors in climate discourse: an analysis of Swedish farm magazines
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metaphors in climate discourse: an analysis of Swedish farm magazines
    2011 (English)In: JCOM - Journal of Science Communication, ISSN 1824-2049, E-ISSN 1824-2049, Vol. 10, no 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines communicative aspects of climate change, identifying and analysing metaphors used in specialized media reports on climate change, and discussing the aspects of climate change these metaphors emphasize and neglect. Through a critical discourse analysis of the two largest Swedish farm magazines over the 2000–2009 period, this study finds that greenhouse, war, and game metaphors were the most frequently used metaphors in the material. The analysis indicates that greenhouse metaphors are used to ascribe certain natural science characteristics to climate change, game metaphors to address positive impacts of climate change, and war metaphors to highlight negative impacts of climate change. The paper concludes by discussing the contrasting and complementary metaphorical representations farm magazines use to conventionalize climate change.

    Keyword
    climate change, media, metaphors, farm magazine, climate change communication
    National Category
    Media and Communications
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71870 (URN)
    Projects
    Grant from the Swedish Farmers’ Foundation for Agricultural Research as part of the research program “Competitively strengthened agriculture: communication about climate change and new possibilities”.
    Available from: 2011-11-08 Created: 2011-11-08 Last updated: 2017-12-08
    3. “Do you believe in climate change?” Swedish farmers’ joint construction of climate perceptions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>“Do you believe in climate change?” Swedish farmers’ joint construction of climate perceptions
    2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has shifted from being regarded as an exclusively physical phenomenon to being a social phenomenon as well, entailing many interpretations and multidimensional frames. This shift calls for an understanding of how various audiences and segments of the public understand climate change. This paper analyses how Swedish farmers perceive climate change and how they jointly shape and construct their understandings. The agricultural sector is of special interest because it both contributes to and is directly affected by climate change impact. Through focus group discussions with Swedish farmers, this study finds that: 1) farmers relate to and understand climate change through their own experience, and 2) climate change is understood either as a natural process subject to little or no human influence or as anthropogenic. The article ends by discussing frame resonance and frame clash in public understandings of climate change, and by comparing potential similarities and differences in how various segments of the public make sense of climate change.

    Keyword
    Agriculture, climate change communication, climate perceptions, focus groups, frame analysis
    National Category
    Media Studies Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105995 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-04-16 Created: 2014-04-16 Last updated: 2014-04-16Bibliographically approved
    4. Credibility in Climate Change Communication: Swedish Farmers’ Perceptions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Credibility in Climate Change Communication: Swedish Farmers’ Perceptions
    2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the climate change communication literature, the concept of framing is increasingly used to discuss various understandings of climate change. This paper addresses the under-researched question of how specific audiences perceive the adequacy of various climate change frames, by exploring how Swedish farmers make sense of climate change information. Based on focus group discussions with farmers, the paper explores what communicators, or frame articulators, Swedish farmers perceive as central and how farmers judge the credibility of potential frame articulators in climate change communication. The paper discusses 1) the credibility of frame articulators as a matter of perceived independence and impartiality, 2) empirical credibility—whether farmers were able to verify the claims underlying climate change frames—as a matter of practical experience versus analytical reasoning, and 3) frame consistency, i.e. whether climate change frames correspond to audience beliefs and claims.

    Keyword
    Climate Change Communication; Frame Analysis; Frame Credibility; Agriculture; Focus Groups
    National Category
    Media Studies Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105996 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-04-16 Created: 2014-04-16 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved
  • 33.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utilizing excess heat: from possibility to realization on the basis of industrial symbiosis2012In: Energy Delta Institute Quarterly, ISSN 2212-9669, Vol. 4, no 2-3, 12-13 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    One of the unintended “products” of intensive energy using production processes is excess heat, also called waste heat. Excess heat can for instance be found in the chemical, cement, iron and steel making, and the pulp and paper industry. The constantly growing demand for energy and resulting climate change effects are reinforcing interest in the application of excess heat, while increasing knowledge about industrial symbiosis makes facilitation easier. The growing costs of energy and the big loss of waste heat is the basis for the fact that recovering of waste heat is the most promising and cost effective option to reduce the world-wide amount of industrial energy consumption (International Energy Agency 2010). Waste recovery and reuse also provide financial savings, reduction of CO2 and NOx, and innovation by quality improvement of processes and products. Besides the single company’s internal improvement of excess heat recovery, the concept of industrial symbiosis provides a basis for waste heat exchange between companies as examples in the Netherlands and Sweden illustrate.

  • 34.
    Babatunde Adeleke, Solomon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research .
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mayowa Adeleye, Michael
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Geochemical control processes and potential sediment toxicity in a mine-impacted lake2016In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 35, no 3, 563-572 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geochemical parameters and major ion concentrations from sediments of a freshwater lake in the town of angstrom tvidaberg, southeastern, Sweden, were used to identify the geochemical processes that control the water chemistry. The lake sediments are anoxic, characterized by reduced sulfur and sulfidic minerals. The hypothesis tested is that in sulfidic-anaerobic contaminated sediments, the presence of redox potential changes creates a favorable condition for sulfide oxidation, resulting in the release of potentially toxic metals. The acid volatile sulfide (AVS) contents ranged from 5.5mol/g to 16mol/g of dry sediment. Comparison of total mine tailing metals (Sigma mine tailing metals) with simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) in sediments indicates that up to 20% of the Sigma mine tailing metals are bound to the solid phase as AVS. Consequently, the AVS and SEM analysis classified all sediment samples as potentially toxic in terms of heavy metal concentrations (i.e., SEM to AVS ratio distribution>1). Evaluation of hydrogeochemical data suggests that calcite dissolution, iron (III) oxyhydroxysulfate mineral jarosite (H-jarosite) precipitation, hematite precipitation, and siderite precipitation are the most prevailing geochemical processes that control the geochemical interactions between the water column and sediment in a mine-impacted lake. The geochemical processes were verified and quantified using a chemical equilibrium modeling program, Visual MINTEQ, Ver 3.1, beta. The identified geochemical processes create an environment in which the characteristics of sulfate-rich waters and acidic-iron produce the geochemical conditions for acid mine drainage and mobilization of toxic metals. (c) 2015 SETAC

  • 35.
    Backstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Kuyper, Jonathan W.
    Stockholm University, Sweden; University of Oslo, Norway.
    Linnér, Björn-Ola
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR. University of Oxford, England.
    Lövbrand, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Non-state actors in global climate governance: from Copenhagen to Paris and beyond2017In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 26, no 4, 561-579 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 36.
    Baker, Andrea
    et al.
    University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Pedentchouk, Nikolai
    University of East Anglia, England.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Roychoudhury, Alakendra N.
    University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Climatic variability in Mfabeni peatlands (South Africa) since the late Pleistocene2017In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 160, 57-66 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been postulated that a bipolar seesaw interhemispheric mechanism dominated the relationship between the Northern and Southern hemisphere climates since the late Pleistocene. A key test for this proposition would be to undertake palaeoenvironmental studies on terrestrial archives in climatically sensitive regions. Southern Africas contemporary C-3 and C-4 terrestrial plant distributions display a definitive geographical pattern dictated by different growing season rainfall and temperature zones; however, the region is generally archive poor due to its overall semi-arid climate and high relief topography. The Mfabeni peatland, with a basal age of c. 47 k yrs calibrated before present (kcal yr BP), is one of the oldest continuous coastal peat deposits in Southern Africa. Molecular leaf wax isotopes (delta C-13(wax)) were generated for a 810 cm long core, and combined with previously published bulk geochemical (delta C-13(bulk), %TOC), palynological, and stratigraphic data, to reconstruct the late Pleistocene and Holocene palaeoenvironments. We interpreted environmental shifts associated with the Heinrich 4, Last Glacial Maximum, deglacial and Holocene periods, which are consistent with adjacent Indian Ocean sea surface temperature records. However, the other shorter climate perturbations during the Heinrich 5, 3, 2, 1, Antarctic cold reversal and Younger Dryas, were muted, most likely due to local hydrological overprinting on the Mfabeni record. A general anti-phase sequence was observed between the Mfabeni record and better established Northern Hemisphere events, underpinning the bipolar seesaw interhemispheric mechanism proposed for global climate forcing since the Late Pleistocene. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 37.
    Baker, Andrea
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Roychoudhury, Alakendra N
    Department of Earth Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Biomarker records of palaeoenvironmental variations in subtropical Southern Africa since the late Pleistocene: Evidences from a coastal peatland2016In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 451, no 1, 1-12 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Southern Africa's unique global position has given rise to a dynamic climate influenced by large sea surface temperature gradients and seasonal fluctuations in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. Due to the semi-arid climate of the region, terrestrial palaeorecords are rare and our understanding of the long-term sensitivity of Southern African terrestrial ecosystems to climatic drivers is ambiguous. A 810 cm continuous peat core was extracted from the Mfabeni peatland with a 14C basal age of c. 47 thousand years calibrated before present (kcal yr BP), positioning it as one of the oldest known sub-tropical coastal peatlands in Southern Africa. This peat core provides an opportunity to investigate palaeoenvironmental changes in subtropical Southern Africa since the late Pleistocene. Biomarker (n-alkane, n-alkanoic acid and n-alkanol) analysis, in conjunction with previously published bulk geochemical data, was employed to reconstruct organic matter (OM) sources, rates of OM remineralisation and peatland hydrology. Our results showed that the principal OM source into the peatland was emergent and terrestrial plants with exception of shallow lake conditions when submerged macrophytes dominated (c. 44.5–42.6, 29.7, 26.1–23.1, 16.7–7.1 and 2.2 kcal yr BP). n-Alkane proxies suggest that local plant assemblages were predominantly influenced by peatland hydrology. By incorporating temperature sensitive n-alkanoic acid and n-alkanol proxies, it was possible to disentangle the local temperature and precipitation changes. We report large variations in precipitation intensities, but subdued temperature fluctuations during the late Pleistocene. The Holocene period was characterised by overall elevated temperatures and precipitation compared to the preceding glacial period, interspersed with a millennial scale cooling event. A close link between the Mfabeni archive and adjacent Indian Ocean marine core records was observed, suggesting the regional ocean surface temperatures to be the dominant climate driver in this region since the late Pleistocene.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-03-17 14:49
  • 38.
    Ballantyne, Anne Gammelgaard
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Aarhus University, Herning, Denmark.
    Climate change communication: what can we learn from communication theory?2016In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, ISSN 1757-7780, E-ISSN 1757-7799, Vol. 7, no 3, 329-344 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The literature on climate change communication addresses a range of issues relevant

    to the communication of climate change and climate science to lay audiences

    or publics. In doing so, it approaches this particular challenge from a

    variety of different perspectives and theoretical frameworks. Analyzing the body

    of scholarly literature on climate change communication, this article critically

    reviews how communication is conceptualized in the literature and concludes

    that the fi eld of climate change communication is characterized by diverging and

    incompatible understandings of communication as a theoretical construct. In

    some instances, communication theory appears reduced to an ‘ad hoc’  toolbox,

    from which theories are randomly picked to provide studies with a fi tting framework.

    Inspired by the paradigm shift from transmission to interaction within

    communication theory, potential lessons from the fi eld of communication theory

    are highlighted and discussed in the context of communicating climate change.

    Rooted in the interaction paradigm, the article proposes a meta-theoretical

    framework that conceptualizes communication as a constitutive process of producing

    and reproducing shared meanings. Rather than operating in separate

    ontological and epistemological perspectives, a meta-theoretical conceptualization

    of communication would ensure a common platform that advances multiperspective

    argumentation and discussion of the role of climate change

    communication in society.

  • 39.
    Bardh, Julia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlsson, Emma
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ”…economically and socially. And confidence and decision-making. Everything that we could not do before.”: A Minor Field Study on Fair Trade in India and Sri Lanka2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fair Trade is an international movement which aims to strengthen the livelihoods of producers in the South, and to give the opportunity for conscious customers in the North to buy socially and environmentally friendly products. The conventional trade system is criticised, as well as the efficiency of aid to support developing countries. The core idea of Fair Trade is therefore “Trade not Aid”, where marginalised producers are given the chance to improve their living conditions by fair wages, market access and improved working conditions. The aim of the thesis is to investigate the potential of Fair Trade to contribute to sustainable development and empowerment, which therefore also act as the theoretical frameworks for this thesis. Sustainable development is investigated by its division into economic, social and environmental sustainable development. Fair Trade is furthermore investigated through specific key elements connected to these theories, by performing interviews with managers and producers within five separate Fair Trade organisations in India and Sri Lanka.  The main findings within this study reveal how Fair Trade does have the potential to contribute to sustainable development and empowerment to a certain degree. It is specifically prominent regarding social development and empowerment, while economic development occurs mainly on an individual level. The contribution to environmental development is also possible to detect, even though it remains clear how the initiative to do so might not always be fully related to environmental causes.

  • 40.
    Baskar, Sushmitha
    et al.
    Indira Gandhi National Open University, India.
    Baskar, Ramanathan
    Guru Jambheshawar University of Science and Technology, India.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Speleothems from Sahastradhara Caves in Siwalik Himalaya, India: Possible Biogenic Inputs2014In: Geomicrobiology Journal, ISSN 0149-0451, E-ISSN 1521-0529, Vol. 31, no 8, 664-681 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stalactites and moonmilk from Sahastradhara caves in Siwalik Himalayas were studied to understand the role of microbes in their genesis. Fourier spectroscopy in the moonmilk indicates a complex milieu of organic compounds that is unusual for inorganic formations. Stable C and O isotopes show trends in the moonmilk and stalactite, which suggest biogenic input; the geochemical inference is consistent with evidence from microscopy and laboratory-based microbial cultures. Light microscopy of moonmilk samples show the presence of a number of microbial forms similar to Cyanobacteria, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show microbial structures similar to Spirulina. The total number of microbial cells using SYBR Gold is 6.5 x 10(5) cells, g sed(-1) in moonmilk and 3.2 x 10(5) cells, g sed(-1) in stalactites. FISH indicates approximately 3.5 x 10(5) cells, g sed(-1) in moonmilk and 2 x 10(5) cells, g sed(-1) in stalactites. SEM images of the moonmilk indicate a large network of microbial filaments along with minerals, which are identified as calcite based on their x-ray diffraction pattern. In vitro laboratory cultures with pure monogenic strains isolated from the moonmilk and stalactites raise pH in the medium, which facilitate calcite precipitation. The mineral precipitating isolates were identified as: Bacillus pumilis, B. cereus, B. anthracis, B. lentus, B. sphaericus, B. circulans and Actinomycetes. The Sahastradhara moonmilk and statactites are colonized by a diverse microbial community and the isolated bacterial strains induce biomineralization on different nutrient media, supporting their biogenic origin.

  • 41.
    Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cole, Jonathan
    Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York, USA.
    Pace, Michael
    Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York, USA.
    Tranvik, Lars
    Department of Limnology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Methane emissions from lakes: Dependence of lake characteristics, two regional assessments, and a global estimate2004In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 18, no 4, GB4009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [ 1] Lake sediments are "hot spots'' of methane production in the landscape. However, regional and global lake methane emissions, contributing to the greenhouse effect, are poorly known. We developed predictions of methane emissions from easily measured lake characteristics based on measurements for 11 North American and 13 Swedish lakes, and literature values from 49 lakes. Results suggest that open water methane emission can be predicted from variables such as lake area, water depth, concentrations of total phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, and methane, and the anoxic lake volume fraction. Using these relations, we provide regional estimates from lakes in Sweden and the upper midwest of the United States. Considering both open water and plant-mediated fluxes, we estimate global emissions as 8 - 48 Tg CH4 yr(-1) (6 - 16% of total natural methane emissions and greater than oceanic emission), indicating that lakes should be included as a significant source in global methane budgets.

  • 42.
    Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tranvik, Lars
    Department of Limnology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Measurement of methane oxidation in lakes: A comparison of methods2002In: Environmental Science & Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 36, no 15, 3354-3361 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane oxidation in lakes constrains the methane emissions to the atmosphere and simultaneously enables the transfer of methane carbon to pelagic food webs, Several different methods have been used to estimate methane oxidation, but these methods have not previously been compared. In this study, we present methane oxidation estimates from three different lakes during summer and winter, using methods based on the transformation of added (CH4)-C-14, the fractionation of natural methane C-13, and the mass balance modeling of concentration gradients, All methods yielded similar results, including similar differences between lakes and seasons. Average methane oxidation rates varied from 0.25 to 81 mg of C m(-2) d(-1) and indicate that the three methods are comparable, although they to some extent take different processes into account. Critical issues as well as drawbacks and advantages with the used methods are thoroughly discussed. We conclude that methods using the stable isotope or mass balance modeling approach represent promising alternatives, particularly for studies focusing on ecosystem-scale carbon metabolism.

  • 43.
    Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Panneer Selvam, Balathandayuthabani
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Letter: Response: Inland water greenhouse gas emissions: when to model and when to measure? in GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, vol 21, issue 4, pp 1379-13802015In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 21, no 4, 1379-1380 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 44.
    Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Persson, Linn
    Institute of Applied Environmental Research, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Odham, Göran
    Institute of Applied Environmental Research, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Tranvik, Lars
    Department of Limnology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Degradation of dissolved organic matter in oxic and anoxic lake water2004In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 49, no 1, 109-116 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decades of conflicting results have fueled a debate about how O-2 affects organic matter (OM) degradation and carbon cycling. In a laboratory study, using both OM taken directly from a humic lake and chemically isolated fulvic acid, we monitored the mineralization of dissolved OM in freshwater under purely oxic and anoxic conditions, under oxic then anoxic conditions, and under anoxic then oxic conditions, for 426 d. Between 5% and 24% of the initial OM was mineralized, with most extensive mineralization occurring under purely oxic and anoxic-oxic conditions. A sequential change in the O-2 regime did not result in greater overall degradation, but initially anoxic conditions favored subsequent oxic mineralization. A substantially greater fraction of the OM was degraded than in previous shorter studies, with as much as 50% of the total OM degradation occurring after 147 d into the experiment. Three fractions of the degradable OM were identified: OM degraded only under oxic conditions (68-78%), OM degraded more rapidly under anoxic conditions than under oxic conditions (16-18%), and OM degraded at equal rates under both oxic and anoxic conditions (6-14%). The degradation patterns of natural dissolved OM from a humic lake and chemically isolated fulvic acid were very similar, which indicates a similar level of bioavailability. The difference between anoxic and oxic degradation was greater in our long-term studies than in previous short-term experiments, which indicates that the oxic and anoxic degradation potentials vary with increasing overall OM recalcitrance and that similar oxic and anoxic degradation rates can be expected in short-term experiments in which <30% of the long-term degradable OM is allowed to decompose.

  • 45.
    Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundgren, Ingrid
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reyier, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gålfalk, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Technical Note: Cost-efficient approaches to measure carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and concentrations in terrestrial and aquatic environments using mini loggers2015In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 12, no 12, 3849-3859 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluxes of CO2 are important for our understanding of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas balances. Several significant CO2 fluxes in nature may still be unknown as illustrated by recent findings of high CO2 emissions from aquatic environments, previously not recognized in global carbon balances. Therefore, it is important to develop convenient and affordable ways to measure CO2 in many types of environments. At present, direct measurements of CO2 fluxes from soil or water, or CO2 concentrations in surface water, are typically labor intensive or require costly equipment. We here present an approach with measurement units based on small inexpensive CO2 loggers, originally made for indoor air quality monitoring, that were tested and adapted for field use. Measurements of soil-atmosphere and lake-atmosphere fluxes, as well as of spatiotemporal dynamics of water CO2 concentrations (expressed as the equivalent partial pressure, pCO(2aq)) in lakes and a stream network are provided as examples. Results from all these examples indicate that this approach can provide a cost- and labor-efficient alternative for direct measurements and monitoring of CO2 flux and pCO(2aq) in terrestrial and aquatic environments.

  • 46.
    Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Susanne
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sandén, Per
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Öberg, Gunilla
    IRES, UBC, Canada.
    Temperature sensitivity indicates enzyme controlled chlorination of soil organic matter2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 10, 3569-3573 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Old assumptions that chloride is inert and that most chlorinated organic matter in soils is anthropogenic have been challenged by findings of naturally formed organochlorines. Such natural chlorination has been recognized for several decades, but there are still very few measurements of chlorination rates or estimates of the quantitative importance of terrestrial chlorine transformations. While much is known about the formation of specific compounds, bulk chlorination remains poorly understood in terms of mechanisms and effects of environmental factors. We quantified bulk chlorination rates in coniferous forest soil using 36Cl-chloride in tracer experiments at different temperatures and with and without molecular oxygen (O2). Chlorination was enhanced by the presence of O2 and had a temperature optimum at 20 °C. Minimum rates were found at high temperatures (50 °C) or under anoxic conditions. The results indicate (1) that most of the chlorination between 4 and 40 °C was biotic and driven by O2 dependent enzymes, and (2) that there is also slower background chlorination occurring under anoxic conditions at 20 °C and under oxic conditions at 50 °C. Hence, while oxic and biotic chlorination clearly dominated, chlorination by other processes including possible abiotic reactions was also detected.

  • 47.
    Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svensson, Teresia
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sandén, Per
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Chlorine cycling and fates of 36Cl in terrestrial environments2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorine-36 (36Cl), a radioisotope of chlorine (Cl) with a half-life of 301,000 years, is present in some types of nuclear waste and is disposed in repositories for radioactive waste. As the release of 36Cl from such repositories to the near surface environment has to be taken into account it is of interest to predict possible fates of 36Cl under various conditions as a part of the safety assessments of repositories for radioactive waste. This report aims to summarize the state of the art knowledge on Cl cycling in terrestrial environments. The view on Cl cycling in terrestrial environments is changing due to recent research and it is clear that the chloride ion (Cl) is more reactive than previously believed. We group the major findings in three categories below according to the amount of data in support of the findings.

    From the result presented in this report it is evident that:

    • There is an ubiquitous and extensive natural chlorination of organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems.
    • The abundance of naturally formed chlorinated organic compounds (Clorg) frequently exceeds the abundance of Cl, particularly in soils. Thereby Clorg in many cases dominates the total Cl pool.
    • This has important implications for Cl transport. When reaching surface soils Cl will not be a suitable tracer of water and will instead enter other Cl pools (Clorg and biomass) that prolong residence times in the system.
    • Cl dominates import and export from terrestrial ecosystems while Clorg and biomass Cl can dominate the standing stock Cl within terrestrial ecosystems.
    • Both Cl and Clorg pools have to be considered separately in future monitoring programs addressing Cl cycling.

    Further, there are also indications (in need of confirmation by additional studies) that:

    • There is a rapid and large uptake of Cl by organisms and an accumulation in green plant parts. A surprisingly large proportion of total catchment Cl (up to 60%) can be found in the terrestrial biomass.
    • Emissions of total volatile organohalogens could be a significant export pathway of Cl from the systems.
    • Some of the Clorg may be very persistent and resist degradation better than average organic matter. This may lead to selective preservation of some Clorg (with associated low bioavailability).
    • There is a production of Clorg in tissues of e.g. plants and animals and Cl can accumulate as
    • chlorinated fatty acids in organisms.

    Most other nevertheless important aspects are largely unknown due to lack of data. Key unknowns include:

    • The development over time of major Cl pools and fluxes. As long as such data is lacking we cannot assess net changes over time.
    • How the precesses behind chlorination, dechlorination and transport patterns in terrestrial systems are regulated and affected by environmental factors.
    • The ecological roles of the chlorine cycling in general.
    • The ecological role of the microbial chlorination in particular.
    • The chlorine cycling in aquatic environments – including Cl and Clorg pools in sediment and water, are largely missing.

    Given the limited present information available, and particularly the lack of data with a temporal dimension and the lack of process understanding, predictive models are challenging. We also summarize currently available methods to study Cl in the environment.

  • 48.
    Bastway Mohammed, Omer Abdalrahim
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Effect of Khartoum City for Water Quality: chemical analyses2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis assesses the water quality of the River Nile around the city Khartoum in Khartoum State, Sudan Republic, and investigates eventual influences of the city on the River Nile by analysis of the following parameters: temperature, pH, and conductivity, and Adsorbable Organic Halogen (AOX), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), Total Organic Carbon(TOC) and Nitrate (NO3− ). A survey of the area is also included. It was concluded that the city Khartoum added small but legible concentrations of cadmium, lead, chromium and TOC to the river Nile. However, the resulting concentrations were all within acceptable levels. Also, the observed results showed that the Blue and White Nile, which merge together upstream on the outskirts of Khartoum, had concentrations of AOX resp. chromium, which were not suitable for drinking water.

  • 49.
    Belonoshko, Anatoly B.
    et al.
    Royal Institute Technology KTH, Sweden.
    Lukinov, Timofei
    Royal Institute Technology KTH, Sweden.
    Fu, Jie
    Royal Institute Technology KTH, Sweden; Dalian University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Jijun
    Dalian University of Technology, Peoples R China.
    Davis, Sergio
    Chilean Comm Nucl Energy CCHEN, Chile.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stabilization of body-centred cubic iron under inner-core conditions2017In: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 10, no 4, 312-+ p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Earths solid core is mostly composed of iron. However, despite being central to our understanding of core properties, the stable phase of iron under inner-core conditions remains uncertain. The two leading candidates are hexagonal close-packed and body-centred cubic (bcc) crystal structures, but the dynamic and thermodynamic stability of bcc iron under inner-core conditions has been challenged. Here we demonstrate the stability of the bcc phase of iron under conditions consistent with the centre of the core using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the bcc phase is stabilized at high temperatures by a diffusion mechanism that arises due to the dynamical instability of the phase at lower temperatures. On the basis of our simulations, we reinterpret experimental data as support for the stability of bcc iron under inner-core conditions. We suggest that the diffusion of iron atoms in solid state may explain both the anisotropy and the low shear modulus of the inner core.

  • 50.
    Bengtson, Per
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Oeberg, Gunilla
    University of British Columbia, Canada .
    Possible roles of reactive chlorine II: assessing biotic chlorination as a way for organisms to handle oxygen stress2013In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 15, no 4, 991-1000 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural formation of organically bound chlorine is extensive in many environments. The enzymes associated with the formation of chlorinated organic matter are produced by a large variety of organisms. Little is known about the ecological role of the process, the key question being: why do microorganisms promote chlorination of organic matter? In a recent paper we discuss whether organic matter chlorination may be a result of antagonistic interactions among microorganisms. In the present paper we evaluate whether extracellular microbial formation of reactive chlorine may be used as a defence against oxygen stress, and we discuss whether this process is likely to contribute to the formation of chlorinated organic matter. Our analysis suggests that periodic exposure to elevated concentrations of reactive oxygen species is a common denominator among the multitude of organisms that are able to enzymatically catalyse formation of reactive chlorine. There is also some evidence suggesting that the production of such enzymes in algae and bacteria is induced by oxygen stress. The relative contribution from this process to the extensive formation of chlorinated organic matter in natural environments remains to be empirically assessed.

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